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AICP Exam Prep 2.0

From APA Study Notes

What is the dominant land use in the U.S.? Agriculture
How many Native American reservations are there in the U.S.? 275
What is the largest single Native American reservation? Navajo, 16 million acres
What is the average per capita per day water usage? 50 gallons (but could be calculated as 120 - 180 gallons/person/day, depending on how is calculated and if lawns are being watered)
What are the 6 key pollutants regulated by the Clean Air Act? Nitrogen oxide, Carbon monoxide, Lead, Sulfur dioxide, ozone, and particulates
Who wrote Man vs. Nature (1864)? George Perkins Marsh, inspired the conservationist movement
Who wrote Report on the Lands of the Arid Region of the U.S.? (1878) John Wesley Powell, proposal to foster settlement and conserve water in the arid west
Who founded the Sierra Club (1892)? John Muir, to promote the protection and preservation of the natural environment
Who was Gifford Pinochet? First director of the U.S. Forest Service (1905), leader of conservation movement, advocating for both preservation and scientific management of natural resources
Who wrote The Last Landscape (1959)? William H. Whyte, coined the term greenway
Who wrote Silent Spring (1962)? Rachel Carson, about the harmful effects of pesticides on animal, plant and human life
When was the USGS formed, and why? 1897, to survey and classify all public domain lands
What is the largest concrete structure in the US? Grand Coulee Dam, on the Columbia River in central Washington State, buildt for irrigation, electric power generation, and flood control
When was the first Earth Day? April 22, 1970
What is a conservation easement? separates ownership of land from the right to develop that land
Just vs. Marinette County (1972) Established that environmental protection regulations are a reasonable exercise of the police power of the state and do not amount to a taking of private property without just compensation; The natural state of the shore land is a public interest that sup
Agins v. Tiburon (1980) U.S. Supreme Court ruled that open space requirements established by the City of Tiburon did not result in a taking of property; Established the principle that a governmental action was not a regulatory taking if it substantially advanced a legitimate gov
Babbit v. Sweet Home Chapter of Communities for a Great Oregon (1996) U.S. Supreme Court decided that the government can restrict land development to protect endangered species and their habitats, and it does not constitute a taking; Harm includes significant habitat modification or degradation that kills or injures wildlif
Palazzolo v. State of Rhode Island U.S. Supreme Court decided that environmental protection laws prohibiting filling undeveloped salt marsh (wetlands) did not remove all economically viable use of the land and therefore this regulation was not a taking
What is NPDES (1972)? National Pollution Discharge Elimination System: Authorized by the Clean Water Act, to control water pollution by regulation point sources that discharge pollutants into U.S. water bodies; Industrial and municipal polluters must obtain a NPDES discharge p
What is CAFE (1975)? Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards for light trucks and passenger cars
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976) Cradle-to-grace legislation for hazardous waste materials (EPA controled)
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA 1980) Superfund, Gave EPA power to seek out those parties responsible for any hazardous releases and assure their cooperation in the cleanup
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA, 1991) Required coordination between states and metropolitan areas for air quality standards; created program to earmark funds for scenic byways and historic preservation to address community-wide impacts of transportation
Preservation v. conservation Preservation of wilderness (Muir), vs. Conservation (wise use of natural resources, Pinchot)
Number of endangered species? 1,200
How has average size of single family detached homes changed over last 50 years? ~1,100SF → 2,340 SF
Aveage annual per capita consumption of gasoline in 2000? 430 gallons
What is R-factor? The ability of insulation above ceilings and in walls to keep heat inside during the winter and keep heat our during the summer; The higher the R-factor, the better the insulation and the less energy required to keep building hot or cold
What is effluent? The treated wastewater discharged by sewage treatment plants
Moraine Glacial deposit of rock and soil
Limnology The study of the chemical, hydrological and biological aspects of lakes and ponds
Lacustrine Refers to a lake or lake-type environment, such as a wetland
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) Highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water; for nitrates: 10ppm; for flouride, 4ppm
What leads to algae bloom? Phosphorous
Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Highly mobile organic compound such as petroleum, hydrocarbons, and solvents that readily evaporate
What land use maps are included in a comprehensive plan? Current land use map and future land use map (basis for zoning map); Future trends forecast to i.e. 20 years out
How many sf in 1 acre? 1 Acre = 43,560 SF
What is a Hectare? 1 hectare = 10,000 square meters
How many feet in a mile? 5,280 feet = 1 mile
First zoning ordinance - when/where? NYC 1916, Edward Bassett; cumulative approach to zoning
First national park? Yellowstone, 1872
First National wildlife refuge? Florida, 1903
First Historic Preservation Commission? New Orleans, 1921 (French Quarter)
First off-street parking regulations? Columbus, OH 1923
First limited access highway? Bronx River Parkway
When was the first national conference on City planning? 1909, Washington DC
Who founded the American City Planning Institute, and when? Olmsted, Jr
When was APA/AICP founded (merging of AIP and ASPO)? 1978
Rational Planning Model (synoptic), associated w who? Myerson and Banfield
Incremental Planning (humanistic movement), associated w who? Charles Lindblom; Ther Science of Muddling Through; response to rational planning model; acknowleges that changes are made in increments
Advocacy planning (radical), associated w who? Sherry Arnstein (Ladder of Participation, 1969), Paul Davidoff (planners as advocates, not neutral technocrats)
Daniel Burnham Columbian World Exposition (1893), Chicago Plan (1909); City beautiful; “Make no small plans”
Garden Cities Ebenezer Howard, 1989, Garden Cities of to-morrow
Radiant City LeCorbusier, 1920s, Large scale grid of arterial streets, superblocks composed of high-rise towers and individual zones for each use type
Concentric Ring Theory Ernest Burgess, 1925; Urban areas grow outward as a series of concentric rings
Frank Lloyd Wright Wrote “Disappearing City” (1932) with utopian vision of Broadacre City (sprawling, decongested type of auto-oriented development; each house on one acre and with a car)
Sector Theory Homer Hoyt, 1939, Proposed that urban areas develop by sectors, formed along communication and transportation routes
Multiple Nuclei Theory Harris and Ulman, 1945, Proposed that urban areas grow by the progressive integration of a number of separate nuclei, which become specialized and differenciated
Bid Rent Theory William Alonso, 1960, Proposed that the cost of land, the intensity of development of land, the concentration of the population, and the number of places of employment each decline as distance from the CBD increases
New Urbanism Andres Duany, 1982 (also known as neotraditional design)
Growth Machine Theory John Logan and Harvey Molotch, 1987, Proposed that urban development is actually directed by those elite members of the community who control the resources and have business and political interests that benefit from development
Edge City Joel Garreau, 1991, Suburban cities gaining on older core cities
Berman v Parker (1954) Eminent domain, Department store, Established aesthetics and redevelopment as a valid purpose for exercising eminent domain; Public ownership of land not the sole way to promote public purpose;
Nollan v California Coastal Commission (1987) Takings clause was violated when public agency would grant the Nollans a permit to build a house only if they provided a public easement on their beachfront property; Land-use regulation amounted to a taking
Lucas v South Carolina Coastal Council (1992) Takings; Coastal zone protection prohibited building a house on shorefront; U.S. Supreme Court found that regulations that deny all economic use of property constitute a taking (unless existing state prop and nuisance law prohibit such use
City of Ladue v Gilleo (1994) Freedom of speech; City could not ban posting a non-commercial window sign in own residence (anti-gulf war sign)
Golden v Planning Board of the Town of Ramapo (1972) Growth management; Local govts can control growth on basis that adequate public services and facilities are nec. and should preced addtl subdiv dev
Southern Burlington NAACP v Township of Mount Laurel (1975, 1983) Housing, Fair Share
Kelo v City of New London (2005) Eminent domain; Economic development is a public use for which the power of eminent domain may be exercised when part of an integrated development plan
Lingle v Chevron (2005) Takings; Removed the “substantially advances” test (basis of Agins v Tiburon) to identify regulatory taking; Relevant test if whether due process clause has been violated; Affirms that regulatory taking occurs when regs destroy all economic value
City of Rancho Palos Verde v Abrams Telecommunications Act
San Remo Hotel L.P. v City and County of San Fransisco (2005) State courts can adjudicate challenges to land use decisions
Traditional Neighborhood Unit Clarence Perry; Traditionally contais 6,000 people
Radburn, NJ Stein and Wright, 1928; inspired by Howard’s Garden City concept; Forerunner of New Deal’s Greenbelt towns
