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quiz 3 for A&P

chapters 15-17 in class

QuestionAnswer
def of atonomic nervous system a cmplex system of nerves that govern involuntary actions, works constantly with the somatic nervous system to regulate body organs and maintain normal internal functions
ANS: is it a convergent or a divergent circuit divergent
ANS: what partis the the fight or flight respobnse fight or flight, the sympathetic
ANS: during sympathetic system overide what body functions are reduced digestion, urination, defication,
ANS: what is the opposite of sympathetic parasympathetic system
are the ANS and the SNS both part of the central and peripheral nervous system yes
are ANS functions voluntary or involuntary involuntary
somatic nervous system: uses both ____ and ____ neurons to conduct stimulus information from a sensory receptor sensory and somatic motor
somatic nervous system: what do somatic motor neurons do they innervate skeletal muscle fibers, sends nerve impulses
does the ANS utilize both sensory and motor neurons yes
somatic nervous system: what do visceral sensory neurons do provide input to activate the ANS (use pre and post ganglionic fibers) blood vessels and cell visceral walls
somatic nervous system: type of control voluntary control from the central cortex imput from the basal nuclei (brainstem, cerebellum and SC)
somatic nervous system: number of neurons in pathways one neuron in pathways, somatic motor neuron axon extends from the CNS to the effector
somatic nervous system: are ganglia associated with the motor neuron no
somatic nervous system: what is the sensory imput general somatic senses, proprioception, special senses
somatic nervous system: are ganglia associated with the sensory imput yes, posterior root ganglia, sensory ganglia of the cranial nerve
somatic nervous system: what are the effector organs skeletal muscel fibers
somatic nervous system: what is the response to the effectors excitation only
somatic nervous system: what is the neurotransmitter released acetylcholine (ACh)
somatic nervous system: what are the properties of the axon; conduction fast or slow myelinated sheath, thick ;fast conduction
atonomic nervous system: what is the type of control involuntary control (from brainstem, hypothalamus, limbic system, and SC)
atonomic nervous system: what are the number of neurons in the pathway two neurons, preganglionic neuron in the CNS projects an axon to ganglionic neuron, ganglionic neuron projects a postganglionic axon to the effector
atonomic nervous system: what is the ganglia associated with the motor neurons autonomic ganglia, sympathetic trunk, prevertebral ganglia, ternminal ganglia
atonomic nervous system: what is the sensory imput general somatic and visceral senses
atonomic nervous system: what is the ganglia associated with sensory imput posterior root ganglia, sensory ganglia of the cranial nerves
atonomic nervous system: what are the effector organs cardiac muscle fibers, smooth muscle fibers, glands
atonomic nervous system: what is the response of the effector either excitation or inhibition of effector
atonomic nervous system: what neurotransmitter is released ACh, norepinephrine
where is norepinephrine made in the adrenal glands
atonomic nervous system: WHAT ARE the axon properties ; conduction fast or slow preganglionic are thin and myelinated, postganglionic are thinner unmyelinated, slow conduction
ANS: the preglanglionic cell body is housed where in the CNS
ANS: the preganglionic neuron synapses with what the autonomic ganglion
ANS: the autonomic ganglion is where ______ and ______ meet pre and post ganglion meet
ANS: the post ganglionic travels to where the effector
neuron chains: when does neuronal convergence occur when axons from numerous preganglionic cells synapse (converge) on a single ganglionic cell
neuron chains: when does neuronal divergence occur when axons from one preganglionic cell synapse on numerous ganglionic cells
divisions of the ANS: the ANS is subdivided into what 2 divisions parasympathetic and sympathetic
divisions of the ANS: how are the parasympathetic and sympatheitc divisions similar that they both use a preganglionic neuron and a ganglionic neuron to innervate muscles or glands, both contains the autonomic ganglia that house the ganglionic neurons, both are involuntary and concerned with body's internal function
divisions of the ANS: why are the parasympathetic and sympathetic NS so different they both do drastically different functions
