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Exam 3

Latin America and the Caribbean

Latin America extends from _____ to ______. Rio Bravo (Rio Grande) to Tierra del Fuego (land of fire)
How many countries make up Latin America? 16
How big is Latin America? about 7,853,839 square miles
What two mountain ranges are located in Latin America? Andes Mountains and Sierra Madres
How long are the Andes mountains? 5,000 miles (north to south)
What is the highest elevation in the Andes mountain range? 20,000 ft.
What caused the formation of the Andes mountains? the converging Nazca and South American plate boundaries
What is the highest elevation of the Sierra Madres? up to 10,000 ft.
What are the three shields in Latin America? Brazilian Shield Patagonia Shield Guiana Shield
What are the two uplands areas in Latin America? Mexican Plateau Central-American Volcanic Axis
Where is the Mexican plateau located? central between Sierra Madre de Occidental and Oriental
What is the elevation of the Mexican plateau? from 4-10,000 ft
Where is the Central American Volcanic Axis located? on the western coast
What plate boundaries form the Central American Volcanic Axis? Caribbean and Cosco Plates
What is the highest mountain in Central America and the CAVA? How high is it? Volcan Tajumulco, 13,845 ft. high
Where is the Baja California Peninsula located? along Mexico's west coast, separates Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California
Where is the Isthmus of Panama located? connects Americas, separates Caribbean Sea and North Pacific Ocean
What are the three major River basins in Central America? Amazon Basin La Plata Basin Orinoco Basin
How large is the Amazon Basin? 2.4 million sq. miles, 8 countries, world's largest in volume and area
What percent of the Atlantic Ocean's freshwater discharge is in the Amazon Basin? 20%
How large is the La Plata Basin? 4.1 million sq. miles, 5 countries
The Orinoco Basin is what fraction of the size of the Amazon? 1/6
Does Central America have positive or negative growth since 1970s? negative
What is the RNI of Central America? 1.4
What country has the highest national population? Brazil
What fraction of Central America is urbanized since 1950s? 3/4
What is urban primacy? when the largest city is 3 to 4 times larger than the second largest
What is a megalopolis? a region characterized by high density and clustering of large urban places
What are two examples of megalopolises in CA? Mexico and Brazil
What are push factors for rural to urban migration? dispossession, poverty, uneven distribution of arable land, latifundia (large houses) vs. minifundia (small indigenous/peasant farms)
What were pull factors for rural to urban migration? urban lifestyle/status, jobs, education, healthcare
What is agrarian reform? redistribution from large landowners to peasantry. ex: Mexican Revolution 1910: replaced enconienda with ejido (communal landholding)
What are agricultural frontiers? settlement corresponds to availability of land/resources, infrastructure, ,roads, utilities, etc.
What is transnationalism? when people straddle livelihoods between two places, loosening of national boundaries ex: dual citizenship
What are remittances? money that migrants send home from elsewhere
What colonial settlements were found in CA? Spanish, Portuguese, African
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) line of demarcation separating Spanish and Portuguese colonial territories, granted by Papal decree, about 45 degrees longitude
Demographic transition 95% of native population decline, larger than European population, concentrated in Mexico (Aztec)/Andes (Incas), epidemics, invasion, slavery, deforestation
What is indigenous cultural survival based on today? defending cultural lands, securing political support
What is social structure shaped by? racial classification
What fraction of central America are Spanish speakers? 2/3
What fraction of central America Portuguese speakers? 1/3
What percent of Central America is Roman Catholic? 90%
What is syncretism? blending native, African, and European religions (Candomble)
What is neoliberalism? an approach based on neoclassical economics developed in the 1970s. The main points include open markets, cutting public spending, privatization, trade liberalization, keeping the government out.
