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LOM Book Chapter 19

Language of Medicine Chapter 19 - Created by

adenocarcinoma Cancerous tumor of glandular tissue.
adjuvant therapy Treatment of disease with substances that assist or enhance the action of primary treatment.
alkylating agents Synthetic chemicals used in treatment of cancer. They interfere with DNA synthesis and cell division to prevent cancer cells from increasing in number.
alopecia Partial or complete lack of hair.
alveolar Pertaining to a small sac or alveolus.
anaplasia Loss of differentiation of cells and reversion to a more primitive, unspecialized cell type.
angiogenesis Process of forming new blood vessels.
antibiotics Chemical substance produced by bacteria or primitive plants; inhibit the growth of cells and are used in treatment of cancer and infectious disease.
antimetabolites Chemicals that prevent cell division by inhibiting formation of substances necessary to make DNA; used in cancer treatment.
antimitotics Drugs that block mitosis (cell division); used to treat cancer.
apoptosis Programmed cell death.
benign tumor Noncancerous growth.
biologic response modifiers Substances produced by normal cells that block tumor growth or stimulate the immune system to fight cancer.
biologic therapy Use of body’s own defenses to fight tumor cells.
bone marrow biopsy Small amount of bone marrow tissue is removed (aspirated) and examined under a microscope for evidence of malignancy.
bone marrow transplant Bone marrow tissue is infused intravenously into a patient.
brachytherapy Placement of radioactive material (small sealed containers) in contact with or implanted into tumor tissue.
cachexia General ill health (muscle wasting and weight loss) associated with severe, chronic disease, such as cancer.
carcinogen Substance that produces cancer.
carcinoma Cancerous tumor.
carcinoma in situ Localized cancer, confined to its site of origin.
cauterization Process of burning tissue to destroy it.
cellular oncogenes Pieces of DNA that, when broken or dislocated, can cause a normal cell to become malignant.
chemotherapy Treatment with drugs for cancer.
combination chemotherapy Use of several chemotherapeutic agents together for treatment of tumors.
cryosurgery Use of subfreezing temperature to destroy tissue.
cystic tumor A cystic tumor forms large open spaces filled with fluid.
dedifferentiation Loss of differentiation of cells; reversion to a more primitive, embryonic cell type.
deoxyribonucleic acid Genetic material within the nucleus of a cell; controls cell division and protein synthesis.
differentiating agents Drugs that promote tumor cells to differentiate, stop growing and die.
differentiation Specialization of cells; unspecialized cells are modified and altered to form specific and characteristic types and functions.
dysplastic Pertaining to abnormal formation or development of cells; not clearly malignant.
electron beams Low-energy beams of radiation for treatment of skin or surface tumors.
en bloc resection Removal of a tumor with a large area of surrounding tissue containing lymph nodes.
encapsulated Surrounded by a capsule; benign tumors are encapsulated.
epidermoid Resembling epidermis or the outer layer of skin. Epidermoid tumors are composed of thin, plate-like cells.
excisional biopsy Removal of tumor and a margin of normal tissue.
exenteration Wide resection involving removal of the tumor, its organ of origin, and all surrounding tissue in the body space.
exfoliative cytology Cells are scraped from a region of suspected disease and examined under the microscope.
external beam radiation Radiation applied to a tumor from a distant source, such a machine (linear accelerator).
fiberoptic colonoscopy Visual examination of the colon using a fiber optic instrument (endoscope).
fibrosarcoma Malignant tumor of fibrous or connective tissue.
fibrosis Abnormal condition (proliferation) of fibrous connective tissue; occurring in the lung as a side effect of radiation for lung cancer.
follicular Pertaining to forming small, glandular sacs.
fractionation Method of administering radiation treatment in small, repeated doses rather than in a few large doses.
fulguration Destruction of tissue by electric sparks generated by a high-frequency current.
fungating tumor Gross description of tumor growth in which cells pile one on top of another and project from the tissue surface.
genetic screening Family members are tested to determine whether they have inherited a cancer-causing gene.
grading of tumors Evaluating the microscopic appearance of tumor cells to determine their degree of differentiation or maturity and thus malignant transformation.
gray Unit of absorbed radiation dose.
gross description of tumors Visual appearance of tumors, such as cystic, fungating, inflammatory, medullary, necrotic, polypoid, ulcerating, and verrucous.
hyperplasia Increased growth in numbers of normal cells.
incisional biopsy Piece of tumor is removed for examination to establish a diagnosis.
infiltrative Pertaining to extending beyond normal tissue boundaries.
invasive Having the ability to enter and destroy surrounding tissue.
irradiation Exposure to any form of radiant energy such as light, heat or x-rays.
laparoscopy Visual examination of the abdominal cavity using small incisions and a laparoscope (endoscope).
linear accelerator Devise that produces high-energy x-ray (photon) beams for treatment of deep-seated tumors.
malignant tumor Cancerous tumor.
mammography X-ray examination of the breast.
medullary tumor Large, fleshy tumors.