parasympathetic division: aka craniosacral division; rest and digesting division
parasympathetic division: primary concerned with what conserving energy and replenishing nutrient stores
parasympathetic division: when is it most active when body is at rest or digesting a meal
parasympathetic division: participates along with the sympatheic division in maintaining what homeostasis
sympathetic division: aka thoracolumbar division; "fight or flight"
sympathetic division: primarily concerned with what preparing the body for emergencies
sympathetic division: increased sympathetic activity results in what increased alertness, metabolic activity necessary for these activities as well as in times of fear
parasympathetic division: where are the preganglionic neurons originate the brainstem or lateral grey matter of the s2-s4 SC regions (paur of places cranio sacral)
sympathetic division: where are the preganglionic neurons originate in the lateral horns of the T1-L2 SC regions (the thoralumbar division)
parasympathetic division: what CN are involved CN III (oculomotor), CN VII (facial), CN IX (glossopharyngeal), CN X (vagus)
ANS: what division the parasympathetic or sympathetic division is structually more simple the parasympathetic
ANS: in both PNS and SNS are the preganglionic axons myelinated or not; small or larger in diameter? yes, large
ANS: in both PNS and SNS are the postganglionic axons myelinated or not; small or larger? no; smaller
ANS: what ganglionic neuron is longer pre or post in the parasympathetic pre
ANS: what ganglionic neuron is longer pre or post in the sympathetic ; post
ANS: what division the parasympathetic or sympathetic exhibit more branching the sympathetic
ANS: where are ganglionic neurons found in the parasympathetic divsion either the terminal ganglia close to target organ, or intramural ganglia (with the wall of an organ)
ANS: where are ganglionic neurons found in the sympathetic divsion in the sympathetic trunk (paravertebral) ganglion or prevertebral)
ANS: what does the CN III do in regards to the parasympathetic system constricts pupils
ANS: what does the CN VII do in regards to the parasympathetic system tears, nasal secretions, saliva
ANS: what does the CN IX do in regards to the parasympathetic system parotid gland secretions
ANS: what does the CN X do in regards to the parasympathetic system stimulates most abdominal organs, wandering, mucus production, decreases HR, decreases diameter of airways, activity of digesting organs
ANS: what organs are innervated by the parasympathetic distal portion of the large intestines, most reproductive organs, bladder, distal part of teh ureter
ANS: parasympethic innervation increases or decreases smooth muscle activity in digestive tract increases
ANS: parasympethic innervation increases or decreases erection in Male and Female in digestive tract increases
ANS: when is parasympathetic most active when body must process nutrients and conserve energy
ANS: in the parasympathetic divsion lack of ____ in preganglionic axons prevent _______ seen in the sympathetic division extensive divergence; mass activation
ANS: effects of the parasympethic system are discrete or widespread discrete
ans: sympathetic- is it more or less complex then the parasympethtic more
ans: what divsion the parasympathetic or sympathetic has "mass activation" sympathetic
ANS: where arethe left and right sympathetic trunks located pearl necklace compased of bundles of axons the pearls aret eh trunk, immediately anterior to the paired spinal nerves, lacated lateral to the vertebral column, the p
ANS: sympathetic trunk- what are the pearls the ganglia tehy house the sympathetic ganglionic neuron cell bodies
ANS: sympathetic trunk- one sympathetic trynk ganglion is associated with a ___ spinal nerve
ANS: what is fight or flight in mass activation a large number of ganglionic neurons activate many effector organs which causes heightened sense of alertness due to stimulation of the reticular activation system
ANS: how are organs innervates through specific axon bundles called autonomic pexuses
ans: how does communication take place through neurotransmitters
what is the 6th sense balance
another name for balance is proprioception
def of sensation conscious awareness of incoming sensory info
a stimulus has to reach what part of the brain to result in a sesation of that stimulus the cerebral cortex
stimuli are detected by what receptors
