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Terms for ICLA Standard 2

A person's use of knowledge about language and the context in which it occurs to anticipate what is coming in writing or speech Prediction
In general, a story, actual or fictional, expressed orally or in writing Narrative Text
A meaningful linguistic unit that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful elements, as the word book, or that is a component of a word, as s in books Morpheme
A figure of speech in which a comparison is implied by analogy but is not stated, as "death is slumber" Metaphor
Strategies that help students to monitor their own learning Metacognitive Strategies
Awareness and knowledge of one's mental processes such that one can monitor, regulate, and direct them to a desired end; self-mediation Metacognition
The gist of a passage; central thought Main idea
An approach to language learning in which students' oral compositions are transcribed and used as materials of instruction for reading, writing, speaking, and listening Language Experience Approach (LEA)
The part of a literature-based reading program in which students meet to discuss books they are reading independently Literature Circles
This is the mechanical correctness of a piece of writing--the spelling, grammar and usage, capitals and punctuation Mechanics/Conventions
A strategy that is useful for identifying purposes for reading exposition text; What I know, What I want to learn, and What I have Learned K-W-L
Understanding and teaching vocabulary/words in their various contexts and meanings whether it relates to a discipline like science or social studies as well as its cultural contexts Indepth Vocabulary Instruction
A word with different origin and meaning but the same oral or written form as one or more other words Homonym
Reading instruction in which the teacher provides the structure and purpose for reading and for responding to the material read Guided Reading
Contain a picture or schematic diagram of the important words in the chapter and discusses with the students how these words relate to Graphic Organizer
The clear, easy, written or spoken expression of ideas Fluency
A linguistic description of some language--a set of statements saying how a language works Grammar
One of the four traditional forms of composition in speech and writing intended to set forth or explain Expository text--(exposition)
Language enriched by word images and figures of speech Figurative Language
The study of the history and development of the structures and meanings of words;derivation Etymology
Uses a think-pair-share discussion cycle in paired, small-group, and large-group situations; all students are encouraged to examine multiple points of view. Gives students a graphic aid to help them clarify their thinking Discussion Web
Prereading stage: students set their own purposes for reading by making predictions; during reading: they verify their prediction; postreading discussion stage: they check verifications. Chief elements are prediction and verification Directed Reading/Thinking Activity (DR/TA)
A step-by-step process for presenting a reading lesson; developmental reading lesson, especially in the content fields Directed Reading Activity (DRA)
Used for expanding listening vocabulary. Students preread questions at the end of a given text & listen to the teacher read various sections while following along. At the end of each section, students see which questions have been answered. Directed Listening/Thinking Activity (DL/TA)
The relationship between a linguistic event and its referent, as book denotes the object "book", referential meaning; cognitive meaning Denotative Meaning--(Denotation)
Prereading strategy designed to activate students' knowledge about a topic and provide purpose for reading. Students react to teacher-prepared statements designed to focus attention on the topic to be learned. Serves as a guide for subsequent reading. Anticipation Guide
A vocab strategy that looks at the meaning of words: CONTEXT-read to the end of the sentence.Does it make sense;STRUCTURE-look at parts of the word for meaning clues;SOUND-try to pronounce the word and check for meaning;REFERENCE-use of a reference source Context-Structure-Sound-Reference (CSSR)
The sound, word, or phrases adjacent to spoken or written language unit; linguistic environment; the social or cultural situation in which a spoken or written message occurs Context
The emotional association(s) suggested by the primary meaning of a lexical unity, which affects its interpretations; affective meaning;emotive meaning Connotative Meaning--(Connotation)
Instructional activities, particularly graphic ones, that are designed to show the relationships among ideas or topics in text or to plan for writing;cognitive mapping Concept Maps
In reading, a systematic sequence of steps for understanding text, as in the SQ3R study method Comprehension Strategy
The construction of the meaning of a written or spoken communication through a reciprocal, holistic interchange of ideas between the interpreter and the message in a particular communicative context Comprehension
A learning technique involving open group discussion intended to expand the range of available ideas, as to solve a problem, clarify a concept, etc. Brainstorming
A word opposite in meaning to another word Antonym
A comparison of two things that are unlike, usually using the words "like" or "as", as "O my love is like a red, red rose" Simile
A group of words sharing a common phonic element, as /it/ spelled "ite" in bite, kite, despite Word Family
1. The structure or organization of a work of literature 2. In writing, the process or result of arranging ideas to form a clear and unified impression in order to create an effective message. (4 forms-argumentation, description, exposition, narration) Composition
This type of questioning requires you to recall or locate directly stated facts in a passage or text. It is also known as the textually explicit level of comprehension Literal Questioning
A collection of literary pieces, such as poems, short stories, or plays Anthology
An accepted practice in a spoken or written language. In writing, this would refer to correct spelling, mechanics, punctuation, capitalization, etc. Conventions
In writing, the sense that someone has actually written the words. The written words have a fluency, rhythm, and liveliness that exist naturally in the speech of most people when they are enjoying a conversation Voice
