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Introduction HofM

History of Medicine

Mesopotamia Sumeria, Babylon, and Hammurabi
Sumeria Cuneiform tablets -outline therapies -treatise of Medical diagnosis and prognosis -3,000 entries on 40 clay tablets *3000 BCE*
Babylon and Hammurabi Code of Hammurabi -282 laws governing medical practice -Medical regulated fees -Malpractice penalties -Physicians = priestly and more protected *1728-1686 BCE*
Egypt -Magical (Spiritual) treatments -Had Shamen -Imhotep -Papyri *3000 BCE*
Imhotep -Ancestor of modern physicians -Healer, high priest, astrologer and architect -designed first pyramid tomb *2700 BCE*
Georg Ebers papyrus -most important papyrus -oldest surviving medical text -many diseases, drugs, and formulae *1550 BCE*
Ancient Greece Mycenean period = 1500-1100 BCE
Homer's Iliad describes battle wounds and treatment in Trojan war
Asclepius -Ancient Greek -Son of Apollo -Heroic warrior and blameless physician
Many diseases known by Greeks -epilepsy aka "scared disease" -anenorhea -puerperal fever -dysentery -malaria -TB -varicella -diptheria
Athenian Plague -fever, thirst, and painful skin rash -killed thousands -cost Athens the war against Sparta
Many Practitioner Classes -no rules -iatroi= part time healers -exorcists, fold healers, root cutters -priest healers
Asclepiads -families claiming ancestry of Asclepius -Hippocrates
Asclepions -temples of healing -epidouros= most celebrates -cos= birthplace of Hippocrates -priest healing -abatons= private areas
Empedocles postlated "Hippocratic" elements (earth, air, fire, water)
Pythagoras of Samos -may be real founder of Hippocratic oath -balance of contraries
Alcmaeon of Croton -first human dissection -described optic nerve
Hippocrates -father of medicine -Corpus Hippocraticum= medicine is science, art, profession -primum non nocere= First do no harm *460-390 BCE*
Corpus Hippocraticum -60-70 essays -observation, not theory -foundation of western medicine -rejects idea that gods caused disease -emphasize patients -based on externals, not internal disease
Hippocratic Medicine -patient oriented -favored regimen, not drugs -prognosis -natural healing power -sometimes doing nothing is best for patient
4 Humors of Hippocratic Theory -Yellow Bile= vomiting and summer dysentery -Phlegm= winter colds -Blood=Life =more plentiful in spring = removing excess -Black Bile= form of yellow = dried blood?
Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt -center of education -library and museum were centers of learning about millennium -attracted scholars, philosophers and pupils
Herophilus of Chalcedon -greek founder of Alexandrian medical school -dissected human cadavers, describing and naming the internal organs -disected and studied brain and nerves -arteries contain blood -first to systematically study the pulse
Erasistratus of Chios -Greek founder of Alexandrian medical school -believed body was a machine -described valves of the heart -heart functioned as a pump, not the center of sensations
Hellenistic Medicine When alexander died, Hellenes (generals) divided world into various kingdoms
Archagathus First physician to practice in Rome
Asclepiades of Prusias-on-Sea -First notable Roman physician -Hippocratic practitioner -influenced 3 centuries of Roman medicine -attended high ranking Romans
Social aspects of Roman medicine -wealthy, slaves, and soldiers were most likely to receive treatment -male and female physicians practiced (many were slaves) -hospitals didn't exist -religious centers for healing (asclipions) existed throughout empire
Aretaeus of Cappadocia described many diseases- diabetes, epilepsy, tetanus and mental disorders
Soranus in Ephesus -medical methodist -wrote Gynaecology
Rufus of Ephesus -Hippocratic practitioner -60 writings and case histories preserved
Galen of Pergamum -most influential of "ancients" -central figure of traditional Western medicine -HUGE volume of medical writings -Art of medicine to science -Got many interpretations in relation to anatomy and physiology wrong
Galen of Pergamum -Therapeutics had much in common with greeks -rejected magical/spiritual care -mind and body link (especially stress syndromes)
Created by: MastamikeOD