Standard State Zoning Enabling Act (1926) Hoover, Dept of Commerce
Standard City Planning Enabling Act (1928) Hoover, Dept of Commerce
Saul Alinsky Rules for Radicals, Community Organizing, “Organization of organizations”
Norman Krumholtz Chief of Planning in Cleveland 1969-1979 (AICP code of ethics?); Strong proponent of equity planning (working to serve those with few, if any, choices including poor and minority residents; President of APA 1986-7
Crime Prevention thorough Environmental Design (CPTED) proper design of built environment can reduce fear and incidence of crime (and can increase business activity)
What % of all homes in US are manufactured homes? >10%
Citizen participation “the process through which citizens who live and/or work in an area are actively involved in the dev of plans and recommendations”
What are the 3 sections of the AICP Code of Ethics? 1) Aspirational principles (cannot be enforced), 2) Rules of conduct (must be followed), 3) Procedures (for handling charges of misconduct)
Ethics: Aspirational principles: 1) Serve public interest, 2) Seek social justice, work to expand choice and opportunity, 3) responsibility to clients and employers, 4) responsibility to the profession
Ethics: Rules of conduct: 1) Provide adequate, timely, clear and accurate info, 2) must not advocate opposing positions, 3) must not take unfair advantage of a sitaution, 4) Avoid conflict of interest of appearance thereof
Ethics: Procedure: Transparency, Disclosure, Documentation
Ethics: Who makes the final determination in a charge of ethics misconduct? The AICP Ethics Committee
How should communications regarding specific ethics situation be handled? Phone or mail, not unreliable email
When did current AICP Ethics Code take effect? June 2005
To whom is the planner’s primary obligation? To service the public interest
Planner’s responsibility to the public? Consider: how public interest is defined through continuous and open debate (opps for participation); Rights of others, long-range consequences, interrelatedness of decisions, preservation of natural/built environment; Accurate info; Expand choice and be
Planner’s responsibility to Clients and Employers? Use professional judgment; Accept decision of client/employer (unless illegal or contrary to public interest); Avoid actual or perceived conflicts of interest
Planner’s responsibility to the Profession and Colleagues? Education others about the profession; Show respect for colleagues; Contribute to the development of the profession
Urbanism as a Way of Life (1938) Louis Wirth, promoted urbanism as the prevailing way of life in contemporary society, and that density has an effect on people’s behavior
Endangered Species Act year? 1973
Property Administration 41 Act of 1949 Used for the disposal of Federal Property by the US government
What year was American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO) established? 1934
Morrill Act (1862) Gave public land to each state to be sold for the establishment of “engineering, agriculture and military science colleges (land grant colleges)
Pennsylvania Coal v Mahon (1922) U.S. Supreme Court, Established that land use regulation might be a taking
Cumulative zoning Older approach to regulating land use; A hierarchical approach in which less intensive uses such as residences are allowed in areas of more intensive use, such as commercial districts
Noncumulative zoning Allows only stated use and not less intensive uses
Exclusive zoning
Delphi method Public participation (RAND), Uses successive rounds of questions to work towards greater clarification 1) Identify needs/goals/jectives or alternatives; 2) establish priorities, group preferences, differences among diverse reference groups; 3) educating a
Fred French Investing Co v City of NY (1976) Transfer of Development Rights
Pierre L’Enfant Radial design of Washington, DC
First comprehensive city plan officially adopted by major US city? Cincinnati Plan, 1925
First regional planning commission? Los Angeles, 1922
San Fransisco Zoning Ordinance, 1867
First regional planning agency? Atlanta, 1949
Dolan v City of Tigard (1994) US Supreme Court, Takings, commission required Dolan to maintain greenway on hardware store property; Ruling in favor of Dolan, established principle of rational nexus for regulatory action
Hadacheck v Sebastian (1915) US Supreme county ruled that restricting certain nuisances land uses was a legitimate exercise of police power; Upheld ordinance in LA prohibiting operation of brickyard
Construction Indust. Assn. of Sonoma County v City of Petaluma (1971) Limit on the number of building permits for single-fam homes issued each year; upheld by court of appeals on ground that it sought to preserve small town character and open space and promote growth at an “orderly” rate”
Young v. American Mini Theaters (1976) US Supreme Court upheld Detroit “adult zoning” ordinance that prohibited location of adult movie theaters in proximity to each other and residential area; Court argued that it did not restrain speech but only maintain neighborhood character
