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NIC Written Test

RID study materials for NIC written test

AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE (ASL) the language of the American Deaf community; it is often described as a visual-gestural language with a grammar, culture, and vocabulary distinct from English and other signed languages. ASL is also used by deaf people in some parts of Canada.
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) a federal law, passed in 1990, which required improvements in accessibility for all people with disabilities including deaf people; it is sometimes referred to as a civil rights act for people with disabilities.
HEARING IMPAIRED a term used by some people who are not deaf to refer to individuals with a hearing loss. Most deaf people do not use this label for themselves because of the negative connotation of the word "impaired."
INTERPRETER a term used to identify an individual who interprets; this term may also be used generically to include those who transliterate (see transliterate).
MANUALLY CODED ENGLISH (MCE) a term used to refer to a number of sign language systems that attempt to visually represent English by using its grammar and created or modified signs to represent English vocabulary; includes Signing Exact English (SEE) and Pidgin Signed English (PSE).
PIDGIN SIGNED ENGLISH (PSE) a term often used to refer to signing that occurs when deaf people and people who are not deaf interact; PSE uses ASL vocabulary in English word order. This is also sometimes referred to as contact signing.
REGISTRY OF INTERPRETERS FOR THE DEAF (RID) a national professional organization and certifying body for interpreters and those interested in the sign language interpreting profession. RID has affiliate chapters in each state.
REPETITIVE MOTION DISORDERS, REPETITIVE STRAIN INJURY a general term for several conditions that can result from using a set of muscles repeatedly or incorrectly, especially resulting from repetitive movements of the hands and arms; repetitive motion disorders are potential job hazards for sign language inte
SIGNING EXACT ENGLISH (SEE 2) a manual code for representing spoken English that follows English grammar and uses invented or modified signs to represent English vocabulary; SEE was developed in an effort to improve Deaf students' English language skills.
SIGN-TO-VOICE INTERPRETING (S-V) interpreting from a signed language into a spoken language.
SOURCE LANGUAGE the language in which the original message is conveyed.
TARGET LANGUAGE the language in which the interpreted message is conveyed.
TRANSLITERATE the act of changing a message from one form of a language to another form of the same language; in the field of sign language interpreting, this most commonly refers to changing spoken English into a visual form of English (see Manually Coded English, Pid
TRANSLITERATOR a technical term use to refer to those who transliterate; transliterators are commonly referred to more generically as interpreters.
VOICE-TO-SIGN INTERPRETING (V-S) interpreting from a spoken language into a signed language.
Interpretation the re-expression in one language of a message originally delivered in another language in such a way that the interpretation is clear, unambiguous, and immediately comprehnesible so that the listener or viewer does not have to re-interpret mentally. The
Minimal Language Competency Interpreting Persons who have inadequate education, lack of exposure to any language or for other reasons are not competent in any language. They use neither ASL nor English fluently. They may use "home signs".It is common to use props, gestures, pictures and a Deaf i
Classifiers Classifiers are signs that are used to represent general categories or "classes" of things. They can be used to describe the size and shape of an object (or person). They can be used to represent the object itself, or the way the object moves or relates t
deaf The condition of partially or completely lacking in the sense of hearing to the extent that one cannot understand speech for everyday communication purposes. (For example, you can't hear well enough to use the phone on a consis
Deaf refers to embracing the cultural norms, beliefs, and values of the Deaf Community. The term "Deaf" should be capitalized when it is used as a shortened reference to being a member of the Deaf Community.Example: He is Deaf. (Mean
Non-manual markers Non-manual markers are facial expressions and body movements. Non-manual markers are used to inflect signs. That means to change, influence, or emphasize the meaning of a sign or signed phrase. For example, when asking a question that can be answered w
Pathology of Deafness Pathology (in general) is the study of disease. Deaf people don't consider themselves to have a disease or problem.
Abstract classifiers classifiers that are smaller than life size, the shape and movement of which does not necessarily have iconic features.
Abstract language generic and lacking in specificity.
Accessibility modifications to building design, program delivery, or forms of communicatin which will allow Deaf and disabled individuals to gain access to services provided by an institution or agency.
Adventitious deafness to become deaf at some point after birth.
Affect refers to emotions or feelings.
A-Language (L1) one's first language, usually the language your parents speak although this is not always the case, also known as mother tongue or native language.
Ambivalence having both negative and positive feelings about something; common reaction of members of the oppressed group who have both postive and negative feelings about themselves and the minority group they are affiliated with.
Anglicized ASL a form of signing which blends ASL with English-based signs; a contact variety more closely affiliated with ASL than English.
