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World Cultures Final

QuestionAnswer
Middle Kingdom refers to China because the people believed that their land stood between heaven and earth.
Ethnocentrism belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
Xenophobia fear or hatred of foreigners or strangers
Barbarians people without manners or civilized customs
Confucius Chinese philosopher, administrator, and moralist. His social and moral teachings, collected in the Analects , tried to replace former religious observances
Mencius Chinese philosopher, who studied Confucianism. He later refined many of the ideas and spread them across China.
Hierarchy a group organized by rank
Daoism It is a philosophy which is founded by Laozi. Daoism emphasizes living in harmony with nature
Legalism strict conformity to the letter of the law rather than its spirit
Great Wall of China A huge wall that is over 6000 miles, which was built to keep the Mongolians in the north out of China.
Magistrate official with power to administer the law
Civil Service System the practice of hiring goverment workers on basis of open competitve examinations and merit
Scholar Bureaucrat were civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day
Dynasties Line of rulers from the same family
Mandate of Heaven a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
East India Tea Company the trading company that colonized India until the sepoy rebellion
Imperialism a policy of extending your rule over foreign countries
Mercantilism an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Boxers Patriotic Chinese militant group who killed foreigners and Chinese Christians
Cixi when the emperor died in 1861 she took the throne until 1908, spent money on many luxury things, contributed to downfall of Manchu dynasty
Pu Yi chinese emperor who inherits thrown during childhood, last emperor of China
Extraterritoriality the right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation.
Coolies an offensive name for an unskilled Asian railroad laborer
Sun Yat sen
Yuan Shikai Chinese general and president of the Chinese Republic (1912
Republic of China the new democratic government after 1911 revolution, Sun Yat Sen president at first, then Yuan Shikai
Capitalism an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production
Mao Zedong This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry and women throughout his life.
Long March The fight/chase of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army (GMD) under orders from Chiang Kai
CCP Chinese Communist Party
Red Army the CCP's communist army
Democratic Republic A republic in which representatives elected by the people make and enforce laws and policies.
GMD China's Nationalist party. It was formed from Sun Yat
Sun Yet-sen's 3 principles nationalism, democracy, social welfare
Raj Rule (lit. "reign" in Hindi)
European Age of Exploration (late 1400-1700's) The Europeans would call this the Age of Exploration however this is a very geocentric term considering Indians had been sailing and exploring long before.
Queen Elizabeth I Elizabeth gave the East India Tea Co. a royal charter allowing them to make treaties, and own their own army. They also had a monopoly giving them great power.
British East India Tea Co. The company colonized India for England but their rule was brutal and after the Sepoy Mutiny they were stripped of their powers and replaced by the Civil Service System.
Imperialism The policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies.
Colonization The movement of settlers and their culture to a new country
Mercantilism An economic theory that believes colonies (India) should benefit the mother country (Britain)
Robert Clive This man was a British soldier who established the military and political power of the East India Company in Indial. He secured India, and it's wealth for the British crown.
Macauley A British political genious who told Parliment not to rule India with an iron fist, but to respect them and their culture.
Sepoy An indian soldier working for the British
Sepoy Mutiny 1857: when the East India Tea company tried to force the sepoys to use bullets (coated in pork or beef fat) that required them to bite off the coating they were outraged at the complete disrespect the Brtish had for the Indians so they revolted.
Nan Sahib He was an Indian leader during the Sepoy Mutiny, a brave hero to the Indians even though he fled India and disappeared. (Beginning of Indian Nationalism)
Queen Victoria The "Empress of India" and the Queen of Great Britain stripped East India Tea Co. of their powers after the mutiny.
Jewel in the Crown Name given to India, because it was the most valuable of all British colonies
Civil Service System The government that took the place of the East India Tea Co.. Exams took place in London to give educated people of Britain and India a "fair" chance to work in the system. However this required a lot of money as well as a good education. The system was r
Viceroy A person appointed by a higher authority to govern a province
Kipling English author of novels and poetry who was born in India. Author of "The White Man's Burden" as well as "The Jungle Book"
White Man's Burden The idea that Britain had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized such as India. Also a poem written by Rudyard Kipling.
Nationalism The aspiration for national independence felt by the Indian people under the British Raj
Regionalism Loyalty to a particular region.
Self Determination The belief that people in a country should have the ability to choose their own government.
Indian National Congress Indian nationalist group formed to work for rights and power for Indians under British rule.
Nehru Indian leader with Gandhi in the struggle for Nationalism.
Gandhi Indian nationalist and leader that started the practice of nonviolent disobedience that forced Great Britain to grant independence to India.
Jinnah An Indian Muslim politician, and leader of the Muslim League. He founded Pakistan and served as the first Governor.