Penn Central Transportation Co. v City of New Yok (1978) US Supreme Court found historic preservation to be a valid public purpose; Upheld LPC’s denial of request to develop over Grand Central (a designated historic landmark); Penn Central could have TDR’d
Metromedia Inc v City of San Diego (1981) US Supreme Court struck down ordinance that banned com and non-com off-site billboards yet permitted on-site signage as violation of free speech
First urban growth boundary? Lexington and Fayette County, KY (1958)
Regional Survey of New York and Its Environs, 1928 Viewed land use as a function of accessibility
Zoning Exercise of police power, which means government’s right to impose regulations to protect public health, safety and welfare
Euclidean zoning Specifies exactly what uses will be allowed in each district and at what level of intensity; Does not allow for mix of uses
Alfred Bettman 1925, developed comprehensive plan for Cincinnati, the first American city to adopt a comprehensive plan; Defending zoning in Amber v Eucid
Form-based zoning Regulates size, form, appearance and placement of buildings ad parking rather than the use of the land and the density of development
Transect zoning continuum of 6 zones from rural to urban
Performance zoning focuses on the intensity of development that is acceptable and its impact on the environment; does not deal with use but with how development impacts the surrounding area
Exactions Costs levied on developers as a condition for receiving permission to develop in a community (i.e. contribution of land, facilities or funding); Extractions reflect the costs that a dev is projected to impose on a community
Easement used to secure a portion of rights associated with a parcel
Right of way Right granted by owner to other to building, maintain and use a road, pathway or utility line across the owner’s property
5th Amendment Prohibits the government from taking private property for public use without paying just compensation to the property owner (14th Amendment deals with due process in taking)
Ripeness doctrine A claim is ready for judicial review only after a property owner has sought all possible relief through, for example, variance or condemnation procedures
Variance is permissible when Hardship inherent in the physical characteristics of the land (although often misconstrued as alleviation of financial hardship)
Euclid v Ambler (1926) US Supreme Court upheld validity of zoning as a legitimate exercise of policy power, and emphasized the need to separate land uses, in order to protect public health, safety and welfare; established zoning as a legitimate exercise of police power by local
Spur Industries v Del E Webb Dev Co (1972) Preexisting feedlot became a nuisance for a newer residential area; state court of appeals ruled that feedlot should move to accommodate addtl urban dev; dev’rs required to pay expenses and damages
City Council v Taxpayers for Vincent (1984) US Supreme Court ruled that LA violated free speech by banning noncommercial signage on public property
City of Renton v Playtime Theaters (1986) US Supreme Court upheld zoning ordinance that prohibited adult theaters with 1K ft of residence etc bc it did not violate free speech bc it didn’t altogether prohibit use in city
First English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Glendale v County of Los Angeles (1987) Flood damaged campgrounds, and LA prohibited construction in flood area; U.S. Supreme Court found that just compensation required for “temporary damages” for time btwn law adoption and determination of unconstitutional taking
Tahoe Sierra Preservation Council v Tahoe Regional Planning Association (2002) US Supreme Court upheld the use of development moratoria and said that a moratorium is not necessarily a taking of property requiring compensation
Land Ordinance of 1785 Provided for the rectangular land survey of the NW Territory
Standard State Zoning Enabling Act (1924, 1926) Confirmed the states’ authority to delegate police power to municipalities to enact local zoning ordinances; Drafted under Secretary of Commerce Hoover
Standard City Planning Enabling Act (1928) Outlined powers of municipal planning commissions and required the adoption of a master plan by local governing bodies; Provided for establishment of regional planning commissions and regional plans; Published by Dept of Commerce under Hoover
Housing Act of 1949 Established the basis for Urban Renewal
Housing Act of 1954 Established Section 701 planning grants to local govts
Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act (1966) Created Model Cities, focusing on community participation; emphasized social and economic rebuilding of communities rather than physical development
4 Steps of Hazard Mitigation Planning 1) Mitigation planning, to minimize damage; 2) Preparation planning; 3) Response planning; 4) Recovery planning
