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World History SOL


archaeologist A scientist who studies past cultures by examining fossils and artifacts. Use carbon dating.
Hebrews Settled in the area between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River Valley.
Phonecians Settled along the Mediterranean Sea and became great shipbuilders and traders. They developed the world's first alphabet.
Kush Located in Africa along the upper (southern) portion of the Nile River. Became trading partners with Eyptians.
Egyptian Civilization - (Africa) NILE RIVER
Mesopotamian Civilization - (Southwest Asia) TIGRIS & EUPHRATES RIVERS
Indian Civilization - (South Asia) INDUS RIVER
Chinese Civilization - (East Asia) HUANG HE (yellow) RIVER
Egypt Hieroglyphics
sumer cuneiform
Judaism * Abraham, Moses, Jesus *Torah (Old Testament) * Ten Commandments * Belief in one god ( monotheistic)
Persian Empire * Very tolerant to people they conquered. * Developed an intricate bureaucracy in their empire *Developed a religion called "Zoroastrianism" *Built roads to connect the cities and trade routes *RITZ - Roads, Imperial Democracy, Tolerance, Zoraosterism
What protected India from outside invasion? The Himalaya Mountains, Hindu Kush Mountains, and Indian Ocean
What did the mountain passes in the Hindu Kush allow the Indo-Aryans to do? It aloud them to invade the Indian Subcontinent.
What two rivers were very imporant to the early Indian civilization? The Indus and Ganges Rivers
Indo-Aryans *Agressive migrators who first started the Indian civilization in the Indus River Valley. * Set up very rigid caste system based on occupation.
Golden Age of Classical India Highest point of achievment in India's history. Made significant contributions in math, new textiles, and literature.
Hinduism *Originated in India *believe in many forms of one major god (delty). * Believe in reincarnation (constant rebirth of one's soul)
Caste system Is the foundation of Hinduism. Rights and privaleges based on occupation.
Karma Every action and thought will come back to either help you or hurt you when reincarnated.
Vedas and upanishads are the sacred writings of Hinduism.
Buddhism Originated in India to China
Asoka and Buddhist missionaries Spread Buddhism from India to china and throughout Asia.
Siddhartha Guatama Founder of Buddhism. Known as Buddha (Enlightened One)
Four Noble Truths Suffering, suffering, and more suffering!
Eightfold Path to Enlightment Escape the suffering!
Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi Built the Great Wall of China to keep out invaders from the North.
Silk Road Trade route that connected China with cultures as far away as Rome.
Confucianism Philosophy based on the beliefs of Confucius.
What are the basic beliefs of Confucius? *Humans are naturally good *You should respect and follow your elders *Your ancestors should be worshipped as they help provide you guidance. *Education is strongly emphasized *Being polite is very important *Yin and Yang
Taoism *Yin and Yang represent opposite forces in nature *you should seek harmony with nature. *you should be humble and modest *you should lead a simple life and seek inner peace
Greek Mythology * polytheistic *important deities (gods) included Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Athens, Aphrodite * Myths gave the Greeks explantations to questions they couldn't answer.
Peloponnesian War..who VS. who? Athens and their allies (Delian League) VS. Sparts and their allies (Peloponnesian League)
What was the result of the Peloponnesian War? Sparta defeated the Athens, process is slowed, Greece enters a low point in history.
Why and when did the Peloponnesian War take place? Athens and Sparta were fighting for control and dominance of the Greek world. Took place 431BC - 404BC.
Persian Wars... who VS. who? The Greek city-states VS. the Persian Empire
Why and when did the Persian Wars take place? Control of the Agean and Mediterranean Seas and the economic advantages that go along with controling the seas. Took place 499 BC- 449 BC.
What was the result of the Persian Wars? Greece won. Athens emerge as the dominant power after the Delian League.
Delian League an alliance between Athens and other Greek city-states (not Sparta) that made Athens weathly and powerful
Pericles leader of Athens.
Homer Writer of Illiad and Odyssey
Herodotus Father of history
Philosophers of Greece Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Phillip II King of Macedon. Conquered most of Greece before dying.
Alexander the Great *336BC-323BC *Son of Phillip II *Finished what his father started * Became the most powerful man in the world at the time *His empire stretched from Greece to Egypt and to the western border of India * Spread "Hellenistic" culture
Rome Located in the Italian Peninsula, in the center of the Mediterranean Basin.
The Alps Noth of Rome, provided protection
Mediterranean Sea Provided trade access and protection for Rome
Roman Mythology *Influenced by the Greek polytheistic religion.
Important Roman Gods Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Diana, Minerva, and Venus.
Punic Wars..who VS. who? Rome VS. Carthage
why and when did the Punic Wars take place? Both Rome and Carthage were seeking control of the Mediterranean region. Control would bring wealth and dominance throughout the Mediterranean.
Results of the Punic Wars? Rome wins. Rome was able to expand the Empire throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe including the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean. In Western Europe, the Empire spread all the way to Gaul (France) and the British Isles.
The Fall of the Roman Empire faced Economic, Military, Political problems, and invasions.