Rowlatt Act The law passed in 1919 that allowed the British government to imprison anti
Massacre at Amritsar A massacre lead by General Dyer and the British army in which they fired mercilessly into a non
Civil Disobedience Nonviolent refusal to obey an unjust law (or government), intended to influence government policy.
Satyagraha The form of nonviolent resistance initiated in India by Gandhi in order to oppose British rule and encourage political reforms.
Boycott To join others in refusing to deal with a person or group.
Homespun Movement Movement begun by Gandhi to boycott British goods by making cloth at home
Harijan "Children of God" Gandhi's term for the untouchables.
Partition The 1947 division of the British colony of India into nations of India and Pakistan.
Peking Man a homo erectus skeleton about 1.7 million years old Found in Northern China near Beijeing; shows that people settled there more than 500,000 years ago.
Middle Kingdom refers to China because the people believed that their land stood between heaven and earth.
Marco Polo Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
Han Chinese largest ethnic group of China (other ethnic groups include Hui minority)
1st Chinese Dynasty Shang
2nd Chinese Dynasty Chou
3rd Chinese Dynasty Ch'in
4th Chinese Dynasty Han
5th 10th Chinese Dynasty
11th Chinese Dynasty Sui
12th Chinese Dynasty T'ang
13th 17th Chinese Dynasty
18th Chinese Dynasty Sung
19th Chinese Dynasty Yuan
20th Chinese Dynasty Ming
21st Chinese Dynasty Ch'ing (Manchus)
The Grand Canal the oldest and longest man
The Great Wall a long series of stone walls built by Shi Huangdi (Qin) to defend China against nomadic invaders.
Dynasty a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family
Yellow River Civilizations The Yellow River is "the cradle of Chinese civilization", it was the birthplace of ancient Chinese civilizations and was the most prosperous region in early Chinese history.
Calligraphy chinese art of writing
Pictograph a picture or drawing representing words or ideas
Ideograph a sign or symbol, used in such writing systems as those of China or Japan, that directly represents a concept, idea, or thing rather than a word or set of words for it
Philosophy a system of beliefs and values, a way to live your life
Religion a set of beliefs, values, and practices that binds believers in a relationship with a divine power, and with other believers.
Ancestor Worship the veneration of ancestors whose spirits are frequently held to possess the power to influence the affairs of the living, and in China ancestors where honored and considered very wise
Confucianism system of beliefs introduced by the Chinese philosopher Confucius that taught that people needed to have a sense of duty to their family and community in order to bring peace to society. It also encouraged knowledge, hierarchy, and decorum.
Confucius a Chinese philosopher who believed that social order, harmony and good government could be organized around 5 basic relationships
Mencius a major follower of Confucius who became a philosopher as well; stressed that humans were essentially good and that governments required the consent of their subjects.
Analects a collection of the teachings of Confucius
Daoism a philosophy based on the ideas of the Chinese thinker Laozi, who taught that people should be guided by a universal force called the Dao (Way)
Legalism strict conformity to the letter of the law rather than its spirit
Hierarchy a group organized by rank
5 Basic Relationships 1: ruler to subject 2: parent to child 3: husband to wife 4: older sibling to younger sibling 5: friend to friend
Kow Tow a prostration, a sign of respect
Extended Family a family that includes, in addition to the parents and their children, other members such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins
Foot Binding the physical binding of Chinese women's feet to stunt their growth; produced pain and restricted movement; helped to confine women to the household; showed high social status of women; attractive to men
"The Lotus" the Chinese expression for the tiny foot
Mandate of Heaven a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Civil Service System the practice of hiring goverment workers on basis of open competitve examinations and merit, have to prove themselves (no advantages through family ties)
Examination System series of exams to determine who is qualified to be in the scholar
Bureaucrat government official
The Silk Road The route that traders used between Europe and China for trading purposes
List factors which contributed to China's geographic isolation throughout much of China's history? the Himalayas, the Kunlun, the Tian Shan, the Gobi desert, the Tibetan plateau, the East and South China Sea's, the yellow sea, and the pacific ocean.
Was China truly isolated throughout history? List evidence which reflects that China wasn't 100% isolated from other cultures. -The Silk Roads -The Ch'ing (Manchus) dynasty
What do you believe were the 3 most important factors which contributed to China being the oldest living continuous civilization? geography, writing, and philosophies. Writing and philosophies helped them become smart and prosperous, and civilization doesn't end when it is prosperous unless it is invaded. However the Chinese had geography that for the most part kept out invaders.
What exists to help us uncover life in ancient China? There are things like fossils and artifacts, but also thier writings. Because there were so many types of Chinese (the language) writing was the "lingua franca". Therefore the Chinese had to write everything.
Created by: sheepadoodle