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LOM Ch 5

LOM Ch 5 - Digestive System

perianal Pertaining to surrounding the anus
appendectomy Removal (resection) of the appendix
appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix
buccal mucosa The mucous membrane (mucosa) lining of the cheek
cecal Pertaining to the cecum
celiac Pertaining to the abdomen
cheliosis Abnormal condition of the lip
cholecystectomy Removal of the gallbladder
choledochotomy Incision of the common bile duct
colostomy New opening of the colon to the outside of the body
colonic pertaining to the colon
colonoscopy Process of visual examination of the colon
dentibuccal pertaining to the tooth and cheek
duodenal Pertaining to the duodemum (first part of the small intestine)
enterocolitis Inflammation of the small and large intestines
enterocolostomy New opening between the small and large intestines (literally, the middle of the intestines)
parenteral Pertaining to apart from the intestines (refers to delivery of substances anyway other than through the digestive tract)
esophageal Pertaining to the esophagus
facial pertaining to the face
gastrostomy New opening of the stomach to the outside of the body; this may be necessary to introduce food into the stomach
gingivitis Inflammation of the gums
hypoglossal Pertaining to underneath the tongue
ileostomy New opening of the ileum to the outside of the body
choledochojejunostomy Term used for surgical anastomosis (create of a new opening) between the common bile duct and the jejunum.
gastrojejunostomy Term for a new opening between the stomach the jejunum (a new opening is surgically created through a procedure called anastomosis).
labial Pertaining to the lip
laparoscopy Visual examination of the stomach
sublingual Pertaining to under the tongue submandibular
orthodontist Dentist specializing in straightening teeth
periodontist Dentist specializing in gums endodontist (root canal specialist)
oral Pertaining to the mouth
pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas
peritonitis Inflammation of the peritoneum
pharyngeal Pertaining to the throat
pyloroplasty Surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter
rectocele Hernia of the rectum sialadentitis
sigmoidoscopy Visual examination of the sigmoid
stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth
amylase Enzyme that digests starch
biliary Pertaining to bile
hyperbilirubinemia High levels of bilirubin (yellow/orange pigment) in the bloodstream - the cause of jaundice (icterus).
cholelithhaisis Abnormal condition of gall stones
achlorhydria Lack of hydrochloric acid
hyperglycemia High blood sugar
gycogenolysis Breakdown of glycogen to form sugar (glucose)
lipoma Tumor of fat (benign) cholecystolithiasis
protease Enzyme that digests protein
sialolith salivary (gland) stone
steatorrhea Discharge of fats (in feces)
choledocholithiasis Condition of stones in the common bile duct
postprandial Pertaining to after meals
absorption Passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
amino acids Small building blocks of protein (like links in a chain), released when proteins are digested.
anastomosis The surgical creation of a new opening between two tubular organs. (intestinal segments, blood vessels, fallopian tube)
anus Terminal end or opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
appendix Blind pouch hanging from the cecum. Located in the Right Lower quadrent of the abdoman
bile Digestive juce made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. it breaks up large fat gobules
bilirubin Pigment released by the liver with bile
bowel Intestine
canine teeth pointed, dog-like teeth next to the incisors
cecum First part of the large intestine
colon Large intestine
common bile duct Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum
defecation Elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the anus
deglutition Swallowing
dentin The main substance of the tooth (yellow and composed of bony tissue) that lies beneath the hard, outermost layer.
digestion Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
duodenum First part of the small intestine
elimination Act of removal of materials from the body.
emulsification The physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
enamel Hard outermost layer of a tooth
endodontist performs root canal therapy
enteroenterostomy New opening between two previously unconnected parts of the small intestine
enzyme A chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances
esophagus Tube connecting the throat tot he stomach
fatty acids Substances produced when fatss are digested
feces Solid waste; stool
gallbladder Small sac under the liver, stores bile
gastrointestinal tract the digestive tract; starts at the mouth and ends at the anus
gastrojejunostomy part of teh gastric bypass procedure
gluconeogenesis Process used by the liver to produce new sugar from proteins and fats when the body is in need.
