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AICP-Legal, History

AICP Legal Precedent, Historical Figures, Population Estimation Etc.

1785 Ordinance of 1785. Provided for rectangular land survey of west
1855 First Model Tenement built in Manhattan
1862 Homestead Act. opened the lands of the Public Domain to settlers for nominal fee and 5 years residence
1864 NY Council of Hygiene of Citizens Association raises housing and sanitary standards
1867-NY 1st Tenement Housing Law in NY for physical conditions.
1867-SF Beginning of Zoning. SF prohibits specific obnoxious uses in certain districts.
1879 Dumbbell Tenement. Multifamily housing type with insufficient light and air. Banned in 1901
1880 Pullman Illinois. Model industrial town, now part of South Chicago
1890 How the Other Half Lives (Jacob Riis) published. Neighborhood reform.
1892 US Federal Government recognition of slums and cities
1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Source of City Beautiful
1898 Tomorrow a Peaceful Path to Real Reform Published by Ebenezer Howard. Beginning of Garden City Movement. Reissued 1902 as Garden Cities of Tomorrow.
1899 1st State Court support of laws restricting heights of buildings
1901 NY State Tenement Law. Outlaws tenement houses and dumbbell tenement.
Lawrence Veiller Reforming behind Tenement Law
1903 - England Letchworth. 1st Garden City, England.
1903 - US Cleveland Civic Center. Daniel H. Burnham
1906 Burnham Plan for San Francisco. City Beautiful principles.
1907 1st Comprehensive City Survey Pittsburgh.
1907 1st permanent planning board Hartford Connecticut
1909 1st National Conference on City Planning, D.C.
1909 1st American use of zoning to restrict development. LA
1909 1st State Enabling Act, Wisconsin
1909 Plan of Chicago, Burnham
1910 1st American test of Neighborhood idea. Forest Hill Gardens, Long Island
1913 1st American Planning Textbook. Flavel Shurtleff, "Carrying out the City Plan"
1913 Ford & Goodrich. 1st planning firm.
1914 1st Municipally employed planner. Harland Bartholomew, Newark NJ
1915 1st State to institute extraterritorial mandatory referral of subdivision plats. California
1915 "Cities in Evolution" Patrick Geddes. Regional Planning Theory
1916 National Park Service Established. 1st Federal Aid Highway Act
1916 "Planning of the Modern City" Nelson Lewis.
Father of Zoning Edward Bassett. Worked with George McAneny on NYC Board of Estimates and 1st comprehensive zoning resolution.
1916 1st Regional functional authority plan. Miami Ohio
1917 Fred Law Olmstead Jr. 1st president of American City Planning Institute. ACPI.
1919 Boston. Sewer, Water and Park Commissions
1919 Bronx River Parkway, NY
1919 Ohio Planning Conference. Citizen Planning Organization
1921 New Orleans Vieux Carre Commission, 1st historic preservation commission in US
1921 1st Bi-State Authority. Port Authority NY
1922 Inaugeration of Regional Plan of NY. Thomas Adams
1922 LA County Regional Planning Commission.
1922 County Club Plaza, KC Car oriented shopping center.
1924 Standard State Zoning Enabling Act. Department of Commerce under Hoover.
1925 Cincinnati Plan. 1st comprehensive plan. (Alfred Bettman)
Alfred Bettman Cincinnati Comprehensive Plan. 1925. Euclid/Ambler. ASPO President.
Ernest Burgess Concentric Zone model of urban structure and land use.
1926 1st Public subsidy for housing, State of NY.
1928 US Department of Commerce under Hoover Standard City Planning Enabling Act
1928 1st "New Town" Radburn, NJ
1929 Clarence Perry monograph on Neighborhood Unit
Neighborhood Unit Clarence Perry
1929 Stock Market crash.
1931 National Land Utilization Conference in Chicago
1933 FDR Inaugurated. New Deal begins
1933 Tennessee Valley Authority. Senator George Norris. Regional program in economic, social, physical development by federal government
1933 US National Planning Board
1934 National Housing Act. Birth of FHA (mortgage insurance
1934 ASPO American Society of Planning Officials (Alfred Bettman, 1st president)
1934 1st federally built housing.