1. An overall plan or design of institutionalized education 2.The actual opportunities for learning provided at a particular place and time. 3. The vehicle for bringing about behavioral changes in students as a result of planned activities Curriculum
4. The total program of formal studies offered by a school. 5. All the educational experiences planned for and provided by a school Curriculum
A collection of student texts and workbooks, teacher's manuals, and supplemental materials for developmental reading and sometimes writing instruction, used chiefly in the elementary and middle school grades Basal Reader
1. In the United States and Canada, for example, a book published for sale to the general public. 2. Commercial books, other than basal readers, that are used for reading instruction Trade books
This type of questioning requires the reader to interpret information from the passage or text. The reader is required to infer about what was said by the author. It is also known as the textually implicit level of comprehension Inferential Questioning
The process of combining elements and integrating them into a new whole. The reader begins with the knowledge in his head and then continually adds new info and recombines the old and new. The new merges with the known and forms new patterns, etc. Synthesizing
The many aspects of the complex act of producing a written communication; specifically, planning or prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing Writing Process
This strategy focuses on words children want and need to know, words they have shown interest in and curiosity about. It stimulates word learning that occurs naturally in kid's lives and guides them in becoming independent word learners Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy (VSS)
A vocabulary development and word study activity in which words on cards are grouped according to designated categories Vocabulary Word Cards
1. The growth of a person's stock of known words and meanings. 2. The teaching-learning principles and practices that lead to such growth, as comparing and classifying word meanings, using context, analyzing word roots, etc. Vocabulary Development
Prereading vocab instruction in which the teacher selects 4-5 words to be taught and writes them down on the board in a whole sentence, then asks for speculations on the meanings. Student ideas are recorded and the class reaches an agreed-upon definition Teaching Vocabulary in Context (TVC)
Oral verbalizations; "a metacognitive technique or strategy in which the teacher verbalizes aloud while reading a selection orally, thus modeling the process of comprehension" Think-aloud
The various patterns of ideas that are embedded in the organization of text Text structure
One of two or more words in a language that have highly similar meanings, as sadness, grief, sorrow, etc. Synonym
This type of writing looks at the following components of the writing process: ideas, organization, voice, word choice, fluency, and conventions Six-Trait Writing
A prereading writing activity that involves students using key concepts (like vocab words) from a story to develop their own story or impression of how those key concepts might fit together Story Impression
In text analysis, a formal device or grammar used for specifying relations among episodes in a story and to formulate rules for generating other stories Story Grammar/Structure
Prereading and during reading strategy organized around a "hook" to get the students' interest and questions that guide reading Preview
A generalized description, plan, or structure, as a schema of the reading process Schema/Schemata
A graphic display of a cluster of words that are meaningfully related Semantic web/map/organizer
The study of meaning in language, as the analysis of the meanings of words, phrases, sentences, discourse, and whole texts Semantics
A teaching technique developed to improve writing skills in which complex sentence chunks and paragraphs are built from basic sentences by means of syntactic manipulation Sentence Combining
Students ask their own questions about what they are reading. Students develop metacognitive strategies by learning how to ask their own questions Reciprocal Questioning (ReQuest)
In vocabulary instruction, the use of grid or matrix with target words on the vertical axis and possible features or attributes on the horizontal axis to determine relevant meaning relationships Semantic Feature Analysis (SFA)
A reading strategy that promotes independent study skills by teaching students to SURVEY(skim chapter),QUESTION(turn boldface headings into ?'s),READ(to locate answers),RECITE(review answers),REVIEW(think about major points for 5 min.) Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review (SQ3R)
An early childhood instructional strategy in which the teacher involves children in the reading of a particular big book in order to help them learn aspects of beginning literacy, as print conventions and the concept of word, & develop reading strategies Shared Reading
In learning, the gradual withdrawal of adult (e.g. Teacher) support, as through instruction, modeling, questioning, feedback, etc., for a child's performance across successive engagements, thus transferring more an more autonomy to the child Scaffolding
An objective estimate or prediction of reading comprehension of material, usually in terms of reading grade level, based on selected and quantified variables in text, especially some index of vocab difficulty and of sentence difficulty Readability
A teaching strategy that begins with the teacher telling student that "what's in textbooks is just someone's ideas written down" and that textbook authors are fallible in that they may not write ideas as clearly as possible Questioning the Author (QtA)
A teaching strategy in which students are involved in summarizing, question-gathering, clarifying, and predicting as they read texts and observe phenomena...[and]both teacher and students share responsibility for the conduct of the discussion Reciprocal Teaching
This strategy helps students activate their knowledge schema and extend their prior knowledge about a topic before reading;refines student knowledge of a topic through group discussion by building anticipation for reading experience PreReading Plan (PreP)
A systematic approach for analyzing task demands using text implicit, explicit, and script implicit-RIGHT THERE(text explicit), THINK & SEARCH(text with some inferences),AUTHOR & YOU (from text & student background),ON MY OWN(from student background) Question-Answer Relationship (QAR)
Created by: ambo3232
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