Anglophone a person who uses English-based communication, as compared to French-based communication (common term in Canada for English-speaking people).
Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada (AVLIC) the national professional association and certifying body of sign lanugage interpreters in Canada.
Audism an attitude based on pathological thinking that results in a negative stigma toward anyone who does not hear; it judges labels, and limits individuals on the basis of whether a person hears and speaks.
Auditory feedback loop the channel through which hearing people hear (and monitor) their own voice as they speak.
Aural-Oral languages languages based on a structured set of linguistic rules in which the communication is based on sound; spoken languages throughout the world fall into this category.
Benefactors are perfect an idea frequently held by members of marginalized groups that members of the oppressor group are somehow super-beings, also refered to as "magical thinking"
Bicultural refers to an individual who has knowledge about two cultures, and who has developed socially appropriate behaviors necessary to fit in each of the two cultures.
Bilingual-Bicultural (Bi-Bi) a philosophy of interpreting based on the belief that effective interpretation requires cultural and linguistic mediation in order to accomplish speaker goals and maintain dynamic equivalence; based on the recognition of Deaf people as members of an oppre
Bilingual-Bicultural education (bi-bi) an approach which stresses ASL as the instructional language for all subjects except English, with an ultimate goal of developing competency in both English and ASL; students study ASL, Deaf culture, Deaf heritage/history, and Deaf studies.
B-Language (L2) refers to one's second language, one acquired by living in a country where that language is spoken, by interacting frequently with people using that language or by studying the language formally.
Certificate of Interpretation (COI) the professional certificate awarded by AVLIC to individulas who successfully complete both a knowledge and skills assessment.
C-Language a language one can "manage" to comprehend what is spoken/signed, however the individual speaks/signs with a heavy accent, improper grammatical structure and frequent semantic errors.
Clients/Consumers a term used to refer to those for whom sign language interpreters work, includes both Deaf and hearing consumers.
Cloze skills the ability to mentally fill-in-the-blanks when part of an utterance is obscured or when the receiver does not understand a term or phrase (closure).
Code of Ethics a set of guidelines that require an individual to develop effective decision making skills, a clear sense of a person's beliefs and values, understand how society defines right/wrong, good/bad, and have the ability to apply all of this to spur of the mome
Code switching the conscious or unconscious movement from ASL into English-like signing or from English-like signing to ASL; this often occurs due to the experience of oppression common to Deaf people in Canada and the U.S.
Communication dynamics the way people in a communication interaction react to or engage with one another and to the overall interaction.
Communication Facilitation Philosophy a set of beliefs regarding Deaf individuals, ASL and communication dynamics that influences the way a person views her/his role and work as an interpreter; includes a belief of Deaf people as handicapped, ASL as a means of communicating only with less edu
Communication a continuous, transactional process involving two or more people who occupy different but overlapping environments; as they seek to share information or ideas, they create a relationship by simultaneously sending and receiving messages, some of which are
Conceptually Accurate Signed English (CASE) a manual code for English which combines English grammatical order with ASL signs and some invented initialized signs; choices of signs based on the intended concept or idea of the speaker.
Conduit or Machine Philosophy includes a belief of Deaf people as handicapped and needing to learn to take care of themselves; word-for-sign equivalents between signs and spoken English; and the interpreter as having no responsibity for the interaction or communication dynamics taking
Conference of Interpreter Trainers (CIT) an American organization of educators who teach interpretation; membership is international.
Confidentiality the agreement that information that takes place in a professional relationship is not to be shared with others outside of the specific setting and relationship; besed on a trust relationship between the professional and her/his clients.
Congenital Deafness to be born deaf or hard-of-hearing.
Consecutive Interpretation the process of interpreting into the target language after the speaker completes one or more ideas in the source language and pauses while the interpreter transmits that information; more accurate than simultaneous interpretion.
Consultative one of the individuals involved in the interchnage has "expert" status or an enhanced command of the topic at hand.
Contact Varieties a mixture of two languages resulting from prolonged language contact between members of different linguistic communities - includes code-switching, code-mixing, and lexical borrowing; sometimes referred to as PSE.
Critical thinking skills the ability to break the whole into its parts, to examine in detail, to look more deeply into a text and determine its nature by engaging in disciplined reasoning, inferring and deducing in order to extract the message carried "below the words/signs" or '
Cultural and linguistic mediation interpreting in such a way that information has equivalent meaning and impact for individuals with different languages and cultural schema; requires an interpreter to make cultural and liguistic expansions and reductions.
Cultural expansion providing the contextual information required to make sense out of something that is signed or said to someone without the requisite schema or experiential frame.