1935 Resettlement Administration. Rexford Tugwell. Greenbelt Maryland, Greenhills, Ohio.
Greenbelt Towns 1st Federally built new towns.
1937 US Housing Act
1939 Structure and Growth of Residential Neighborhoods in American Cities. Homer Hoyt.
Homer Hoyt Sector Theory of urban structure.
1939 ACPI becomes AIP American Institute of Planners
1944 GI Bill. Serviceman's Readjustment Act. Loans to veterans.
1945 1st State redevelopment act. Pennsylvania
1947 Park Forest, IL and Levittown, NY.
1948 1st post-WWII Comprehensive Plan. Cincinnati.
1949 Housing Act. 800,000 new units planned.
1949 National Trust for Historic Preservation
1949 1st Urban redevelopment clearance program
1954 Berman v. Parker. Aesthetics subject to eminent domain.
1960 Image of the City. Kevin Lynch.
Image of the City Paths, Nodes, Edges, Landmarks, Districts. Kevin Lynch.
1961 Hawaii, statewide zoning.
1961 The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jane Jacobs
1961 1st Federal Housing Subsidy Program. 221-d
1961 First flexible control zoning ordinance. FAR
1964 Civil Rights Act. Outlaws discrimination
1964 The Urban General Plan. TJ Kent
1965 HUD Formed Robert C. Weaver, 1st Secretary
1966 National Historic Preservation Act.
The Federal Bulldozer Martin Anderson, 1964
1965 Water Resources Management Act, Multi-State River basin comissions
The Making of Urban America John Reps, 1965, 1st history of American planning.
1966 National Historic Preservation Act establishes the National Register of Historic Places. Section 106 protects sites and properties.
Section 4(f) Department of Transportation Act provides protection to parkland, wildlife refuge in road building.
1967 50th anniversary of planning profession.
Wetmore Amendment 1967. Includes social planners, not just physical planning.
Design Within Nature Ian McHarg, 1969.
National Environmental Policy Act. 1969. Requires environmental impact statements for federal and state funded projects.
American City Planning since 1890 Mel Scott. 1969.
1970 1st Earth Day
1970 EPA created under Clean Air Act.
1971 AIP Code of Ethics
1972 Coastal Zone Management Act
1972. Golden v. Ramapo performance criteria used to control growth.
1972 Demo of Pruitt-Igoe.
1973 Endangered Species Act.
1977 First AIP membership exams.
Penn Central v. City of NY 1978. Barring of air rights not a taking, as interior of project had value.
1978 AIP and ASPO merge to form APA.
1980 Creation of environmental Superfund.
ACSP Associated Collegiate SChools of Planning. 1980.
Mount Laurel I (NAACP v. Mount Laurel) Communities in growing area must take fair share of affordable housing in regional growth.
Mount Laurel II (NAACP v. Mount Laurel)
1984 Seaside Florida. 1st New Urbanist development.
First English Evangelical Lutheran v. County of Los Angeles 1987, temporary takings require compensation.
Dolan v. City of Tigard 1994. Rough proportionality must be shown between adverse impacts and exactions imposed on developer
Nollan v. California Coastal Commission 1987. "essential nexus". land use restrictions must be tied to specific purpose.
Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council 1992. Limits government ability to restrict private property without compensation.
1994 NAFTA
Munn v. Illinois 1876. Implied public interest on private land.
Cochran v. Preston 1903. Baltimore Building height limitations upheld under police power.
Welch v. Swasey 1909. Boston. Building heights for districts upheld
Eubank. v. City of Richmond 1912. Constitutionality of Setback lines.
Hadacheck v. Sebastian 1915. Implies that land use zoning is constitutional. Brickmaking prohibited in city limits.
Cusack v. City of Chicago 1917. Advertisements prohibited in residential area for health and welfare concerns
Windsor v. Whitney 1920. Upheld duties of planning commission to set street widths and layouts.