what are the two classes of receptors general senses, special senses
receptors: def of general receptors temp, pain, touch, stretch, pressure
receptors: def of special senses gustation, olfaction, vision, equilibrium, audition
receptors: they monitor what both external and internal environmental conditions and conduct info about those stimuli to the CNS, make us aware of stimulus
what is the receptive field of the receptor the entire area through which the sensitive ends of the receptor cell are distributed
receptive field of the receptor: if the field is small, is precise localization and sensitivity easily or generally determined easily
receptive field of the receptor: if the field is large, is precise localization and sensitivity easily or generally determined gernal region of stimulis
what % of stimulus never reach our consiousness 99%
what is the sensory strip on the cortex the post central gyrus
def of tonic receptor receive and process stimuli continuously at a constant rate (banalce, pain)
def of phasic reception quickly detect a new stimulus or change in a stimulus that has already been applied (perfume ,watch)
general sense receptors: how are the distributed inthe body throughout the skin and organs
special sense receptors: how are the distributed inthe body housed within complex organs in the head
what are the 3 criteria used to describe receptors stimulus origin, receptor distribution, modality of stimulus,
based on the stimulus location what are the 3 types of receptors exteroceptors, interoceptors, proprioceptors
interoceptors: AKA visceroceptors
interoceptors: def detect stimulus in internal organs, stretch receptors in smooth muscle of organs, report on pressure chemical changes in visceral tissue and temp
interoceptors: are we aware of these receptors no, unless a smooth muscle stretches past a certain point
proprioceptors: where are the located muscles, tendons anf joints
proprioceptors: what do they detect body and limb movemetns, skeletal msucel contraction and stretch, and changes in joint capsule structures
proprioceptors: the awareness of body position and stae of contraction is sent to where the CNS
exteroceptors: detect what stimulus stimulus from the external environment
exteroceptors: where are these found on skin or Mucous membrane that open to outside of body
exteroceptors: ____ senses are considered these special
receptor distribution: general senses- arethe structually simple or complex simple
receptor distribution: general senses- def of somatic located with in body wall
receptor distribution: general senses- somatic- chemical respond to specific chemical
receptor distribution: general senses- somatic- def teperature respond to change in tep
receptor distribution: general senses- somatic- def of pain detect damage
receptor distribution: general senses- somatic- def of touch detect fine or light touch
receptor distribution: general senses- somatic- def of proprioception monitor changes in tesion of muscles, tendons and joints
receptor distribution: general senses- somatic- def of pressure detect mechanical vibration or stretch
receptor distribution: general senses- visceral- located where w/in the viscera
receptor distribution: general senses- visceral- def of chemicals responds to certain molecules
receptor distribution: general senses- visceral- defof temperature respond to heat or cold
receptor distribution: general senses- visceral- tempurate- do we have far more heat or cold receptors cold
receptor distribution: general senses- visceral- def of pressure responds to stretch
receptor distribution: special senses- are the structurally complex or simple complex
receptor distribution: special senses- where are they only located in the head
receptor distribution: special senses- def of gustatio n perceives taste
receptor distribution: special senses- def of olfaction perceives smell
receptor distribution: special senses- def of vision perceives object reflected or omitted light
receptor distribution: special senses- def of equilibrium maintains coordination and balance
receptor distribution: special senses- def of hearing perceives sounds
modality of stimulus: aka stimulatiing agent
modality of stimulus: def of chemoreceptors tehy detect specific molecules in external and internal environment including food, drink, body fluids, and inhaled air
modality of stimulus: def of thermoreceptors respond to heat change in temp
modality of stimulus: def of photoreceptors respond to light, color, and movement