Cultural reduction reducing the volume and sometimes the detail of information within an interpretation without affecting the meaning intended; done to meet communication and cultural norms of the target language.
Cultural view of Deaf people accepts Deaf people as normal, capable human beings rather than as disabled, abnormal, etc.
Culture includes knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs and any other capabilites and habits acquired as a member of society; set of learned behaviors of a group of people who have their own language, values, rules of behavior, and traditions and consists
Deaf view of "Deaf" a label of pride and solidarity for those who have similar experiences, use a shared form of communication and who subscribe to Deaf cultural values, norms, and traditions.
Hearing view of "Deaf" refers to the inability to hear as compared to "normal' hearing, enerally seen as a deficit or an impairment; measured by decibels.
Decibels a unit for expressing the relative intensity of sounds on a scale from zero for the average least perceptible sound to about 130 for the average level where sound induces pain.
Dependence on the "Benefactor" when minority group members being dependent upon members of the power group for certain things they perceive they are unable to do for themselves.
Discourse style the way a language requires that information be presented in a monologue or dialogue.
Dynamic equivalence in an interpreted event, maintaining the "chemistry" between a speaker and her/his audience that allows a connection to be made and the speaker's goals to be accomplished.
Empowerment of the client behaving in a way that supports another's right to make decisions within an interpersonal interaction by vesting control in the hands of consumers rather than solely in the hands of the interpreter; avoiding the imposition of one's own opinions, advice, s
Empowerment a process of relcaiming one's own power in order to take carge of one's own life.
English-based signs a generic term used to refer to a variety of signing systems based on English structure, rather than the stucture of ASL; includes the Rochester Method, SEE1, SEE2, and CASE.
Environmental factors phenomena in the area surrounding communication that can affect the interaction, including lights, extraneous auditory or visual noise, distance from the interpreter to the speaker, distance from the interpreter to the audience, etc.
Equivocal language words, signs, or phrases that can be interpreted in more than one way; often misleading or confusing to the listener.
Ethical behavior making choices and acting in a way that respects others; grows out of a strong moral sense; requires the ability to think critically and the courage to choose to do the right thing.
Ethics behavioral standards - a set of principles that defines what is judged appropriate or inappropriate, right or wrong.
Ethnocentric an attitude that one's own race or culture is superior to all others.
Euphemistic language is the use of socially acceptable terms and phrases in place of blunt, descriptive words/phrases (i.e. the "powder room").
External noise actual, physical factors that interfere with communication; includes flickering of an overhead florescent light, the squeal of a poorly connected microphone, or the incessant coughing of someone in the room.
Fatalism or passivity the tendency of members of an oppressed group to feel powerless to change or strike back at "the system"; a "go with the flow" and "don't rock the boat" attitude.
Fear of freedom a lack of determined action that might lead to true equality and empowerment based on fear and sense of inferiority that "paralyzes" oppressed individuals; this response is common among members of an oppressed group, in spite of their anger about the inju
Francophone a term used in Canada to refer to people who use French-based communication.
Frozen form information or texts that are "fixed" - written, videotaped or audio taped.
Frozen linguistic register "fixed" texts that are repeated verbatim every time used (i.e. The Lord's Prayer); meaning is found more in the actions accompanying the text than in the words themselves.
Group oppression a situation in which the dominant group denigrates members of a minority, including their self-worth, abilities, intelligence, and right to be differenct and affirmed in that difference; includes a denial of the minority groups language and opportunities
Helper philosophical frame views Deaf people as handicapped, limited, unable to fully manage their personal and business affairs; believes that Deaf people are mentally, emotionally, or experientially incapable of fully understanding the world around them; views the interpreter as
HVO High visual orientation; a term used to refer to individuals who have no language skills in ASL, LSQ, English, French, or any other language resulting from a developmental disability or because of educational or social deprivation; also called MLS or mini
Horizontal hostility the tendency of members of a minority group to turn its anger on other members of its own group; results range from barbed comments and putdowns to verbal or physical attacks and physical violence.
Institutionalized oppression attitudes taught overtly or covertly in schools, through the media, and in homes and churches that result in the denigration of a minority group's language, culture, and personhood; a result of individual and group oppression; members of the minority grou
LSQ La Langue Des Signes Quebecoise; the rule-governed language used by most Deaf people in Francophone areas of Canada; a complete and complex language, an integral part of French Canadian Deaf culture.
Lag time the time used by the interpreter to analyze a source language utterance and to make cultural and linguistic adjustments before producing an equivalent message in the target language; also called processing time.