“T-value” The tolerable soil loss that, if exceeded, would adversely affect the productivity of the soil
Subsidence Gradual sinking of land, sometimes due to excessive groundwater pumping in surface drainage patters due to urbanization
Capital Improvement Plan (CIP) Multi-year scheduling of public physical improvements based on fiscal analysis and population projections; Typically covers next 5 - 6 year period; Addresses long-term community needs
What is per capita daily water demand? 50-180 gallons, depending on whether watering the lawn
A gravity feed water supply system must have storage tanks how far above the distribution area? At least 70 ft
What is per capita daily waste water production? 150 gallons
What is a perc test? Use to determine if soil at a site has adequate absorptive capacity for a septic system to function properly
What is per capita saily solid waste production? 4.4 lbs/person (40% paper, 18% yard trimmings, 7% food scraps; 8% plastics)
Detention vs. Retention? Detention systems Temporarily hold the water for gradual release to a stream or storm sewer; Retention maintains a permanent pool of water
CERCLA (1980) Superfund
What % of trips in US are done by bicycle or foot? <10%
Transportation Improvement Programs (TIP) Multimodal listing of highway, public transit, bicycle and pedestrian improvements and transportation emission reduction measures for which fed funds have been earmarked in particular region (in effict 3-5yrs)
How large is a Traffic Analysis Zone? Typically the size of a census tract
What are 4 steps of a travel demand model? 1) Trip generation; 2) Trip distribution; 3) modal split; 4) trip assignment in network
Hierarchy of roads 1) Major or principle arterial; 2) Minor arterial; 3) (Urban) Collectors; 4) Local roads
Cartway The street right of way that is traveled; this does not include the curb
Travel Demand Management (TDM) To reduce congestion by making the most efficient use of a multimodal network
Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Uses computer-based info and sensing technologies to improve traffic coordination, system capacity and safety (i.e. freeway message signs, coordinated signals, automated toll collection)
What household type makes the most number of trips? The fewest? Most--single fam home; Least--retirement homes
What is peak parking space factor for shopping center? 1.0 - 5.0 spaces per 1,000 SF of GLA
What is peak parking space factor for offices? 0.5 - 3.0 spaces per 1,000 SF of GLA, or 0.1 - 0.75 spaces per employee
What is peak parking space factor for a hotel? 0.2 - 1.5 spaces per room
What is peak parking space factor for a restaurant? 5 - 25 spaces per 1,000 SF of GLA
What is peak parking space factor for residential? 0.2 - 2.0 spaces per unit
What is the scale for transportation Level of Service (LOS)? A (best) to F (worst)
Where/when was first subway? Boston, 1897
Where/when was first limited access highway? Bronx River Parkway, 1926
National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (1956) Eisenhower; Construction funding through Highway Trust Fund (from taxes on new vehicles and gas); Largest public works project in the nation’s history
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA 1990) Required mass transit systems to be accessible and paratransit for those who cannot drive or use public transit
Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) (1998) Successor to ISTEA; added new initiatives for improving safety, protecting natural environment, advancing economic growth and competitiveness; emphasized transit as alt to highway expansion
What is Concurrency? Some states (i.e. FL) require that planning and commitments for transportation and infrastructure be linked with planning and commitments for other functions such as growth, water supply, or education
Park size stds according to the National Recreation and Parks Association Regional park - at least 250 acres (or 5 acres for every 1,000 people); Community park - at least 20 acres (or 3 acres for every 1,000 people); Neighborhood park - at least 5 acres (or ? acres per 1,000 people)
Cluster development/cluster zoning May protect green space by allowing higher density development on some sections of a parcel of land and non on other sections of the parcel
Location quotient Measures the concentration of industry in an geographic area relative to a larger area (% of workers employed by the industry in the sample area divided by the % of workers employed in the same industry in the larger area); LQ>1 means product exported, LQ
Shift-share analysis Use to compare and contrast growth rates among industrial sectors; Used to distinguish btwn the effices of national and local economic trends
Sizes of different types of shopping centers Community (100-450K SF; mid-size dept store or discount store as anchor); Neighborhood (30-100K SF; convenience goods and personal services; Regional (300-1,000K SF; variety of general merchandise, apparel, furniture etc.)