What was Byzantium renamed? CONSTANTINOPLE
Justinian He reconquered lands that the Roman Empire previously owned but had lost during the decline of the Empire.He was responsible for codifying Roman law into "Justinian's Code". He,also improved the wealth and power of the Byzantine Empire by expanding trade.
Western Church in the Byzantine Empire * centered in Rome *Farther away from the seat of power once Constantinople became the capital *Latin is spoken in this liturgy (church services)
Eastern Church in the Byzantine Empire *centered in Constantinople *close to the seat of power once Constatinople became the capital *Greek is spoken in the liturgy ( church services)
major cities of Islam Mecca and Medina
Mecca and Medina both located on the Arabian Peninsula
Islam God Allah
Holy book of Islam koran(Quran)
Five Pillars of Islam (moral code of behavior for Muslims) 1. Declaration of Faith 2.Daily Prayer (pray 5 times a day faceing Mecca) 3.Alms for the Poor (give charity to the poor) 4.Fast During Ramadan (holy month) 5.Hajj
Spread of Islam Spread to Asia and Africa, and into Spain. It spread quickly because all Muslims spoke a common language (Arabic- the language of the Koran)
What did the Schism between the Sunni and Shi'a result in? The split of Islam into two halves.
Who did the pope crown Emperor of the Holy Rome Empire in 800 AD? CHARLEMAGNE
William the Conquerer leader of the conquest of the Nomads, he united most of England.
King John signed the Magna Carta.
Magna Carta Limited the kings power and gave more power to the people.
The Hundred Year's War England VS. France. Helped define England as a country, as well as France.
Ferdinand and Isabella unified and expelled the Muslims Moore in Spain.
King Phillip II helped expand the Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere.
Hugh Capet Established the French throne in Paris. His dynasty eventually controlled most of France.
Joan of Arc Helped unite the people of France.
Ivan the Great defeated the Mongols, centralized power in Russia, and significantly increased the size of Russia as a nation.
Orthodox Christianity The church influenced the unification of Russia.
The crusades attempt by Christian armies to recapture the holy lands.
Mongol Armies Created an Empire and invaded Russia, China, and Muslim states in Southwest Asia, destroying everything in their path.
Effects of the Crusades * weakened the Pope and Nobles, made Kings power stronger *jump-started trade throughout the Mediterranean area and the Middle East *Lasting bitterness among Jews, Christians, and Muslims *Weakened the Byzantine Empire
Constantinople *conquered by Ottoman Turks in 1453, ending the Byzantine Empire * became the capital of the Ottoman Empire
Impact of the Black Death *drastic decline in population *trade slowed down drastically * Labor (work force) becomes less available. *Feudalism will come to an end *Church becomes less influential
Maritime Routes Across the Indian Ocean
Trans-Saharan Trade Routes that cross the Sahara Desert
Northern European Trade routes across Northern Europe to the Black Sea.
Western European Trade routes through seas and rivers throughout Western Europe.
South China Sea Trade routes throughout the South China Sea and Southeast Asia.
Japan (Geography) *mountainous archipalego with four main islands *located just east if China and very near Korea
Sea of Japan located between Japan and China
How did China influence Japan? *writing *architecture *Buddhism spread from China to Japan
Shintoism RELIGION ONLY FOUND IN JAPAN *importance of natural features, forces of nature, and ancestors. * coexisted with Buddhism in Japan
Axum Located in EAstern Africa near the Ethipoian highlands and the Nile River. *Christianity was the major religion
Western African Kingdoms 3 EMPIRES: Ghana, Mali, Songhai (all located near the Niger River and close to the Sahara Desert) *Traded their gold for salt in Trans-Saharan *Islam was dominant religion
Timbuktu Was major center for learning and trading in West Africa.
Zimbabwe *Located along the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers and the coast of the Indian Ocean *city of "Great Zimbabwe" was the capital
Mayan Civilization *located in the rainforests of Mexico and Central Mexico *Represented by Chichen Itza *Divided their civilizations into city-states ruled by a king *Economy was based on Agriculture and trade *Polytheistic, built pyramids to honor their gods
Aztec Civilization *Located in the hot and dry plains of Central Mexico *Represented by Tenochtitlan *ruled by an Emperor *Economy based on agriculture *Polytheistic religion based on warfare *built pyramids to honor their gods
Incan Civilization *Located in the Andes Mountains of South America *Represented by Machu Picchu *ruled by an Emperor *Economy was based on high altitude and agriculture *Polytheistic religion *They built an intricate road system throughout their empire
Contributions of the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas *Developed Calender Systems *advanced mathematical techniques allowed them to be excellent builders *Developed sophisticated writing systems
Major Italian Cities- Florence, Genoa, and Venice *Had access to trade routes connecting Europe with markets in the Middle East *Served as trading centers for the distribution of goods to Northern Europe * were initially independent city-states governed as republics
Machiavelli's The Prince *An early modern treatise on government *supported absolute power of the ruler *maintains that the end justifies the means *advises that one should do good if possible, but do evil when neccesary
Medieval Art focused on the church and salvation
Renaissance Art focused on individuals and worldly matters in addition to Christianity
Petrarch Sonnets and humanist scholarship
Humanism *celebrated the individual *stimulated the study of Greek and Roman literature and culture *was supported by wealthy patrons
Michaelangelo selling of the Sistine Chapel and David
Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa and Last Supper
pictograms earliest form of writing
Mandate of Heaven the divine right to rule, (China)
Emperor Chin A.K.A. Shi Huangdi, unified China
Lao Tzu Founder of Daoism/Taoism
Athens direct democracy, responsibilities of citizens, Pericles (Golden Age), Parthenon, and Delian League
Sparta oligracy, militaristic, agressive, and Peloponesian League
Where was the Mali Empire located? West Africa
The principles of the U.S. Constitution were influenced by? The Roman Republic
A society in which the powers of government and religion are placed in the same hands is known as a: Theocracy
What philosopher thought that the way to seek truth is through a series of questions and answers? Socrtates
What is the written Script pf Mesopotamian people called? Cuneiform
The Gracchus brothers supported one group in order to gain political power. What was that group? the Plebians
Why was the capital moved from Rome to Byzantium? It was easier to defend and wasn't corrupt like Rome.