Lineage of Deaf children 90% of all deaf children are born to hearing families who have no deafness in their immediate or extended families; this rate is higher among African Americans where the rate of hereditary deafness is lower.
Linear grammar grammatical structure of a language wherein lexical items and parts of speech are produced singularly, one at a time, in a string of single lexical units.
Linguistic expansion stating implied or "understood" information or ideas present in the source language message overtly in the interpretation when this information is required by the cultural and communication norms of the target language.
Linguistic fluency being able to manipulate a language with the finesse of a native or near-native user of the language; this includes being able to properly shift registers, dicuss technical and non-technical topics, and to "play" with the language; bicultural skills are i
Linguistic reduction reducing the volume and sometimes the detail of information present in the source language without affecting the meaning intended; done due to the linguistic norms and expectations in the target language.
Linguistics the study of languages and the structures of which they are composed.
Machine Philosophy a set of beliefs regarding Deaf individuals, ASL, and communication dynamics which influence the way a person views her/his role and work as an interpreter; includes a belief of Deaf people as handicapped and needing to learn how to take care of themselve
Mentoring an arrangement in which a more experienced interpreter "adopts" a less experienced interpreter and serving as a sounding board to review and evaluate the less-experienced interpreter's professional behavior, decision-making, and quality of interpretation.
Modality the channel through which a message is expressed, specifically spoken or signed.
Multi-leveled grammar the ability of a language to produce more than one lexical item or more than one part of speech simultaneously.
Myth of the mis-guided child a belief by members of a majority group that individuals in a particular minority group don't know what is best for them and thus require "guidance" by the majority group.
Myths traditional stories that ostensibly explain the world view of a particular group of people or that explains a practice or belief.
Need for approval from marginalized group members the expectation and need for some expression of appreciation and gratitude to the majority group from the minority group; failure to receive approval often results in a sense of victimization.
Negative view of the oppressed group stigmatization of members of the minority group because they do not measure up to standards established by the majority; the stigmatized group is marginalized - systematically shut out of opportunities that lead to inclusion and equality.
Oppression unjust or excessive exercise of power or position; results in the disenfranchisement of others.
Oral deaf people deaf indiviuals who do not use sign language, preferring to use speech and speech-reading as their primary form of communication.
Oral transliteration making spoken English visible for an oral Deaf individual; includes repeating what is being said without speech, selecting words that are most easily speech-readable and sometimes using a gesture for clarification.
Oral transliterator one who listens to a spoken English message, then rephrases that message into clearly speech-readable forms for a Deaf consumer who uses speech and speech reading as primary forms of communication.
Paralinguistic elements elements that accompany and add meaning to the expression of language; includes such things as gestures, tone of voice/size of signs, visual/vocal affect, etc.
Passive voice a type of sentence construction in which the actor performing the action indicated by the verb is not overtly identified.
Paternalism and possessive consciousness a caretaker attitude by members of the dominant group toward minority group members based on the assumption that they are unable to make appropriate decisions and need to be taken care of.
Physiological noise biological factors that interfere with communication; i.e. illness, exhaustion, hunger.
Pragmatic use of language the way a language is actually used rather than language function; helps us make sense of the language we encounter in our interactions with others and determine the meaning of the utterance within the given context.
Process models of interpretation attempts to graphically demonstrate the complex mental activities, decisions made and the factors influencing an interpretation; some models are based on formal research and others have been developed by long-time practitioners based on reflection and int
Processing time the time used by the interpreter to analyze the source language utterance and to make cultural and linguistic adjustments before producing an equivalent message in the target language (also called lag time).
Professional competence having the knowledge and skills base, as well as ethical judgment, to perform the task of a professional in a given field.
Professional distance a social, psychological and physical boundary established to insure individuals function within appropriate professional roles; protects both the professional and the client.
Professionals practioners working in a field in which they are expected to hold the interests of their clients paramount in all decisios made; have special knowledge, licensure or certification, adhere to clearly articulated set of values or code of ethics; expected to
Prosody the rhythm of a language including stress, inflection, intonation, pausing and phrasing that help listeners determine meaning and predict what the speaker will say next.
Psychological noise realities that exist in the heads of all participants in the communication environment and distract from or interferes with the communication; includes things like internal stress, personal judgements about the other participants, and random thoughts that
Real world classifiers classifiers that take on life-size proportions and sometimes look a bit like a reduced form of mime when being produced.
Reciprocal signals certain eye behaviors, head nods, verbal utterances (i.e. right, uh-huh) to indicate that one is attending and comprehending (or not) the messages being received.