modality of stimulus: def of mechanoreceptors respond to touch, pressure vibration and stretch
modality of stimulus: def of baroreceptors ; subtype of what respond to pressure; mechonorecpetors
modality of stimulus: def of nociceptors respond to pain
why does misinterpretation of pain source occur it occurs when sensory impulses from two different organs are conducted to the brina in a common pathway (ex heart is innervate to t1-t4 which can be referred to the medial side of the arm and pectoral region during myocardial infarction
what is the most numerous type of receptor tactile receptors
tactile receptors: def mechanoreceptors the react to touch, pressure and vibration stimuli
tactile receptors: where are they located in the dermis and subq tissue
tactile receptors: unencapsulated- are they simpel or complex simple
tactile receptors: unencapsulated- def of free nerve endings terminal branches of dendrites, not in CT
tactile receptors: unencapsulated- located where in free nerve endings, root hair plexuses, tactile discs
tactile receptors: unencapsulated- def of the ones in root hair plexuses form a weblike sheath around hair follicles, detect light touch when hair moves
tactile receptors: unencapsulated- def of ones in tactile discs also colled merkel discs, receptors of fine touche, toward surface of skin
tactile receptors: encapsulated-what are the types krause bulb, lamellated corpuscle, ruffini corpuscle, tactile corpuscles
tactile receptors: encapsulated- def of krause bulbs; where are they located mucous membrane of oral and nasal cavitiers vagina and ana l canal, detect light pressure
tactile receptors: encapsulated- def of lamellated corpuscles; detect deep pressure and high frequency vibrations
tactile receptors: encapsulated- def of ruffini corpuscles; detect both continuous depp pressure and distorion of the skin do not adapt, tonic
tactile receptors: encapsulated- def of tactile corpuscles ; where are they located phsic receptor for fine touch and texture; found in skin, eyelids, fingertips, genitals, nipples and palms
def of phantom pain sensation with body part after removal or amputation
phantom pain: why does it occur stimulation of a sensory neuron anywhere along pathway from teh removed limb contimues to propagate a signal which is inerpreted as coming from removed area
gustation: where are the receptors housed in specialized taste buds on the surface of the tongue
gustation: taste buds located on what surface the dorsal surface
gustation: what are the four types of papillae filiform, fungiform, vallate, foliate
def of papillae nipple like structure
gustation: papillae- def of filiform; location do not house taste buds have no sensory role; located on anterior 2/3 of the tongues ruface
gustation: papillae- def of fungiform; location contain only a few taste buds each; tip and sides of the tongue
gustation: papillae- def of vallate; location; shape aka circumvallate least numerous yet largest most taste buds houses within these; arranged in an inverted V shape on the posterior dorsal surface of the tongue
gustation: taste buds-what is a taste receptor called gustatory cells
gustation: taste buds- how long do they live 7-10 days
gustation: taste buds- when does the ability to taste start to decline after age 50
gustation: what is teh taste center of the brain the insula
gustation: the primary sensory neuron axons from gustatory cells pass from the tongue to where cranial nerve VII and IX
gustation: what are the five basic taste sensations salty, sweet, sour, bitter, umami
gustation: taste sensations- salty is the taste of what sodium
gustation: taste sensations- sweet is the taste of what sugar
gustation: taste sensations- sour is the taste of what H+
gustation: taste sensations- bitter is the taste of what guamine
gustation: taste sensations- umami is the taste of what meat, savory
olfaction: olfactory nerves- detect what; aka odors; olfactory receptor cells
olfaction: supporting cells- what do they do sandwhich the olfactory nerves andsustain and maintain the receptors
olfaction: basal cells- def function as a stem cell to replace olfactory epithelium componets
olfaction: how many different tastes can is recognize 50-60
olfaction: what cranial nerve is it associated with 1
olfaction: it helps give us a sense of what other special sense taste
vision: what do visual receptors do they detect lgiht, color, and movement
