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cranial nerves 344

1-6

QuestionAnswer
Nerves Carry electrical messages ALL over the body.
Cranial Nerves Lead from the base of the brain to parts of the body they affect.
Sense RECEPTORS Carry messages related changes in the environment toward the spinal cord and brain.
1.) Olfactory SMELL
2.) Optic VISION
3.) Oculomotor EYE MOVEMENT
4.) Trochlear EYE MOVEMENT
5.) Trigeminal FOREHEAD and SCALP SENSATION; CHEEK SENSATION; CHEWING
6.)Abducens EYE MOVEMENT
Divisions CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (autonomic is part of the peripheral)
CNS (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) DIVISIONS Brain and Spinal Cord
PNS (PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) Cranial Nerves (12 pairs) Spinal Nerves (31 pairs) Autonomic Nerves (branches)
Autonomic Nerves Branches from PNS: PARASYMPATHETIC NERVES and SYMPATHETIC NERVES
Brainstem Pons Medulla Oblongata
Medulla Oblongata Connects the spinal cord with the rest of the brain. Contains three important vital centers that regulate internal activities of the body.
3 IMPORTANT VITAL CENTERS: 1.) Respiratory Center Controls Muscles of respiration in response to chemicals or other stimuli.
2.) Cardiac Center Slows the heart rate when the heart is beating too rapidly.
3.) Vasomotor Center Affects (constricts and dilates) the muscles in the walls of blood vessels, thus influencing blood pressure.
3 IMPORTANT VITAL CENTERS Regulate internal activities of the body.
Neurologic Disorders Congenital; Neoplastic (tumors); Degenerative, movement, and seizure; Traumatic; Infectious (meningitis and encephalitis); Vascular (stroke)
HYDROCEPHALUS (congenital disorder) Abnormal amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Can also occur in adults through tumors or infections.
Spina Bifida (congenital disorder) Congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts (neuro tube defect)
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) (Degenerative, movement, and seizure Disorder) Brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration (dementia), personality changes, and impairment of daily functioning.
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) (Degenerative, movement, and seizure Disorder) Degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem.
Epilepsy (Degenerative, movement, and seizure Disorder) Chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity.
Huntington Disease (Degenerative, movement, and seizure Disorder) Hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) (Degenerative, movement, and seizure Disorder) Destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue.
Myasthenia Gravis (MG) (Degenerative, movement, and seizure Disorder) Autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles
Palsy (Degenerative, movement, and seizure Disorder) Paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function) e.g. Cerebral Palsy; Bells Palsy
Parkinson Disease (Degenerative, movement, and seizure Disorder) Degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occurring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of movement.
Tourette Syndrome (Degenerative, movement, and seizure Disorder) Involuntary, spasmodic, twitching movements; uncontrollable vocal sounds; and inappropriate words.
Herpes Zoster (Shingles) (Infectious disorders) Viral infection affecting peripheral nerves.
Meningitis (Infectious disorders) Inflammation of the meninges; leptomeningitis.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); Encephalopathy (Infectious disorders) Brain disease and dementia occurring with AIDS.
Brain Tumor (neoplastic disorder) Abnormal growth of brain tissue and meninges.
Cerebral Concussion (traumatic disorders) Temporary brain dysfunction (brief loss of consciousness) after injury, usually clearing within 24 hours.
Cerebral Contusion (traumatic disorders) Bruising of brain tissue as a result of direct trauma to the head; neurologic deficits persist longer than 24 hours.
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (VASCULAR disorders) Disruption in the normal blood supply to the brain; stroke. (cerebral infarction)
3 TYPES OF STROKES 1.) THROMBOTIC 2.) EMBOLIC 3.) HEMORRHAGIC
BLOOD CLOT THROMBUS
BLOOD CLOT IN THE ARTERY THAT LEADS TO THE BRAIN; RESULTING IN A BLOCKAGE IN THE VESSEL? THROMBOTIC
DISLODGED BLOT CLOT TRAVELS TO CEREBRAL ARTERIES AND BLOCKS SMALL VESSEL? EMBOLIC
A BLOOD VESSEL, SUCH AS THE CEREBRAL ARTERY, BREAKS AND BLEEDING OCCURS? HEMORRHAGIC
MIGRAINE (VASCULAR disorders) Severe, recurring, unilateral, vascular headache. (aura)
AURA Peculiar sensations that precede the onset of illness. sensitivity to light (photophobia) " " sound flashes of light before the eyes partial blindness
Created by: 100000682368717