Romar Realty v. Board of Commissioners 1921. New Jersey. Minimum Building height restriction rejected as indulgent aesthetic consideration.
Lowell v. Stoklosa 1924. Massachusetts. Upheld Zoning.
Zahn v. Public Works of Los Angeles 1925. California. Upheld Zoning of undeveloped land.
Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty 1926. Upheld reasonable comprehensive zoning as constitutional.
Washington Ex.Rel Seattle Trust v. Roberge 1928. Discrimination against group homes repugnant to Due Process.
NY Housing Authority v. Muller 1936. Slum clearance acceptable benefit of public domain.
Touhy v. City of Chicago 1946. Slum clearance, lease of city property still public use.
NEPA 1969. National Environmental Policy Act. Requires environmental impact statement for federal projects.
NEPA - EIS Requirements 1) probable impact of proposed action. 2) adverse effects which cannot be avoided. 3) Alternatives to proposed action. 4) The relationship between local short term uses and long term productivity. 5) Any irreversible and irretrievable commitments
Clean Water Act. NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Permit system for water pollution discharge.
Clean Air Act. ACQR. Air Quality Control Region
Point Source Pollutant Come out of a pipe.
Non-Point Pollutant Runoff and Drainage Pollution.
Ladder of Citizen Participation Sherry Arnstein. a. Non participation (no control). 1. Manipulation 2. Therapy b. Degrees of tokenism. 1. Informing 2. Consultation 3. Placation c. Degrees of citizen power. 1. Partnership 2. Delegated power 3. Citizen control
Acre 43,560 SF
Ad Valorem Tax Tax on Property calculated based upon a percent of the value of the property
Affordable Housing Housing developed through zoning incentives, cost effective construction and government subsidy.
Amortization process by which non-conforming uses and structures must be discontinued or made to conform to ordinance at the end of a specified period of time.
Variance A limited waiver from the requirements of a zoning ordinance.
As-of-right use of land permitted a principal use in a zoning district.
Capital Improvement Plan (CIP) Strategy for acquisition, planning, design or construction of land, buildings, infrastructure, equipment. Etc.
Tax Increment Financing Leverages future tax gains to fund current improvements.
Census Tract typically 2,500 to 8,000 people, do not cross county lines
CES Current Employment Statistics. BLS collects data on employment, hours and earnings from non-farm establishments
BLS Bureau of Labor Statisics
CNEL Community Noise Equivalent Level.
Progressive Tax Tax rate increases as income increases
Proportional Tax All pay same rate per dollar
Regressive Tax Persons of lower income pay higher percentage of income in tax, i.e. Sales Tax, Social Security tax
Property Tax Assessing, Setting Tax Rate, Collection. Tends to be regressive
Serrano v. Priest 1971. Property Tax and School Finance can lead to discriminatory, unequal treatment under law.
Step Down Method Population Summary method. Multiply state, metro area estimates provided by Census bureau or others times percentage of study area population in previous census
MSA Metropolitan Statistical Area. MSAs are defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget only, and used by the U.S. Census Bureau and other U.S. government agencies for statistical purposes only
Exaction condition for development is imposed on a parcel of land that requires part of the land to be dedicated to public use.
PPBS Planning, Programming Budgetary System. Spending viewed by programs not objects, clarifying purpose of expenditures and priorities.
Classifications of Revenue Tax, User Charge, Administrative Fee, License, Debt Service, Grant-In-Aid
Grant-in-aid Government grant for specific person, with strings attached (drinking age/highway funds)
ISTEA 1991. Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act
Neighborhood Unit Principle Clarence Perry. 1923. Walkable neighborhood superblocks. "Plan for the Mechanic Age"
Stein and Wright Radburn. US version of Garden City. Cul-de-Sac early use.
Standard Deviation Square Root of the Variance
Variance Average of Sum of Squared distances from mean.
PERT Program Evaluation and Review Technique. Scheduling technique that depicts interrelationships of tasks in project. Allows focus on key elements and problems
Shift Share Shift in Share of particular industry
Location Quotient Ratio - % of local employment within a sector divided by % of overall employment in a sector.