Reciprocity of perspectives an assumption that the experiences and values of another group are identical to your own. Thus, if you traded places, members of the second group would come to view the world like yourself and develop concomitant values.
Register frozen, formal, consultative, informal, intimate; each register has specific characteristics and unwritten rules determining turn-taking, complexity/completeness of sentence structure; and choice of vocabulary.
Residual hearing the ability to hear to some degree or at some frequencies in spite of a partial hearing loss.
Resistance to attempts for liberation a fear on the part of members in the power group toward any attempts on the part of the oppressed group toward liberation or equality.
Rochester Method a manual code for English wherein each letter of the English alphabet is assigend a hand shape and all words communicated, with the exception of AND, are fingerspelled.
Schema an organizational or conceptual pattern in the mind; the contextual frame or "script" that helps us interpret what is happening; learned informally from our social and cultural interactions.
SEE1 Seeing Essential English; a manual code for English wherein each syllable is given a separate manual movement.
Semantics the way meaning is created by the use and inter-relationship of words, phrases and sentences; precise shades of meaning applied to words/signs in context.
Sight translation changing a message from the frozen form of one language into another signed or spoken language done on first sight, without the time normally required to prepare a formal translation.
SSS Sign Supported Speech; a broad term used to refer to a variety of English-based signing systems; compsed of invented hand movements that attempt to represent English in a manual/visual form, relying entirely upon the lexicon and syntax of English, and usu
SE Signed English; combines English grammatical order with ASL signs as well as some invented initialized signs.
Sign-to-Voice the part of the interpretation process in which the source language message is signed (ASL, LSQ or a manual form of English) and the output is spoken in English, French or another auditory language.
Simultaneous communication speaking and signing at the same time (sim-com); problems include omission of signs, semantic errors, unclear production of signs, and confused mouth markers (also called sign supported speech).
Simultaneous interpretation/transliteration the process of interpreting/transliterating into the target language/code at the same time that the source language message is being delivered.
SASS Size and Shape Specifiers; a specific subset of classifiers that function to describe various nouns; functions like English adjectives.
Speaker goal the motivating purpose behind communication; includes a variety of things such as teaching, inspiring, counseling, teasing, scolding, selling, etc.
Speech-reading a skill employed by some deaf and hh individuals to comprehend spoken communication; involves a combination of deciphering lip, cheek, and throat movements, clarifying gestures and use of closure skills to determine meaning.
Stereotype a standardized mental picture that is held in common by members of a group and that represents an oversimplified opinion, affective attitude, or uncritical judgment.
Support group a small group of professional peers committed to confidentiality, growth, honesty, and integrity.
TOI Test of Interpretation; the test of interpreting skill required for certification in Canada, administered by AVLIC; must pass WTK first.
Total Communication first defined as using any means necessary to successfully communicate with a Deaf child; adopted and redefined by the education system to mean speaking and signing at the same time (sim-com)
Translation changing a message from the frozen form of one language into the frozen form of another language.
Visual-gestural languages based on a structured set of linguistic rules in which the communication base is the movement of the face and body rather than sound; sign languages throughout the world fall into this category.
WTK Written Test of Knowledge; the test of knowledge required as the first step toward certification in Canada, administered by AVLIC, does not constitute "partial certification", must pass the TOI to be certified.
RID Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf; began in 1964 at Ball State Teacher's College; created standards, testing, and ethics; certifications include CI, CT, CDI-P, CDI, SC:L, NIC, etc.
Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1965 made VR funds available to pay for interpreters.
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504 if receiving gov funding (i.e. state schools, etc.) the entity must provide accessibility and accomodations for all disabilities; this covers students, parents, and school personnel.
PL94.142 Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1975; schools must accept all kids, all worthy of an education, all disabilities accepted despite of severity; started mainstreaming frenzy.
Court Interpreters Act of 1978 an interpreter must be provided if a non-native English speaker is involved in court, not disability legislation, witness testimony must be consecutive.
IDEA Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; covers kids ages 0-21; includes IFSPs and IEPs; accounts for LRE; clarified PL94.142.
IEP Individual Education Plan; the IEP team creates goals and ideas for facilitating a child's learning; mandated by law.
IFSP Individual Family Service Plan; for kids age 0-3 or 0-5, this intervention helps the child by helping earlier, recongnizes the whole family is affected by a disability.
LRE Least Restricted Environment; law assumes mainstreaming and parents are responsible to prove mainstreaming is not LRE and often lose.
ADA Americans with Disabilities Act; covers many aspects of life, unfunded mandate, required participation but no gov funds provided; ALL private and public places must comply except if the entity has less than 15 employees or can prove undue hardship; must p
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