mesenchymal Pertaining to embryonic connective tissue from which all connective tissues arise. Sarcomas are tumors of connective tissues that arise originally from mesenchymal cells.
metaplasia Conversion of normal cells into a less differentiated type in response to chronic stress or injury.
metastasis Spread of a cancerous tumor to another site (change of place) or secondary location (meta-
microscopic description of tumors Appearance of tumors as viewed under the microscope. Examples are alveolar, carcinoma in situ, dysplastic, Epidermoid, and follicular tumors.
mitosis Cell division of replication of cells; creation of two identical daughter cells from a parent cell.
mixed tissue tumors Tumors composed of different types of tissue (epithelial as well as connective tissues).
modality Method of treatment.
molecularly targeted drugs Anticancer drugs designed to block the function of growth factors, their receptors, and signaling pathways in specific tumor cells.
morbidity Damage to normal tissue or the state of being diseased.
mucinous Pertaining to cystic tumors filled with mucus.
mucositis Inflammation of mucous membranes; often a side effect of radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
mutagenic Pertaining to producing a mutation.
mutation Change in genetic material (DNA) of a cell.
myelosuppression Bone marrow depression or formation of blood cells (leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia).
necrotic tumor Tumor that contains dead cells.
needle (core) biopsy Insertion of a needle into tissue to remove a core of cells to examine under a microscope; needle aspiration.
neoplasm New growth (tumor); benign or malignant tumor.
neuroblastoma Malignant childhood tumor originating in cells of the nervous system.
nucleotide Unit of DNA (gene) composed of a sugar, phosphate, and a base. The sequence of nucleotides composing a gene is the genetic code.
oncogene Region of DNA in tumor cells (cellular oncogene) or in viruses (viral oncogene) that cause cancer.
oncology Study of tumors (malignant tumors).
osteosarcoma Malignant tumor of bone.
palliative Relieving, but not curing symptoms.
papillary Pertaining to nipple-like projections. A papillary tumor forms microscopic nipple-like or finger-like projections of cells.
pedunculated Processing a stem or stalk (peduncle).
pharmacokinetics Study of the distribution and removal of drugs in the body over a period of time.
photon therapy Radiation treatment using x-rays and gamma rays delivered to tumor tissue via a linear accelerator.
pleomorphic Pertaining to a variety of shapes or cell types.
pneumonitis Inflammation of the lungs.
polypoid tumor Resembling a polyp (benign growth) that protrudes from a base.
protein marker tests Measurements of the level of specific protein in the blood or on the surface of tumor cells; PSA, CA-125, and alpha-fetoprotein are examples.
protocol Detailed plan for treatment of an illness.
proton therapy Subatomic particles (protons) produced by a cyclotron deposit absorbed does of radiation at a finite, focused point in the body.
radiation Energy carried by a steam of particles.
radiocurable tumor Tumor cells that are destroyed with radiotherapy.
radionuclide scans Radioactive substances (radionuclides) are injected intravenously and scans (images) are taken of organs.
radioresistant tumor Tumor cells that require large doses of radiation to be destroyed.
radiosensitive tumor Tumor in which radiation can cause death of cells without damage to surrounding tissue.
radiosensitizers Drugs that increase the sensitivity of tumor cells to x-rays.
radiotherapy Treatment of tumors using radiation; radiation oncology.
relapse Return of symptoms of disease.
remission Partial or complete disappearance of symptoms of disease.
retinoblastoma Malignant tumor of the retina of the eye; childhood malignancy.
ribonucleic acid Cellular substance that, along with DNA, plays a role in protein synthesis.
sarcoma Cancerous tumor derived from connective or fleshy tissue.
scirrhous Pertaining to hard, densely packed tumors, overgrown with fibrous tissue.
serous Pertaining to a clear fluid (serum) that remains after blood has clotted. Serous tumors are cystic tumors filled with a thin, water fluid, resembling serum.
sessile Type of polyp that extends from a broad base as opposed to growing on a stalk.
simulation Study prior to radiation therapy using CT scan or MRI to map treatment. It is required for all patients undergoing radiation therapy.
solid tumor Tumor composed of a mass of cells.
staging of tumors System of evaluating the extent of spread of tumors.
stem cell transplant Stem cells (immature blood cells) are harvested from the bloodstream of a patient and then reinfused after the patient has received chemotherapy.
stereotactic radiosurgery A single large dose of radiation delivered under stereotactic (highly precise) guidance to destroy a vascular abnormality or treat small intracranial tumors.
steroids Complex, naturally occurring chemicals, such as hormones, that are used in cancer chemotherapy.
teletherapy Radiation delivered to a tumor from a distant source, such as a linear accelerator or cyclotron.
ulcerating tumor Growth that has open, exposed surfaces resulting from death of overlying tissue.
verrucous tumor Tumor, whose growth pattern, resembles a wart.
viral oncogenes Pieces of DNA from viruses that infect a normal cell and cause it to become malignant.
virus Infectious agent that reproduces by entering a host cell and using the host’s genetic material to make copies of itself.
xerostomia Dryness of the mouth.
Created by: mtathome
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