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LOM Book Chapter 8

Language of Medicine Chapter 8 - Created by

abortion Premature ending of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus is able to exist on its own.
abruptio placentae Premature detachment of the placenta from its place in the uterine wall.
adnexa uteri Accessory parts of the uterus; fallopian tubes and ovaries.
amenorrhea Absence of menstural flow.
amniocentesis Surgical puncture with a needle to withdraw fluid from within the amniotic sac.
amnion Innermost membranous sac surrounding the developing fetus.
amniotic fluid Fluid contained within the amniotic sac surrounding the fetus.
anovulatory NOt accompanied by ovulation (release of eggs from the ovary).
Apgar score System of scoring an infant's physical condition at 1 and 5 minutes after birth.
areola Dark, pigmented area surrounding the breast nipple.
aspiration Withdrawal of fluid from a cavity or sac with an instrument using suction.
Bartholin glands Two small mucus-secreting glands near the opening of the vagina to the outside of the body.
bilateral oophorectomy Excision or removal of both ovaries.
carcinoma in situ Cancerous tumor that is localized and has not spread either to nearby tissue or through the lymphatic system or bloodstream.
carcinoma of the breast Malignant tumor of breast tissue; breast cancer.
carcinoma of the cervix Malignant cells within the cervix (lower portion of the uterus).
carcinoma of the endometrium Malignant tumor of the uterus (endometrium).
cauterization Destruction of tissue by burning.
cephalic version Procedure for turning the fetus so that its head is the presenting part to enter the birth canal first.
cervical dysplasia Abnormal cells in the cervix (lower, neck-like region of the uterus).
cervicitis Inflammation of the cervix.
cervix Neck-like, lower portion of the uterus.
cesarean section Surgical incision of the abdominal wall and uterus to deliver a fetus.
chlamydial infection Bacterial infection causing pelvic inflammation in the reproductive tract of women and men.
choriocarcinoma Malignant tumor of the placenta.
choriogenesis Formation of the chorion, the outermost membrane surrounding the fetus.
chorion Outermost membrane surrounding the developing fetus. It forms the fetal part of the placenta.
chorionic Pertaining to the chorion.
chorionic villus sampling Sampling of placental tissues (chorionic villi) for prenatal diagnosis.
clitoris Sensitive erectile tissue, outside the body in front of the opening of the female urethra.
coitus Sexual intercourse.
colposcopy Visual examination of the vagina and uterine cervix using an optical magnifying instrument called a colposcope.
conization Removal of cone-shaped section of cervix.
corpus luteum Yellow glandular mass (corpus) formed by an ovarian follicle that has matured and discharged its ovum. It secretes progesterone to maintain pregnancy.
cryocauterization Use of freezing cold temperature to burn and destroy tissue.
cul-de-sac Region in the lower abdomen between the uterus and the rectum.
culdocentesis Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the cul-de-sac.
cystadenocarcinoma Malignant tumor containing fluid-filled sacs and glanular tissue; commonly occurring in the ovaries.
cystadenoma Benign tumor of cystic and glandular components, commonly found in the ovaries.
dermoid cyst Ovarian cysts lined with a variety of cell types (hair, skin, and teeth).
dilatation Widening and enlargement of a hollow organ.
dilation and curettage Widening (dilation) of the cervix and scraping the endometrial lining of the uterus.
dysmenorrhea Painful, difficult menses (menstruation).
dyspareunia Painful sexual intercourse.
dystocia Difficult childbirth.
ectopic pregnancy Implantation of the fertilized egg in any site other than in the uterus.
embryo State in prenatal development from two to six weeks.
endocervicitis Inflammation of the inner lining of the cervix (lower, neck-like portion of the uterus).
endometriosis Endometrial tissue located outside of the uterus.
endometritis Inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus (upper portion).
endometrium Inner, mucous membrane lining of the uterus.
episiotomy Incision of the vulva (perineum) to widen the opening of the vagina during a difficult childbirth.
erythroblastosis fetalis Hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by a blood group incompatibility (Rh factor) between the mother and fetus.
estrogen Ovarian hormone that promotes female secondary sex characteristics and sexual development.
exenteration Removal of internal organs. Pelvic exenteration is removal of ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina and sections of the intestines.
fallopian tube One of a pair of ducts through which the ovum travels to the uterus (oviducts or uterine tubes).
fertilization Union of the egg (ovum) and sperm cell.
fetal monitoring Continuous recording of fetal heart rate and uterine contractions during labor.
fetal presentation Manner in which the fetus enters the birth canal.
fetus State in prenatal development from 6 to 39 / 40 weeks.
fibrocystic disease Presence of small sacs of fibrous connective tissue and fluid in the breast.
fibroids Benign tumors of fibrous and muscular tissue in the uterus; leiomyomas.
fimbriae Finger or fringe-like ends of the fallopian tubes.
