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chptr 11 respiratory

respiratory system

carbon dioxide capn/o
functions of the respiratory system filtering, warming, humidifying air
functions of the respiratory system regulation of blood pH
functions of the respiratory system role in sound, speech, and olfaction (sense of smell).
spir/o respiration
inspiration inhalation
oxygen ox/o, ox/i
expiration exhalation
inspiration exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood
expiration/exhalation process of exchanging O2 and CO2 between the external and the lungs
pulmonologist respiratory specialist
upper respiratory tract pathway nose, pharynx, larynx
nas/o, rhin/o nose
pharyng/o pharynx, throat
laryng/o larynx, voicebox
lower respiratory tract pathway trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
trache/o trachea, windpipe
bronch/o, bronchi/o bronchial tree
pulmon/o, pneum/o, pneumon/o lungs
laryng/o is a combing form for the voicebox
a combing form for a structure in the lower respiratory system is trache/o
nose is... 2 nares(where air enters), nasal septum(divides the nares), cilia(nose hairs), nasal cavity
what is the paranasal sinuses frontal, maxillary, sphenoid and ethmoid cavities(these get there name from the bone in which they are located)
sin/o, sinus/o paranasal sinuses (nasal cavity is connected to this)
plural of sinus sinuses
salaping/o 2 meanings eustachian tubes, fallopian tubes
brachi/o arm not bronchial tubes
in the pharynx nasopahrynx, eustachian tubes, pharyngeal tonsils/adenoids, orophrynx, palatine tonsils, laryngopharynx
nasopharynx a part of the throat behind the nasal cavity
eustachian tubes (salping/0) tube that connects the ears to the throat
pharyngeal tonsils/adenoids (adenoid/o) protect against pathogens
oropharynx part of the throat posterior to the oral cavity
palatine tonsils (tonsill/o/) lymphatic tissue, named because they are continous witht the roof of the mouth
laryngopharynx named because it's proximty to the larynx
what makes up the larynx (laryng/o) voicebox epiglottis
epiglottis (epiglott/o) flap of cartliage at the opening of the larynx that closes access to the trachea during swallowing
vocal cords vibrate to produce speech
mediastinum mediastin/o space between lungs
carina trachea bifurcates (branches)
bronchi bronch/o, bronchi/o right and left
bronchioles bronchio/o smaller branches of bronchi
alveoli air sacs
lungs divided into lobes lob/o
pleura pleur/o each lung is enclosed in this double-folded serous membrane
diaphragm and intercostal muscles muscles reponsible for normal respiration
phren/o, diaphragm/o, diaphragmat/o diaphragm
combining form for pharyngeal tonsils adenoid/o
combing for for the double-folded serous membrane surrounding the lungs pleur/o
aphonia loss of ablity to make sounds
cheyne-stokes respiration deep, rapid breathing followed by a period of apnea
clubbing abnormal enlargement of the distal phalnges as a result of diminished oxygen in the blood
cyanosis lack of oxygen in blood seen as bluish or grayish dicoloration of skin, nailbeds and or lips
cyan blue
epistaxis nosebleeds
phon/e sound
pytsis spitting
capn/o carbon dioxide
hyper excessive
hypo deficient
hemoptysis coughing up blood
hypercapnia excessive carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperventilation abnormally increased breathing
hypoxemia deficient oxygen in the blood
hypoxia deficient oxygen in the tissue
pleurodynia pain in the chest caused by inflammation of the intercoastal muscles
pyrexia fever
rhinorrhea runny nose, disharge from nose
shortness of breath SOB breathlessness, air hunger
sputum mucous coughed up from the lungs and expectorated through the mouth
thoracodynia chest pain
dyspnea difficult and/or painful breathing
eupnea is god, normal breathing
apnea abnormal periodic cessation of breathing
bradypnea abnormally slow breathing
hyperpnea excessively deep breathing
typopnea extremely shallow breathing
orthopnea difficult breathing unless in an upright position
tachypnea rapid, shallow breathing
pnea breathing
orth/o straight
hiccup/hiccough/singulutus sound produced by the involuntary contraction of the diaphragm, followed by rapid closure of the glottis
stridor high-pitched inspiration sound from the larynx
wheezing whistling sound made during breathing
another name for nose bleed epistaxis
coryza common cold
croup acute viral infection or early childhood, marked by stridor caused by spasms of the larynx, trachea and bronchi
epiglottitis inflammation of the voicebox
ABG arterial blood gas
AP anteroposterior
CO2 carbon dioxide
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CXR chest X-Ray
O2 oxygen
SOB shortness of breath
TB tuberculosis
OSA obstructive sleep apnea
URI upper respiratory infection
ARF acute respiratory failure
CF cystic fibrosis
A auscultation & percussion
QFT quantiferon tb gold test
PPB postive pressure breathing
PFT pulmonary function test
FEV forced expiratory volume
CT computed tomography
