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G146 - Study Guide

Mr. Dowd's Class: Semester II Final Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
Russian Czar The Russian ruler before the revolution
Peter the Great of Russia Helped modernize Russia, St. Petersburg was his idea
Divine Right Monarch Claiming to be god’s representative to assume power
James I of England King who inherited his mother, Queen Elizabeth’s, debt, made Puritans in parliament angry
Louis XIV of France Absolute monarch who lived luxuriously, build the Palace of Versailles
Characteristics of Absolute Monarchs Divine Right, control all aspects of society, have dynasties, Monarchies, got involved in wars, controlled a lot of wealth
Fredrick the Great Prussian ruler, followed his father’s military policies, but also introduced reforms and advocated religious tolerance, thought a ruler should be a father to his people.
The English Civil War Royalists, (Crusaders) who supported Charles I vs Parliament, (Roundheads) led by Oliver Cromwell, in response to Parliament passing laws to limit royal power
The declaration of Independence Declared the US independent from England
The Geocentric Theory Believed that the Earth was the center of the universe
The Heliocentric Theory Believed that the Sun was at the center of the solar system
Copernicus An astronomer who believed in the Heliocentric theory
Francis Bacon Created the Scientific Method
Isaac Newton A scientist who discovered gravity, laws of motion, and invented calculus
John Locke Enlightenment Philosopher, came up with the natural rights of humans: Life, liberty, and property
Montesquieu Wanted the separation of powers
Rousseau Wanted direct democracy, had a social contract
Congress of Vienna Met to regroup Europe after the revolutions and Napoleon’s fall, established more monarchies
Metternich Led the Congress of Vienna
Estates General of France A meeting of representatives from all social classes
The Third Estate Peasants, laborers, and merchants, France’s lowest social class
Bastille Day Like Independence Day for France, revolutionaries seized a royal prison, taking weapons and gunpowder
Reign of Terror Time period in the French Revolution when Robespierre controlled and executed many people
Napoleon’s Domestic Policies Uniform laws – The Napoleonic Code, lowered injustice and freedom of speech and press, took away the church’s political power
Committee of Public Safety Led by Robespierre, to get rid of possible enemies, including his fellow radicals and Jacobins
Nationalism Loyalty to people who share a similar background
Garibaldi The Italian military officer who led the Red Shirts
Italian Unification Garibaldi gathered the territories under King Victor Emanuel I’s rule in Italy
German Unification Otto von Bismarck used “Realpolitik” to unite the Germanic Kingdoms and Prussia
San Martin Led the South American revolutions against Spain
Mexican Independence Called for by Miguel Hildalgo, Morelos fights Iturbide for independence but loses, when liberals take over Spain, Iturbide declares independence
Toussaint L’Ouverture Led the Haitian revolution
Napoleon Brilliant military general who led France after the revolution, crowned himself emperor
Military Engagements of Napoleon The Russian Invasion, The Battle of Waterloo, The Battle of Trafalgar, The Peninsular War
Entrepreneur A businessman who takes the economic risks of investing in something
Adam Smith “The Father of Capitalism”, wrote “The Wealth of Nations”
Socialism A political system in which there is no private ownership and everyone is taken care of
Karl Marx “The Father of Communism”, wrote “Das Kapital”, and “The Communist Manifesto”
Industrial Revolution The increased use of machines and machine-produced goods, started in Great Britain
Laissez-Faire The belief that government should not interfere in economic matters
Consequences of the Industrial Revolution Populations increased, sanitation failed, wealth gap widened, workers revolutions began, more jobs
Consequences of the Railroad Transportation became easier, more jobs, empires expanded, easier communication, modernization spread
British Empire Great Britain and its colonies, “Crown Jewel” was India, that was a great naval power and reached its height under Queen Victoria
Berlin Conference A meeting of Europeans on how to split up Africa
Opium wars A conflict between Britain and China over drug sales, fought mostly at sea, “unmodern” Chinese were humiliated
WWI Allies vs Central Powers, Central Powers lost, started with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Total war When an nation’s economy is totally contributed and related to the war