Special districts (i.e. water, sewer) Special-purpose governments that generally serve a single purpose and are geographically defined; May levy taxes and issue debt and employ user charges as financial mechanism
Urban Development Action Grant (UDAG) 1977 Use for site acquisition and clearance to facilitate economic development; Competitive funds (vs entitlement CDBG funds)
Community Reinvestment Act (1977) To stop redlining; required banks to loan to areas it serves customers in
Empowerment Zones/Enterprise Zones (1994) Fed funds to make distressed urban areas economically competitive with suburban neighbors; Incentives such as property tax reductions, sales tax reductions, wage tax credits, low-interest financing
First city to enact Historic Preservation Ordinance? Charleston, SC (1931)
US v Gettysburg Electric Railway (1896) First sig. legal case about historic pres; Supreme Court ruled that acquisition of the national battlefield at Gettysburg served a valid public purpose
Antiquities Act (1906) First law to provide fed protection for archaeological and historic sites; allowed designation of National Monuments
National Trust for Historic Preservation (1949) A private nfp membership org dedicated to saving historic places and revitalizing communities
National Historic Preservation Act (1966) Est. National Register of Historic Places; Provide (sect. 106) for protection of preservation-worthy sites and properties threatened by federal activities
James Rouse Columbia, MD (1960s); Pioneered development of indoor shopping malls in the 1950s; Introduced festival marketplaces to dying downtowns (Faneuil Hall, Inner Harbor in Baltimore, South Street Seaport); Grandfather of Edward Norton
Kevin Lynch Image of the City (1960); Showed which elements of the built environment are important to how people understand the layout of a place; Network of paths, edges, dstricts, nodes and landmarks contribute to the image of a city
William H. Whyte Also wrote The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces (1980)--what factors contribute to succesful urban spaces; Emphasized importance of env psychology and sociology in urban design
Allan Jacobs Great Streets (1995) - analyzed quality and quantity of features that characterize great streets around the world
Edge Cities (1991) Joel Garreau, defined as a distinct place that was not anything like a city 30 years ago, that has at least 5M SF of leasable office space, 600K SF of retail, and more jobs than bedrooms
Edgeless Citiesi (2002) Dominant urban form with large, isolated, suburban office complexes that are not accessible by pedestrians or transit
When/how/who Philadelphia planned? William Penn, late 1600s, as rectangular grid with 4 public squares (now parks) and a town square
When/how/who Washington DC planned? Pierre L’Enfant, 1701, radial streets over a gridiron pattern; Applied principles on monumental design
When/how/who Savannah, George planned? James Oglethorpe, 1733, central public square
Riverside, IL Olmsted and Vaux, Garden suburb w parks and greenways; First planned suburban community stressing rural as opposed to urban amenities
First skyscraper 1885, Chicago; structural steel made skyscraper possible
First safety elevator NYC, 1857, Elisha Otis; made highrise buildings feasible
Letchworth, England 1903, First English Garden City and a stimulus to the New Town movement in the US Greenbelt towns
Forest Hills Gardens Olmsted Jr, 1911; Influenced Clarence Perry’s neighborhood unit concept
Mariemont, OH John Nolen, 1923-1936; foreshadows New Urbanism (short blocks, mix of housing tenures)
Sunnyside Gardens Stein and Wright, 1924-1928
Greenbelt towns Gov’t sponsored towns based on Garden Cities in 1930s; Greenhills, OH; Greendale, WI; Greenbelt, MD
Park Forest, IL 1947-1947 construction; First privately financed planned community in the US
New Towns Post-WWII; Reston, VA; Columbia, MD
Seaside, FL New Urbanist planned community; Duany; traditional neighborhood design; construction began 1982
Regional Plan for New York City and Its Environs (1929) Included explanation by Clarence Perry of neighborhood unit concept
Current % breakdown of homes urban/suburban/rural? 31% Urban / 31% Suburban / 38% Rural
What percentage of US HHs are homeowners? 66%
Changes to American household since 1970? New homes are 50% larger, HH size has shrunk by 1 person
Daily homeless population in the US? ~600K
Demographics of homeless population? 51% single men; 17% are single women; 39% are families with children; 13-25% are employed
NYC Tenement House Law (1897) Required buildings to provide only narrow airshaft btwn adjacent structures and only two toilets on each floor (called dumbbell tenements bc of their shape)
NYC Tenement House Law (1901) Outlawed the dumbbell design and allowd for only 70% lot coverage; Required toilets and running water in each unit, and improved lighting and ventilation
What % of US mortgages do Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac together hold? 80-90%