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Secreted by the pituitary gland to stimulate maturation of the egg cell (ovum).
galactorrhea Excessive or abnormal secretion of milk after breast-feeding has ended.
gamete Reproductive cell (ovum or sperm cell).
genitalia Reproductive organs (genitals).
gestation Nine-month period during which a fertilized egg cell develops into an infant; pregnancy.
gonad Female or male reproductive organ that produces sex cells and hormones.
gynecology Study of the female reproductive organs, including the breasts.
gynecomastia Female-like breast enlargement in a male.
human chorionic gonadotropin Secreted by the placenta to sustain pregnancy.
hyaline membrane Acute lung disease in premature infants; respiratory distress disease syndrome of the newborn.
hydrocephalus Accumulation of fluid in the spaces of the brain; in infants, the condition causes enlargement of the head.
hymen Mucous membrane partially or completely covering the opening to the vagina.
hysterectomy Removal of the uterus.
hysterosalpingography X-ray recording of the uterus and fallopian tubes after injection of contrast material
hysteroscopy Visual examination (endoscopic) of the uterus.
in vitro fertilization Egg and sperm cells are combined outside the body in a laboratory dish (in vitro) to facilitate fertilization. Fertilized ova are then implanted into the uterus through the cervix.
intrauterine device (IUD) Device inserted by a physician into the uterus to prevent pregnancy.
involution Shrinking of the uterus (womb) to its normal size after childbirth.
labia Lips of the vagina.
lactation Production of milk
lactiferous ducts Tubes that carry milk throughout the breast.
lactogenesis Production of milk.
laparoscopy Visual examination of the abdominal cavity using an endoscope.
leiomyomas Benign tumors of the uterus; fibroids.
leucorrhea White to yellow discharge from the vagina.
lumen Cavity or channel with a tube or tubular organ, as a blood vessel, vagina, or fallopian tube.
luteinizing hormone (LH) Secreted by the pituitary gland to promote ovulation.
mammary Pertaining to the breast.
mammary papilla Nipple of the breast.
mammography X-ray recording of the breast.
mammoplasty Surgical repair of the breast (augmentation or reduction surgery).
mastectomy Removal (excision) of a breast.
mastitis Inflammation of a breast.
meconium aspiration syndrome Abnormal inhalation of meconium (first stools) by a fetus or newborn.
menarche Beginning of the first menstrual period (menses).
menometrorrhagia Excessive uterine bleeding during menstruation and also between menstrual periods.
menopause Gradual ending of menstruation.
menorrhagia Abnormally heavy or long menstrual periods.
menorrhea Menstruation; monthly discharge of blood from the lining of the uterus.
menstruation Monthly shedding of the lining of the uterus; menses.
metrorrhagia Bleeding between menstruations.
multigravida A woman who has been pregnant more than once.
multipara A woman who has delivered more than one viable infant.
myomectomy Removal of muscle tumors (fibroids) from the uterus.
myometrium Muscle layer of the uterus.
neonatal Newborn.
neonatology Study of newborns.
nullipara A woman who has never given birth to an infant.
obstetrics Branch of medicine dealing with the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth.
oligomenorrhea Scanty menstrual flow.
oogenesis Formation of ova (egg cells).
oophoritis Inflammation of an ovary.
orifice An opening.
ovarian Pertaining to an ovary.
ovarian carcinoma Malignant tumor of the ovary; ovarian adenocarcinoma.
ovarian cyst Sacs of fluid within or on the ovaries.
ovarian follicle Tiny sac in the ovary that contains an egg cell (ovum).
ovary One of two female reproductive organs (gonads) that produce egg cells and female hormones (estrogen and progesterone).
ovulation Release of an egg cell from an ovary.
ovum Egg cell; plural is ova.
oxytocia Rapid labor and childbirth.
oxytocin Secretion of the pituitary gland causing contraction of the uterus during labor and stimulation of milk secretion from the breast.
palpation Process of examining by using hands of fingers on the outside of the body.
Pap smear Microscopic examination of stained cells removed from the vagina and cervix.
parturition Act of giving birth.
pelvic inflammatory disease Inflammation and infection of organs in the pelvic regions; including salpingitis, oophoritis, endometriosis, and endocervicitis.
pelvic ultrasonography Recording images of sound waves as they bounce off the organs in the pelvic region.
pelvimetry Measurement of the dimensions of the female pelvis.
perineorrhaphy Suture of the perineum (following an episiotomy).
perineum Area between the anus and vagina in females and the area between the anus and scrotal sac in males.
pituitary gland Endocrine gland at the base of the brain.
placenta Vascular organ that develops in the uterine wall during pregnancy.
placenta previa Placental implantation over the cervical opening or in the lower region of the uterine wall.
preeclampsia Abnormal condition of pregnancy marked by high blood pressure, proteinuria, and edema.
pregnancy Condition of having a developing embryo and fetus in the body for about 40 weeks; gestation.
prenatal Pertaining to before birth.
primigravida A woman during her first pregnancy.
primipara A woman who has given birth to her first child.
primiparous Pertaining to a woman who has given birth to her first child.
progesterone Hormone secreted by the ovaries; maintains the lining of the uterus during pregnancy.
puberty Period during which secondary sex characteristics begin to develop and the ability to reproduce begins.
pyloric stenosis Narrowing of the opening of the stomach to the duodenum in a newborn.
pyosalpinx Pus in a fallopian tube.
respiratory distress syndrome Abnormal condition in infants when a protein (surfactant) is missing in the lung tissues. Infants have difficult respiratory function; hyaline membrane disease.
retroversion Tipping backward of an organ or a part of the body; as in the uterus.
salpingectomy Removal of a fallopian tube.
salpingitis Inflammation of a fallopian tube.
tubal ligation Tying off of the fallopian tubes to make a woman incapable of reproduction; sterilization of a female.
uterine serosa Outermost layer surrounding the uterus.
uterus Hollow, pear-shaped muscular female organ in which the embryo and fetus develop; womb.
vagina Muscular, mucosal tube extending from the uterus (cervix) to the exterior of the body.
vaginal orifice Opening of the vagina to the exterior of the body.
vaginitis Inflammation of the vagina.
vulva External female genitalia; labia, clitoris, and vaginal orifice.
vulvovaginitis Inflammation of the vulva and vagina.
zygote Stage in prenatal development from fertilization and implantation to two weeks.
Created by: mtathome
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