Spearman's Rho non-parametric measure of statistical dependence between two variables. a perfect Spearman correlation of +1 or −1 occurs when each of the variables is a perfect monotone function of the other
NAICS North American Industry Classification System. Replaced SIC. Classifies business activities. Pronounced "nakes"
EUAC or EUAB equivalent uniform annual cost or equivalent uniform annual benefits. Lifecycle cost method.
Reserve Fund Financing Funds accumulated in advance for capital contruction or purchase. Earmarked operational revenues, or sale of capital assets.
General Obligation Bond Taxing power of jurisdiction pledged to pay interest upon and retire debt. Voter Approved often
Revenue Bonds sold for projects that produce revenue, financed through service charges and fees. Higher rate of return. No voter approval needed.
Opportunity Cost Lost upside of alternate choice not selected.
MBO Management By Objective. Peter Drucker 1954. Participative Goal setting, measurement of employee performance with standards set.
ZBB Zero Based Budget. Breaks budget into decision packages. which are ranked for affordability, all budget requests are built from 0.
Vertical and Horizontal Equity V - unequal tax treatment for unequal economic conditions. H - equal tax treatment across similar economic condition.
Mill Rate dividing the mills by 10 (moving the decimal point to the left by one) yields the percentage rate – 20 mills = 2.0%.
Regional Tax Base Sharing Sharing of tax revenue across multiple jurisdictions.
Property Tax Abatement Reduction of property tax for a stipulated time period to encourage growth in an area.
Line Item Budget Defines budget on what will be bought, without reference to performance or priorities.
Performance Budgeting Budget includes performance goals and objectives, qualitative achievement.
Goals Achievement Matrix GAM. A Comprehensive Approach, shows anticipated attainment of project goals and distribution among groups.
CEA Cost EFFECTIVENESS Analysis. Analyzes program options with equal benefits for lowest cost solution.
CBA Cost BENEFIT Analysis. Compares community gains against costs to achieve it.
CRA Cost REVENUE Analysis. Measures amount of payment in from a sector against cost of services provided to that sector.
Paul Davidoff Suburban Action Institute. 1969. Mt. Laurel. Advocacy Planning
Patrick Geddes Cities in Evolution. Father of Regional Planning.
Robert Moses Great Expediter. 1888-1981
Lewis Mumford The Culture of Cities 1938. INspired city and regional planning. New York based.
Fred Law Olmsted Sr. Riverside Illinois, Central Park 1857, Columbian Exposition 1893 site planner.
Fred Law Olmsted Jr. ACPI President. Forest Hills Gardens and Palos Verdes Estates. Shaped Standard City Enabling Act.
Cincinnati Plan Ford-Goodrich Plan. First comprehensive plan.
Country Club Plaza 1922. KC First Suburban Shopping Center
Cincinnati Plan Ford-Goodrich Plan. First comprehensive plan.
Country Club Plaza 1922. KC First Suburban Shopping Center
Forest Hills Gardens 1911. First Garden Suburb FLO Jr.
Greenbelt Towns 1930. Rural Resettlement Administration (RRA). Greenbelt, Greenhills, Greendale, Greenbrook. Built and operated by Fed.
NYC Zoning Code 1916. George Burdett Ford. Comprehensive Zoning Plan
Oregon Statewide Plan 1973. Statewide Growth Management.
Petaluma Environmental Design Plan 1971. Mocine & Williams. Phased residential growth limited to 500 units a year. Upheld in Supreme Court.
Radburn 1928. Stein & Wright. Influential Residential Plan. Superblocks, Cul-De-Sacs
Vieux Carre Plan 1721. Adrien de Pauger. 1925 first historic preservation ordinance.
Savannah, GA 1733. James Oglethorpe.
Synoptic Rationality Rational Comprehensive Approach. 1 Goal Setting 2. Identify Alternatives. 3. Evaluate Means against ends. 4. Implement preferred alternative.
Charles Lindblom Incremental Planning "The Science of Muddling Through"
Created by: AICPAICP
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