Gautreaux 1976 housing voucher program for public housing residents to move to suburbs for better economic and educational opportunities
National Housing Act (1934) Established federal insurance of savings deposits; Created the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) to underwrite mortgage insurance (with strict requirements for type and location home, and owner)
Wagner-Steagall Housing Act (1937) Created public housing administration, and empowered and funded local housing authorities to construct and operate public housing as well as engage in slum clearance; Tied slum clearance to public housing
Housing Act of 1949 Focus on slum clearance, urban renewal and new housing construction (initialed Urban Renewal)
Housing Act of 1954 Expanded Urban Renewal; Instituted comprehensive housing and community redevelopment planning; Section 701 grants for planning in small communities--contributed to the establishment of local planning depts
Housing and Urban Development Act (1965) Created HUD; Robert Weaver first HUD secretary
Housing and Community Development Act (1974) Instituted CDBG program
Steward B. McKinney Act (1987) First major legislative response to homelessness; Emphasis on elderly, disabled and families with children
Impact fee / linkage fee Sometimes assess on new commercial or industrial development to address new need for affordable housing triggered by additional workers
First department store Salt Lake Cit, 1868; founded by Brigham Young as way to decrease dependence on outside goods
When does neighborhood planning occur? Often prepared in response to a specific problem, in communities where neighborhoods are well defined
Private Sewage Treatment Facilities (PSTFs) Small, privately owned sewage treatment facilities used bu a s,a;;
Characteristics of a traditional village Mix of uses, w sidewalks, trees and on-street parking; Medium density; shallow front yards for residences; potentially 0’ setback for commerical areas; diverse housing types
Town planing considerations what is feasible given small planning department, slowing increasing tax base; could work with regional or state orgs to plan and get data
Homestead Act (1862) Permitted settlers to claim 160-acre parcel of public land in the west on condition they reside on land for 5 consecutive years; Cause gov’t to take a major role in water development in the West
What % of rural Americans live on farms? 6.3% (represents declining farm population)
Facts about metro-farms ⅓ of all farms in US are in metropolitan areas; They produce over 2/3s of country’s produce and about 40% of all dairy products
What % of rural employment is in manufacturing? <25%
Dillion’s Rule vs. Home Rule Dillon’s rule: local jurisdictions have only powers that are explicitly assigned to them by state gov’ts; Home rule: the state transfers power to the local government to adopt regulations
Cities in Evolution (1915) Patrick Gedes, considered by some as the father of regional planning
First full-time planner employed by an American city? Harland Bartholomew, St. Louis (early 1900s?)
Ian McHarg Design with Nature (1969); environmentally conscious approach to land use; map overlay technique predecessor to GIS
Steps of a plan-making process? 1) Gather factual info; 2) Gather info using participatory process; 3) Analyze information; 4) Report information; 5) Present the plan for review; 6) Revise plan accordingly; 7) Submit plan for adoption
Comprehensive plan Usually for an entire municipality or county; Addresses short-term and long-term planning concerns, current and future trends; Documents what ideas the community is seeking through a series of goals and implementation strategies
Capital Facilities Plan Plan for infrastructure; Estimates future needs and sources of funding; Usually includes detailed 5-6 year schedule
Capital Improvement Plan (CIP) Based on availability of resources and needs based on forecasts and population projections; May detail potential financing through i.e. bongs, special districts, TIFs
Goal vs. Objective vs. Policy Goal is value-based statement about a desired future state of affairs. Objective offers more specific, measurable statements of how to achieve the desired ends. A Policy is a general rule that outlines how the goals and objectives of a plan should be real
Role of the Planning Department Dept within executive branch; Planning director reports to municipality’s chief executive; Staff supports governing body, planning commission and zoning board in their zoning functions
Role of Planning Commission Appointed by governing body or chief elected official. Does short- and long-term planning, plan review, budgeting. Makes recommendations to city governing body; however, often has direct or final authority in the adoption of master plans and review of sub
Zoning Board of Appeals (ZBA) Considers request for variances; Hears appeals; Approves special use permits; Makes recommendations to city governing body.
