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immune system ap

chapter 21 immune system

which cells are involved in innate immunity natural killer cells, neutrophils, macrophages
what is the first line of defense in innate immunity mechanical and chemical barriers
15% of lymphocyte cells are natural killer cells
what is the most numerous type of phagocyte neutrophil
what tyoe of phagocytic monocyte migrates out of the bloodstream macrophage
B cells and T cells are Lymphocytes
cell-mediated immunity involes T Cells
Sublets of T cells that diagnose Aids CD4 and CD8
an antibody consists of 2 heavy and 2 light polypeptide chains
what is titer the amount of antibodies in a person's blood in response to a pathogen
the most abundant circulating antibody IgG
what are the specific cells that secrete antibodies plasma
The immune system protects against assaults on the body
External assaults microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, and protozoans
Internal assaults abnormal cells reproduce and form tumors that may become cancerous and spread
Self markers —molecules on the surface of human cells that are unique to an individual
Non–self markers —molecules on the surface of foreign or abnormal cells or particles and identify the particle as “non–self” to the immune system
Self-tolerance —the ability of our immune system to attack abnormal or foreign cells but spare our own normal cells
Two major categories of immune mechanisms —innate immunity and adaptive immunity
Innate immunity provides a general, nonspecific defense against anything that is not “self
Adaptive immunity acts as a specific defense against specific threatening agents
Primary cells for innate immunity —epithelial barrier cells, phagocytes (neutrophils, macrophages), and natural killer cells; chemicals used in innate immunity—complement and interferon
Primary types of cells for adaptive immunity lymphocytes called T cells and B cells
Cytokines —any of several kinds of chemicals released by cells to promote innate and adaptive immune responses (examples: interleukin, interferon, leukotriene)
Species resistance —genetic characteristics of an organism or species defends against pathogens
Mechanical and chemical barriers our first line of defense
mucous membranes The internal environment of the body is protected by a barrier formed by skin and
Lines of defense. three layers of protection. 1.barriers between the internal and external environment 2.involves the innate inflammatory response (including phagocytosis) 3. includes the adaptive immune responses and the innate defense offered by NK cells.
second line of defense inflamation
Inflammatory response —tissue damage elicits responses to counteract injury
Inflammation mediators include histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, and related compounds
Chemotactic factors substances that attract white blood cells to the area of infection in a process called chemotaxis
Signs of inflammation —heat, redness, pain, and swelling
Systemic inflammation —occurs from a body-wide inflammatory response
Phagocytosis —ingestion and destruction of microorganisms or other small particles by phagocytes
Diapedesis — process by which immune cells (neutrophils) squeeze themselves through the wall of a blood vessel to get to the site of injury/infection
Opsonization —mark foreign cells for destruction by phagocytes
Chemotaxis —chemical attraction of cells to the source of the chemical attractant
Neutrophil —most numerous type of phagocyte; usually first to arrive at site of injury; migrates out of bloodstream; kills bacteria; forms pus
Macrophages Phagocytic monocytes grow larger after migrating from bloodstream
Dendritic cell —type of macrophage with long branches or extensions. Examples are histiocytes in connective tissue, microglia in nervous system, and Kupffer cells
Natural killer cells —lymphocytes that kill tumor cells and cells infected by viruses
Method of killing cells —lysing cells by damaging plasma membranes
Interferon (INF) —lysing cells by damaging plasma membranes
Complement —group of enzymes that produce a cascade of reactions resulting in a variety of immune responses
 Opsonization —mark foreign cells for destruction by phagocytes
Two classes of lymphocytes B lymphocytes (B cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells)
cluster designation (CD) surface markers that the cells carry, for example, CD4 and CD8 cells
Lymphocytes flow through the bloodstream, become distributed in tissues, and return to the bloodstream in a ______ continuous recirculation
B-cell mechanisms —antibody-mediated immunity (humoral immunity); produce antibodies that attack pathogens
T cells attack attack pathogens more directly—classified as cell-mediated immunity (cellular immunity)
Activation of lymphocytes requires two stimuli: 1.a specific antigen 2.activating chemicals
Lymphocytes are densest where where they develop — in bone marrow, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and spleen
B cells develop in two stages: 1.Pre-B cells develop by a few months of age 2.occurs in lymph nodes and spleen—activation of B cell after it binds a specific antigen
B cells serve as ancestors to antibody-secreting plasma cells
Antibodies —proteins (immunoglobulins) secreted by activated B cell
An antibody molecule consists of two heavy and two light polypeptide chains; each molecule has two antigen-binding sites and two complement-binding sites
Five classes of antibodies M, G, A, E, and D M, G, A, E, and D
IgM —it is the predominant class produced after initial contact with an antigen
IgG makes up 75% of antibodies in the blood; predominant antibody of the secondary antibody response
IgA —major class of antibody in the mucous membranes of respiratory and GI systems and in saliva and tears
IgE —small amount; produces harmful effects such as allergies
IgD —small amount in blood; precise function unknown
Antibodies are classified into five major groups: immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin E (IgE), and immunoglobulin D (IgD). Notice that each IgM molecule has five Y : immunoglobulin M (IgM), immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin E (IgE), and immunoglobulin D (IgD). Notice that each IgM molecule has five Y
Antibodies resist disease first by recognizing foreign or abnormal substances
Epitopes bind to an antibody sites antigen-binding sites
Complement —a component of blood plasma consisting of several protein compounds
Complement kills foreign cells by cytolysis or apoptosis
Complement causes vasodilation, enhances phagocytosis, and other functions
Primary response initial encounter with a specific antigen triggers the formation and release of specific antibodies that reaches its peak in a few days
Secondary response —a later encounter with the same antigen triggers a much quicker response; B memory cells rapidly divide, producing more plasma cells and thus more antibodies
Clonal selection theory The body contains many diverse clones of cells, each committed by its genes to synthesize a different antibody
Pre-T cells develop into thymocytes while in thymus
A T cell is activated when an antigen binds to its receptors, causing it to divide repeatedly to form a clone of identical T cells
Effector T cells go to site where antigen entered, bind to antigens, and begin their attack
•Cytotoxic T cells —T cells release lymphotoxin to kill cells
Helper T cells (TH cells) —regulate the function of B cells, T cells, phagocytes, and other leukocytes
Suppressor T cells —regulatory T cells that suppress lymphocyte function, thus regulating immunity and promoting self-tolerance
•Innate immunity (inborn or inherited immunity) —genetic mechanisms put innate immune mechanisms in place during development in the womb
•Adaptive or acquired immunity resistance developed after birth; two types: natural and artificial
Natural immunity results from nondeliberate exposure to antigens
Artificial immunity results from deliberate exposure to antigens, called immunization
Active immunity —when the immune system responds to a harmful agent regardless of whether it was natural or artificial; lasts longer than passive
Passive immunity —developed when immunity from another individual is transferred to an individual who was not previously immune; it is temporary but provides immediate protection
Immune system regulated to some degree by the nervous and endocrine systems
Agents of the immune system include blood cells, skin cells, mucosal cells, brain cells, liver cells, and other types of cells and their secretions
Created by: 1098560911



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