Propaganda The use of one-sided media to influence public opinion
Zimmerman Telegram A note from Germany asking for Mexican support in exchange for help regaining territory lost to the US
Militarism Glorifying and always having a prepared army
Schlieffen Plan The German strategy for fighting a Two-Front war: Attack and defeat France quickly then return to beat the Russians
Central Powers Germany and Austria-Hungary, WWI
Allied Powers US, Britain, France, Russia, WWI
Fourteen Points Wilson’s post-war peace plan
Treaty of Versailles The post-war treaty that was signed after WWI, did massive damage to Germany
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare German policy of attacking any ship in British waters without warning
Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand Austro-Hungarian heir, killed by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist and member of “The Black Hand”
Trench Warfare “Stalemate Wars” fought from two Earthen dugouts, series of tunnels, separated by a “No-Man’s Land”
Stalin The Totalitarian Communist Dictator who took over Russia after Lenin
Great Purges A campaign of terror launched by Stalin directed at eliminating rivals to his power and forcing conformation to the state, discouraging individual creativity
Totalitarianism Controlling every aspect of society as an all powerful dictator
Pogroms Organized persecutions of Jewish people
Bolsheviks A political party in Russia of radical Marxists
Five Year Plans Stalin’s plans to rebuild Russian economy by setting impossibly high production goals
Gandhi The leader of the Indian independence movement who advocated civil disobedience and non-violence
Salt March A non-violent protest in India against the British monopoly of salt, people marched to the ocean to make their own salt
Indian Independence Gained after long civil movements, but there was infighting between Muslims and Hindus afterward, used non-violent methods when possible
Fascism A political system in which totalitarian and militaristic tactics are used to meet nationalistic and elite goals
Communism A political system in which the government takes a larger role in ensuring that all citizens are equal
Mein Kampf The book written by Adolf Hitler during his time in prison expressing his ideas and goals for Germany, means “My Struggle”
Lebensraum “Living Room”, Hitler tried to gain some more land so his people could have this
Nazism A political system that combines Hitler’s racial beliefs and fascist techniques
Axis powers Germany Italy, Japan – All Fascist, WWII
Non-Aggression Pact An agreement between Germany and Russia not to attack each other, Hitler went back on this
Munich Conference A meeting in which Britain appeased Hitler by allowing him to take the Sudetenland
Appeasement Giving in to an aggressor to maintain peace
Holocaust The systematic killing of Jewish people
Japanese Invasion of Manchuria Hoping to expand their empire’s industry and control, the Japanese invaded this country north of China, postponed the Chinese civil war, and set up a puppet government
Invasion of Poland This was the first time Hitler’s army used the “Blitzkrieg” tactic
D-Day The Allied invasion of France at Normandy beach, led by Eisenhower
Pearl Harbor An attack on a US naval base that brought them into WWI against the Japanese
Battle of Midway The US forces defeated the Japanese who were trying to take a strategic US base in the Pacific
Nuremberg Trial War trials against Nazis
Final Solution Hitler’s last plan to get rid of Jewish people: Genocide and concentration camps
Atomic Bomb A nuclear weapon whose power comes from splitting an atom
Bay of Pigs An invasion of Cuba by CIA trained Cuban exiles, the US failed to provide air support and the invaders were captured easily
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan Equivalent of Vietnam War for the US to the USSR, trying to uphold communism against the Mujahideen, a local terrorist group with US weapons
Iron Curtain A metaphor for the division between communist and non-communist nations in Europe
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a defensive alliance including Great Britain and the US
Truman Doctrine Allowed the US to send aid to countries that reject communism
Third World Countries Politically unstable and economically challenged countries that are not aligned with the US or the USSR
Tiananmen Square The site of a student-led protest for democracy in China
Marshall Plan Allowed the US to send aid and supplies to help rebuild Europe’s economies
Perestroika Mikhail Gorbachev’s plan for economic restructuring by giving local managers greater authority and allowing small private businesses to be created
Created by: Vingkan