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
CPAP continous positive ariway passage
obstructive sleep apnea OSA temporary lack of breathing that occurs during sleep
polyps of the nasal and vocal cord small tumor like growth that projects from a mucous membrane surface
rhinitis inflammation of the mucus membrane of the nose
rhinosalpinitis inflammation of the mucus membranes of the nose & eustachian tube
sinusitis inflammation of one or more of the paranasal sinus
tracheomalacia softening of the tissues of the trachea
tracheostenosis narrowing of the windpipe
upper respiratory infection URI inflammation of the upper respiratory tract
an acute viral infection of early childhood marked by stridor caused by spasms of the larynx, trachea, bronchi croup
small turmor like growth that projects from a mucous membrane surface polyps
asthma respiratory disorder characterized by recurring episodes of sudden episodic dyspnea
bronchospasm a sudden involuntary contraction of bronchi, as in an asthma attack
bronchietctasis chronic dilation of the bronchi
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD respiratory disorder characterized by a progressive and irreversible diminishment in spiratory and expiratory capacity of lungs
emphysema abnormal condition of the pulmonary system characterized by distension and destructive changes of the alveoli
acute respiratory failure ARF a sudden inability of the respiratory system to provide oxygen and or remove carbon dioxide from the blood
cystic fibrosis CF inherited disorder of the exocrine glands resulting in abnormal thick secretions of mucus that cause COPD
atelectasis collapse of lung or an entire lung
fail chest a condition in which multiple rib fractures cause instability in part of the chest in which the lung under the injured area contracts on inspiration and bulges out on expiration
hemothorax blood in the pleural space
pneumothorax air or gas in the pleural space causing the lung to collapse
pyothorax pus in the pleural cavity aka empyema
empyema pyothorax
pleural effusion abnormal accumulation of fluid in the intrapleural space
pleurisy inflammation of the parietal pleura of the lungs
pneumonia inflammation of the lungs caused by a variety of pathogens
pulmonary abscess localized accumulation of pus on the lungs
pulmonary edema accumulation of fluid in the lung tissue
tuberculosis TB chronic infectious disorder caused by an acid-fast bacillus
double pneumonia affected in both lungs
pus in the pleural cavity empyema
pus in the pleural cavity pyothorax
ascultation listening
an instrument commonly used to listen to sounds within the body, especially the chest stethoscope
bronchoscopy visual examination of the bronchial tubes
laryngoscopy endoscopic procedure used to visualize the interior of the larynx
mediastinoscopy visual examination of space between lungs
thoracoscopy visual exam of the chest cavity
spiromerty spirometer
peak flow meter instrument used in a pulmonary function test PFT to measure breathing capacity
tom/o slice
lung perfusion scan nuclear medicine test that produces an image of blood flow to the lungs used to detect pulmonary embolism
lung ventilation scan test using radiopharmaceuticals to produce a picture of how air is distributed in the lungs measure the ability of the lungs to take in air
arterial blood gases ABG blod test that measures the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
pulse oximetry test to measure oxygen in arterial blood in which a noninvasive cliplike device is attached to either the earlobe of the fingertip
mantoux skin test used to detect presence of tuberculosis antibodies
endoscopic procedure used to view the interior of the larynx laryngoscopy
used to view the structures contained within the space between the lungs medianstinscopy
ventilator breathing assistance PPB positive pressure breathing, CPAP continous positive airway pressure
delivery devices breathing assistance nasal canula, facemask/venturi, rebreathing mask
adenoidectomy excision of the pharyngeal tonsils, adenoids
laryngectomy excision of the voice box
tonsillectomy excision of the palatine tonsils
lobectomy removal of entire lobe of lung
pneumonectomy removal of entire lung
pulmonary resection excision of a portion or a lobe of the lung or the entire lung
bronchoplasty surgical repair of a bronchial defect
rhinoplasty surgical repair of the nose for healthcare or cosmetic reasons
septoplasty surgical repair of the wall between the nares
endotracheal intubation passage of a tube through the mouth into the trachea to ensure a patent (open) airway
thoracentesis/pleurocentesis aspiration of fluid from the pleural cavity
thoractomy incision of the chest
sinusotomy incision of a sinus
tracheotomy incision made into the trachea below the larynx to gain access to the airway
tracheaostomy opening through the neck into the trachea through which an indwelling tube may be inserted temporarily or permanently
or/o mouth
Created by: jenkilgore