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A&P General


rough ER: synthesis of: secretory proteins, integral membrane proteins
smooth ER: synthesis of: lipids & steroids; also CHO metab
Golgi apparatus process & package proteins & lipids
1st branchial (pharyngeal) arch AKA mandibular arch = Trigeminal nerve (V2 and V3)
2nd branchial (pharyngeal) arch AKA hyoid arch = Facial nerve (VII)
3rd branchial (pharyngeal) arch = Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
4th branchial (pharyngeal) arch = Vagus nerve (X); Superior laryngeal nerve
6th branchial (pharyngeal) arch = Vagus nerve (X); Recurrent laryngeal nerve
Hypothalamus hormones CRH, GHRH, GnRH, TRH, DA, SS
Pituitary hormones Prolactin; GH; ACTH; ADH; TSH; LH/FSH
Adrenal hormones Epinephrine; Cortisol; Aldosterone
Control of prolactin produced by pit; neg inhib by DA (so the more DA, less prolactin)
Regulation of Hypothalamus Upper cortical inputs (CNS); Autonomic NS; environmental cues (light & temp); Peripheral endocrine FB
FSH: fx Estrogen (F); Spermatogenesis (M) [if no estrogen prod: FSH increases]
LH: fx regulates ovulation; stimulates testosterone in men [if no testosterone prod: LH increases]
TSH: fx increases thyroid hormone production [if no TH prod: TSH increases]
Prolactin: fx induces lactation
GH: fx controls acral growth
ACTH: fx stimulates cortisol production
Axial skeleton: 15 % of skel mass; verts, pelvis, skull; majority of cancellous bone (most of Ca efflux from this); 80 % of metabolic activity
Appendicular Skeleton 85 % of skel mass; long bones; majority of cortical bone; 20 % of metabolic activity
More abundant; precursor to T3 T4
exerts majority of thyroidal hormone effects: T3
Circulating T3 & T4 most is pro-bound; unbound = regulator for negative feedback inhibition mechanism
Thyroid hormones control: O2 consumption CHO & protein metabolism, electrolyte mobilization & conversion of carotene to Vitamin A; also lipid synth & metab
Thyroid & insulin req in DM Hypo: dec insulin req, inc chol/TG; hyper = inc insulin req, dec chol/TG
TBG affects: amt serum T3 & T4 (not physiologic thyroid status, which is affected by free hormone)
2 actions of ADH Alters the permeability of renal collecting tubules to water; Causes vasoconstriction
ADH is secreted when serum osmo exceeds: 285 mOsm/L
Vit D metabolites: fn responsible for absorption of dietary calcium & phosphate in intestines; enhance PTH fx on mobilization of skeletal Ca & PO4
IGF's fn: IGF’s mediate the effect of GH on skeletal muscle
Aldosterone made in: zona glomerulosa
Aldosterone fn reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium; prevention of hypovolemia & hyperkalemia
Cortisol fn counters fx of insulin; anti-inflam
Cortisol level highest when: in AM; in stress & exercise
Bartholin vs skene glands bartholin: below and lateral to vagina, similar to Cowper gland; Skene: above and lateral (anterior vaginal wall)
2 components of Aorta thoracic (ascending, arch, descending); Abdominal
3 layers of aorta: Intima; Media; Adventitia
Hesselbach triangle rectus sheath, inferior epigastric vessels, inguinal ligament
GI tract layers SLMCSSM: serosa, mx externa (long mx, myenteric plexus, circular mx), submucosal plexus, serosa, (mx) mucosa, lam propria, epithelium
Sinus devt maxil / ethmoid dz most common; fully formed at birth (clinical dz at 6 mos); sphenoid 7-8 yrs; frontal early teens
Created by: Abarnard