vision: what is the prupose of accessory structures of the eye provide superficial covering over its anterior exposed surface, prevent foreign objects from coming into contact with teh eye, keep the exposed surface moist clean and lubricated
vision: what keeps the exposed surface moist clean and lubricated lacrimal gland
vision:what provides superficial covering over its anterior exposed surface conjunctiva
vision: what prevents foreign objects from coming into contact with teh eye eyebrows, eyelasehes, eyelids
vision: lgiht comes through where ; the cornea
vision: the cornea continues to where the schlera
vision: the choroid continues to where iris
vision: is the cornea vascular or avascular a vascular
vision: the cornea gets is nutrients from where tears on teh outside
vision: what creats tears lacrimal gladns
vision: the posterios cavity is filled with what vitrerous humor
vision: the anterior cavity is filled with what aqueous humor
vision: the anterior chamber starts where and ends where iris to cornea
vision: the posterior chamber starts where and ends where behind the lens to the iris
vision: the internal space of the eye is subdivided by the ____ into 2 cavities lens
vision: anterior cavity is where space anteror to the lends and psterior to the cornea
vision: the anterior cavity is further divided into ___ by the _____ chambers; iris
vision: aqueous humor: what cavity contains this the anterior cavity
vision: aqueous humor: what does it do remove waste products and helps maintain the chemical environment within the anterior and posterior chabers of the eye
vision: aqueous humor: it secretes where and then flows where posterior chaber, through the posterior chamber around the lends down throug the pupil into the anterior chamber
vision: vitreous humor: located; def posterior cavity is posterior to lens; transparent gelatinous vitreous body which completely fills the space between the lnds and retina
vision: visual pathways: def each optic nerve conducts visual stimulus info and the optic chasm some axons decussate (criss-cross), the optic tract on each side then contains axons from both eyes, visual stimulus info is procedded by the thalamus the interpretated
vision: visual pathways: optic nerve cross where at the optic chasm
vision: eye structure: shape; is it hollow spherical; hollow
vision: eye structure: defof lens transparent structure with organelle-less cells filled with protein called crystallin, focuses incoming light onto retina
vision: eye structure: what are the 3 layers from the wall of the eye from superficial to deep fivrous tunic, vascular tunic, neural tunic
vision: eye structure: fibrous tunic- what structures are located here schlera, cornea
vision: eye structure: vascular tunic- what structures are located here iris, ciliary body, choroid
vision: eye structure: neural tunic- what structures are located here retina
vision: eye structure: fibrous tunic- def of sclera fibrous outer white layer of eye
vision: eye structure: fibrous tunic- cornea- shape; what cells line it convex to refract light; simple squamous epithelium
vision: eye structure: fibrous tunic- cornea: it continues with what and ajoins to what the conjunctiva; the sclera
vision: eye structure: fibrous tunic- cornea: exterior epithelial receives nutrients from where lacrimal gland secretions and axygen from environment
vision: eye structure: fibrous tunic- cornea: interior epithelial receives nutrients from where aqueous humor
vision: eye structure: vascular tunic- aka uvea
vision: eye structure: vascular tunic- def of choroid houses capillaries which supply reitna,cells filled with pigment which can absorb extra light
vision: eye structure: vascular tunic- def of ciliary body bonads of smooth muscle organized into a ring and suspensory ligaments that suport and give shape to the eye
vision: eye structure: vascular tunic- def of iris colored disc with pupil in center whic his controled by sphincter muscle
vision: eye structure: vascular tunic- iris- by what ANS division does it constrict; by what division does it dilate parasympathetic; sympathetic
vision: eye structure: neural tunic- def the nervous layer that receives lgiht on the nerve endings on CN II
Hearing: the ear is divided into what 3 anotomical regions external ear, middle ear, inner ear
Hearing: def of external ear; what structures are located here located mostly on teh outsideof body; auricle, external auditory canal, terminates at teh tympanic membrane
Hearing: def of middle ear; what structures are located here tympanic cavity, auditorytube, auditory ossicles