Confidence Interval A range of values around a sample statistic; the population parameter is expected to be within that interval
What is a good measure of central tendency (statistics Q) Median is better measure of central tendency because it is less influence by outliers than the mean
Variance (statistics Q) A measure of how spread out a distribution is
Standard deviation The square root of the variance; Use to describe the degree to which a distribution is spread out (how far from the mean data points tend to be); About 68 percent of measurements in a normal distribution are within 1 std deviation of the mean; about 95% a
Chi-squared test Statistic used to suggest whether there might be a relationship between two nominal or categorical variables
Ratio or Step-down method Starts with an estimate for a larger area, such as the city, and uses that growth rate to estimate population in a neighborhood
Symptomatic method (statistics Q) Uses readily available data, such as building permits, school enrollment, or voter registration, to estimate the current population
Census Tract Designed to be a relatively homogeneous unit with respect to population characteristics, economic status and living conditions; Averages ~4,000 people
Census Block Part of a census tract; Smalled geographic unit for which the Census tabulates 100% data; designations covering entire nation for first time in 1990
Census Block Group Subset of the blocks within a Census Tract; The smallest geographic unit for which the Census tabulates sample data
Census Designated Place (CDP) A densely settled concentration of population that is not within an incorporated place, but is locally identified by a name; No size limits (since 2000)
Place A concentration of population either legally bounded as an incorporated place, or identified as a Census Designated Place
Incorporated Place Incorporated under state law as, i.e., a city, town, borough or village, and having legally prescribed geographic limits
Urban Area For Census 2000, two types of urban areas: Urban Clusters (2.5 - 50K people) and Urbanized Areas (at least 50K people)
Urban Clusters Densely settled territories that have at least 2,500 people but fewer than 50,000
Urbanized Areas An area consisting of at least one central place and adjacent territory, with a general population density of at least 1,000 people/square mile of land area and a minimum residential population of at least 50,000 people
Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) Core area (city of >50,000 or Urbanized Area with at >100,000 people) with large population nucleus and adjacent communities with a high degree of economic and social integration with that core; May include 1 or more counties
Median age of US population according to 2000 Census? 35.3 years
Average household size according to 2000 Census? 2.59 persons (owner-occupied = 2.69, renter-occupied - 2.4)
Biggest/smallest states in population in 2000 Census? Biggest: California; Smallest: Wyoming
PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique) Shows how different tasks are related, depicts tasks and duration of tasks using forked lines; Use to reallocate available resources among tasks i order to keep the project on time and within budget (similar to critical path method)
Traditional budget process Analyzes current econ and demo trends and conditions to estimate future budgetary need; Forecasts needs for next 4 - 6 years; Traditionally uses Line Item Budget
Line item budgets Traditional municipal budget; Divides expenditures into categories such as equipment and personnel; Are not easily utilized as management tool
Performance budgets Organizes expenditures by the services they fund and a set of evaluation standards for each services; Readily used as a management tool; Examples: Planned Programming Budgetary System (PPBS), Zero-Base Budgeting, Dayton System
Planning Programming Budgetary System (PPBS) Divides govt expenditures into program components rather than objects of expenditure; Focuses on fundamental objectives of a program, future implications of current budgeting decision, all costs, and alternatives; Robert McNamara (USDOD) in 60s-70s
Zero-Base Budgeting Not based on previous year’s budget; Each year’s budget starts at a base of zero, and each program and expenditure in the budget must be justified annually; Define “decision packages” tied to long-range plan objectives; Developed by Texas Instruments
Management by Objective (MBO) Drucker; Establishes overarching objectives using a collaborative process; 1) Determination and communication of organizational goals; 2) interpretation and definition of those goals into performance objectives for individuals; and 3) the measurement of p
Subdivision design covers street layouts, lots, and blocks
3 basic elements of subdivision requirements 1) Plat (shows the location and boundaries of streets, lots/parcels, and other site info); 2) Design/construction stds to establish specifics of how improvements will be built; 3) Exactions specify subdividers responsibility for financing public improveme
“A budget may be characterized as a series of goals with price tags attached” Aaron Wildansky
General obligation bonds Taxing power of the jurisdiction is pledged to pay interest upon, and retire the debt; Can be sold to finance permanent types of improvement such as schools, municipal buildings, parks, and rec facilities; Voter approval may be required
Revenue bonds Sold for projects that produce revenues; Are not backed by the full faith and credit of the local jurisdiction, but are financed in the long-term through service charges or fees
Lease-Purchase Agreements Facility is constructed by a private company or authority, and then leased by the municipality. Rental over the years of the lease will have paid the total original cost plus interest, and at end of lease period title conveyed to the municipality without
Airport planning Ground access as new “hot” issue in airport planning. Regional planning concern due to ISTEA and CAA. Funding from sources such as passenger facility charge, federal ticket tax, and revenue bonds.
Uses compatible with airport noise-affected areas Those that lack areas of constant human occupation. I.e. manufacturing, warehousing, distribution.
Created by: juliestein
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