trade bloc a regional intergovernmental agreement that to reduce barriers of trade between member states, ex: reducing tariffs, import quotas
Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR) (1991) customs union promoting free trade and fluid movement of goods, people, and currency, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, and associate members
Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) socialist states, favors social welfare, bartering and mutual economic aid, over free states
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (1994) trilateral trade bloc: US, Mexico, Canada, modeled on Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement; eliminated all US/Mexico trade tariffs
What are some criticisms of NAFTA? it benefits elites and northern economies while impacting workers and Mexico; lead to outsourcing of US manufacturing jobs, sweat shops, cheap labor
What agreement shifted Mexico's agriculture from small exporter to the 2nd largest importer of US agricultural products in 2004 the North American Free Trade Agreement
What changed Mexico's constitution allowing privatization of ejido (communal landholdings) NAFTA
What policies were implemented between the mid 19th and early 20th century? Monroe Doctrine, Roosevelt Corollary "Big Stick Policy", Panama Canal, Banana Wars
What policies were implemented in the 1930s and 40s? The Good Neighbor Policy (a soft approach)
When did the War on Drugs begin? early 20th century
What is altitudinal zonation? when the biodiversity and adaptations change according to elevation
What is the size of the Caribbean? about 1,063,000 square miles
The Caribbean extends from _____ to _____. Bahamas to French Guinea
How many islands are there in the Caribbean? over 7,000 (including reefs and cays)
What are the two main parts of the Caribbean? Greater and Lesser Antilles
What three bodies of water does the Caribbean separate? the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean
What tectonic plates is the Caribbean over? North American, South American and Caribbean
The Greater Antilles are made up of what islands? Cuba, Hispanoila (Haiti/Dominican Rep), Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Cayman Islands and smaller islands
What percent of the Caribbean is the Greater Antilles? 90%
What are the 3 mountain ranges located in the Greater Antilles? Cordillera Central Range Blue Mountains Sierra Maestra
How high is the highest peak in the Cordillera Central Range? Pico Duarte: about 10,000 ft. high (highest in Caribbean)
How high is the highest peak in the Blue Mountains? Blue Mountain Peak: 7,402 ft.
How high is the highest peak in the Sierra Maestra? Pico Turquino: 6,476 ft. high
The Haiti Earthquake: strike-slip fault: Caribbean vs. NA plates 7.0 Richter scale 316k dead 300k injured 1 mil homeless 250k homes destroyed 30k commercial buildings destroyed
What two island groups make up the Lesser Antilles? Windward Islands (south) Leeward Island (north)
The Lesser Antilles extend from _____ to _____. Virgin Islands to Trinidad
What is the main Volcanic Arc in the Lesser Antilles? Antillean Volcanic Arc
What is the lowest point of the Lesser Antilles? 131 ft. below, Lake Enriquillo (salt water lake)
What caused the capital city of Plymouth to be abandoned in 1995? Soufriere Hills Volcano
Who are the Island Caribs and where were they from? first people in the Caribbean, they migrated from the Orinoco Basin
What lifestyle did the men and women Caribs have? they were hunter-fisher-gatherers and agriculturists, the men hunted and fished, the women farmed and raise children
What were the root crops of the Caribs? Sugar cane and starch
What caused the Carib population to be reduced to only 6,000,000? Disease, invasion, and theft of lands by the Europeans
How big is the Carib Reserve? about 3,700 acres
Carib communal land tenure is threatened by: Dominica's weak economy peasant competition for resources state attempts for political integration population growth on the reserve pressure to buy land outside of reserve no collateral to secure bank loans
87% of the population is concentrated in what countries? Greater Antilles, Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana
what is the RNI of the Caribbean? 1.2
Is TFR increasing or decreasing? decreasing
What is the main cause of death in English speaking Caribbean? AIDS
Is Emigration rising or falling? rising (destinations: Europe, US)
Cultural hybridity colonialism and slavery initiated contact between and blending of European, African, and south Asian, Amerindian cultures, creolization
What is the most spoken language in the Caribbean? Spanish
What is the most prominent religion in the Caribbean? Christianity
Created by: acloud21
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