glucose Simple sugar
glycogen Starch, glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in the liver cells
hepatoma or hepatocellular carcinoma Cancer that starts in the liver
hydrochloric acid Substances produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
ileitis Inflammation of the ileum, a portion of the small intestine
ileum Third part of the small intestine
incisor One of four front teeth in the dental arch
insulin Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas
jejunum Second part of the small intestine
lipase Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fat
liver Secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn-out red blood cells. Located in the RUQ of the abdomen
lower esophageal sphincter Ring of muscle between the esophagus and the stomach
mastication Chewing
mesentery A membrane that is part of the double fold of peritoneum (that stretches around the organs in the abdomen) - this lies in the middle of the intestines; holds intestines together and attaches them to the dorsal (back) body wall.
molar teeth The sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of teh dental arch
palate Roof of the mouth - the hard palate forms the anterior portion - soft palate is the muscular posterior portion
palatoplasty Procedure to repair cleft palate and cleft lip: repair of the cleft palate.
pancreas Organ under the stomach; produces insulin and enzymes
papillae Small elevations on the tongue
parotid gland Salivary gland within the check, just anterior to the ear
peristalsis Rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs
pharynx Throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose
portal vein Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
premolar teeth Fourth and fifth teeth, before the molars
proctologist One who specializes with the branch of medicine that deals with the anus and rectum
pulp Soft tissue within the teeth, containing nerves and blood vessels
pyloric sphincter Ring of muscle at the end of teh stomach, near the duodenum.
pylorus Distal region of the stomach, opening of the duodenum
rectum Last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus
rugae Irregular ridges (folds & creases)on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach.
saliva Digestive juice produced by the salivary glands
salivary glands Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands
sigmoid colon Fourth and last, S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum
sphincter Circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
triglycerides Fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acids and one part glycerol
uvula Soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate
villi microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
achalasia Failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax
anal fistula Abnormal tube-like pasageway near the anus
anorexia lack of appetite
aphthous stomatitis inflamation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers (sores)
ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
borborygmus Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the Gastrointestinal tract
cholelithiasis The abnormal condition in which stones are present in the gallbladder
cirrhosis chronic degenerative disease of the liver - may be associated with alcoholism
colonic polyps benign growths protruding from the mucous membrane of the colon
colorectal cancer adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum, or both
constipation Difficulty in passing stools
Crohns disease Chronic inflamation of the intestinal tract
dental caries Tooth decay
diarrhea Frequent passage of loose, watery stools
diverticulitis when fecal matter becomes trapped in diverticula
diverticulosis Abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall
dysentery painful, inflamed intestines commonly caused by bacterial infection
dysphagia Difficulty in swallowing
eructation Gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
esophageal cancer Malignant tumor of the esophagus
esophageal varices Swollen, tortuous (twisted) veins at the lower end of the esophagus
etiology Cause of an illness
flatus Gas expelled thru the anus
gastric cancer Malignant tumor of the stomach
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach
hematochezia Passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum
hemorrhoids swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region
hepatic stomatitis Inflamation of the mouth caused by infection with the herpesvirus
hiatal hernia Upper part of the stomach protrudes upward through the diaphragm
idiopathic cause of illness is unknown
ileus Loss of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines
inflammatory bowel disease Chronic inflammation of all or part of your digestive tract: both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's are considered inflammatory bowel disease.
inguinal hernia small loop of bowel protrudes through a weak lower abdominal muscle (groin area)
intussuception Telescoping of the intestines
irritable bowel syndrome Group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension that leads to abdominal pain and cramping, changes in bowel movements.
jaundice Yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia); also referred to as icterus
melena Black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
nausea Unpleasant sensation in the stomach associated with a tendency to vomit.
oral leukoplakia White plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth.
pancreatic cancer Malignant tumor of the pancreas
pancreatitis Inflamation of the pancreas
peptic ulcer Open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum
peridontal disease Inflamation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone
ulcerative colitis Chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers
viral hepatitis Inflamation of the liver caused by a virus (Hepatitis A, B, or C)
steatorrhea Discharge of fat in the feces due to improper digestion and malabsorption of fat; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter
omentum A part of the mesentery - hangs down like an apron over the intestines.
sign An objective finding - such as increase in body temperature, rash, sound heard on listening to the chest - signs can be perceived by the examiner.
symptom A subjective sensation or change in health - such as itching, pain, fatique, or nausea - as experienced by the patient (cannot be verified
Created by: mscardenas
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