Hearing: def of innerear; what structures are located here semicircle canal cochlea
hearing: inner ear- movement of the inner ear fluid results in what the sansations of heaing and equilibrium or balance
hearing : the middle ear- the tympanic cavity maintains an open connnections with the atmosphere therough what the auditory tube
hearing : the middle ear- eustachiam tubes- opens into what the nasopharync from teh middle ear
hearing : the middle ear- eustachiam tubes- air moving through these tubees allows what the pressure to equalize on both sides of the tympanic membrane
hearing : the middle ear- the tumpanic cavity of the middle ear houses what the ossicles
hearing : the middle ear- what are the names for the 3 ossicles malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and the stapes (stirrup)
hearing : the middle ear- what is the air filled region called the tympanic cavity
hearing : the middle ear- what does teh bony wall that houses the oval and round window do they separate the middle ear from the inner ear
hearing : the inner ear- what is the bony labyrinth lacated with in the petrous portion of the temporal bone theses are tiny spaces or cavities
hearing : the inner ear- what is teh vestibular complex made of ; def the stibule and semicircular canals together equal this complex ; cotains 2 saclike membranous labyrinth arts, the utricle and saccule interconnected through a narrowpathway
hearing : the inner ear-the semicircular canals - what is the name for the membraneous labyrinth simicircular duct
hearing : the inner ear- the cochlea houses a membranous labrynth called what the cachlear duct
hearing : the inner ear- membranous labyrunth- def , what is housed her in teh bony labyrinth this membranelined fluid filled tubes and spaces ; receptors for equilibrium and heariing
equilibrium: rotation of the head causes wjat the endolymph with int the semicircular canal to push against the cupula covering the hair cells resulting in bending of the sterocilia and initiation of a nerve impulse
equilibrium: what 2 structures report on the postions of the head ans acceleration utricle and saccule
equilibrium: what reports directional movements in teh x,yand z plane the 3 semicircular canals
structures for hearing: where are they houses; what organ is responsible for hearing and where is it located w/in the cochlea in bother inner ears, they are snail shpaed chambers in the bonesorgan of corti (spiral organ) within the membraneous labyrinth
hearing: sound comes in an shakes ___ then goes into the fluid filled regin tympanic membrane
def of conduction defness we dont;s get vibrations
heairng: the louder the sound the _ the sound wave larger
hearing: tympanic membrane vibrations casue what movement by the auditory ossicles and sound waves are amplified
hearing: how are pressures waves generated when the stapes moves w/in the oval window
hearing: the sound waves displace one region of ____ basilar membrane
hearing: gains cells in teh spiral organs detect the sound wave movement anf convert the stilumlus to what a nerve impulse which travels to the cochlear nerve
exocrine: def secrete gladns produce secretions that released into ducts opening onto an epithelial surface (sweatm saliva)
endocrine: def ductless organs that secrete molecules directly into the blood stream (loacated in highly vascular regions so that products enter the bloodstream immediately)(hormones)
glands: do endocrine or exocrine lack ducts endocrine
endocrine: hormones act as what chemical messengers to influence cell activites elsewhere in teh bod
endocrine: hypothalamus produces what hormones oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone
endocrine: pituitary produces what hormones thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, ocytocin, growth hormone,
endocrine: hthyroid produces what hormones thyroid stimulating hormone
endocrine: adrenal glands produces what hormones corticosteroids
endocrine: parathyroid produces what hormones parathyroid hormone
endocrine: adrenal medulla produces what hormones norepinephrine
endocrine: pancreas produces what hormones insulin, glucagon
endocrine: pinealproduces what hormones melatonin
endocrine: thymus produces what hormones thymopeietin, thymosis
endocrine: kidneysproduces what hormones renin
endocrine: heart produces what hormones atriopeptin
endocrine: gonads produces what hormones ovaries estrogein,testes testoserone
Created by: jmkettel