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Rubenstein vocab

rubenstein vocab

QuestionAnswer
Acid deposition Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid - and return to Earth's surface.
Acid precipitation conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog.
Active solar energy systems Solar energy system that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or flat-plate collectors.
Agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Agricultural density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Agricultural revolution The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
Agriculture The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Air pollution Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air.
Animate power Power suplied by people or animals
Animism Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Annexation Legally adding land area to a city in the United States
Apartheid Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Arithmetic Density The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Autonomous religion A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
Balance of power Condition of roughly equal strength between opposing countries or alliances of countries.
Balkanization Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.
Balkanized A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-sanding antagonisms toward each other.
Base line An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Basic Industries Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) Amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste: a measure of water pollution.
Biodiversity The number of species within a specific habitat.
Biomass Fuel Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste.
Blockbusting A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.
Boundary Invisible Line that marks the extent of a state's territory.
Brain Drain Large-scale emigration by talented people.
Branch (of a religion) A large and fundamental division within a religion.
Break-of-bulk point A location where tranfer is possible form one mode of transportation ot another.
Breeder reactor A nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium.
British Received Pronunciation (BRP) The dialect of English associated with upper-class Britons living in the lOndon area and now considered standard in the United Kingdom.
Bulk-gaining Industry An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.
Bulk-reducing industry An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
Business Services Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses.
Cartography The science of making maps.
Caste The class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned according to religious law.
Census Tract An area delineated by the U.S Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
Census A complete enumeration of a population.
Central Business District (CBD) The area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered.
Central place theory Larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are wiling to travel farther.
central Place A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
Centripetal Force An attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.
Cereal grain A grass yielding grain for food.
Chaff Husks of grain separated from the seed by threshing.
Chain Migration Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the nationality previously migrated there.
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers.
Circulation Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.
City-State A sovereign state comprising a city and it immediate hinterland.
Clustered Rural Settlement A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
Colonialism Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Colony A territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent.
Combine A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field.
Commercial Agriculture Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate product for sale off the farm.
Compact State A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly.
Concentration The spread of something over a given area.
Concentric Zone Model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Connection Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
Conservation The sustainable use and management of a natural resource, through consuming at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced.
Consumer Services Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
Contagious Diffusion The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
Cosmogony A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
Cottage industry
Created by: booreader