Hagia Sophia "Holy Wisdom", most famous example of Byzantine architecture in Constantinople.
Macedonians conquered the Greek city-states
Octavian First Emperor of Rome
Muslim Empire spread from the Arabian Peninsula to North Africa into Europe
Cyrillic alphabet used in Russia and Eastern Europe that was developed by Byzantine Monks.
Twelve Tables Roman law code was codified and displayed in the forum.
Result of the Coronation of the first Holy Roman Emperor greater political power inflluence for the church
medieval estate A source of protection and necessary goods and a center of social life for many medieval Europeans
Feudalism was a system where land was in return for agricultural services
meridians runs north and south from pole to pole
latitude measures the distancenorthe or south of the equator.
subsistence farming farmers who grow only enough food to fee themselves
urbanization movement by people from rural areas to cities
primary sources writtin law codes(EX.Ten Commandments and the Code of Hammurabi)
What happened in Athens during the "Golden Age" of Pericles? Politics and architecture flourished in the city as it became the center of Greek culture.
The Greek civilization was located on what body of water? Aegean Sea
What landform made up the rich agricultural heartland of the Russian Empire? Steppe
Sunni Approximately 85% of Muslims are members of this branch of religion.
Mohammad Founder or "prophet" of Islam
Hajj The pilgrimage that Muslims are required to make at least once in their lives
Feudal System This is the political, social, and economic system that developed in Europe after the fall of Rome.
The Renaissance began in the wealthy city-states of- Italy
isthmus A narrow piece of land that connects two larger pieces.
Theocracy A society in which the powers of gov'y and religion are placed in the same hands.
regular Clergy *monasteris - Monks *convents - Nuns *Benedictine Rule
secular Clergy WORLDLY LIVES *Pope - Patriarch *Archbishop *Bishop - Diocese * Priest - parish
Political order -Feudalism -king -lords -lesser lords -knights
Social Order -king -lords-vassals -serfs
Feudal in Japan EMPEROR-held highest rank in society but had no political power *Shogun - actual ruler *Daimyo - large landowners *Samurai - Warriors loyal to Daimyo *Peasants (3/4 of the population), Merchant,and Artisans
Nirvana in Buddhist belief, union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth. Final stage of Buddhist.
Archimedes lever & pulley
Pythagorus Greek mathematician
Agora Public meeting place in Greek City-states.
khyber pass pass to India through Hindu Kush
Aeschylus Greek tragedy playwright, Golden Age
Aristocracy rule by nobles, free landowning
Dharma in Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties.
Draco Harsh law with severe punishment.
Cicero Roman writer & statesman
Brutus stabbed Julius Caesar
Diocletian divided the Roman Empire
Euripides playwright against wars
Hi'jira journey to Medina
martyr person who dies for his or her beliefs
Jihad holy war
Battle of Hastings AD 1066
Apostle a follower of Jesus
Phalanx Greek triangular military formation
Epicureanism to love the finer things in life.
Diaspora The spreading of the Jews beyond their historic homeland.
Kiev Capital of Medieval Russia of present day Ukraine.
Livy Roman historian
iconoclast a person who destroys religious images
sqr the senate and the Roman people
mycenae came in and replaced the minoans, settle in Greece.
Consul one of Romes generals
Carthage North African civilization of Rome Punic Wars
Attila the Hun Hun leader who black mailed Rome
Alps mountains of Central Europe above Italy
Fall of Constantinople AD 1453
Fall of Rome AD 476
Death of Charlemagne AD 800
Battle of Tours AD 732
Leif Ericson Viking who explored North America
Sultan Turkish muslim leaders
Shi'ites Shi a Ali followers radical
Paul Early Christian Apostale and missionary and author of several New Testament epistles.
Peter The chief of 12 Apostlesof Christ
Virgil Roman poet. His greatest work is the epic poem Aeneid.
Mark Anthony 2nd triumvirate joinged Cleopatra, commited suicide
economic manor in which one pays bills or makes a living
political way one is governed
social place in society
cataract waterfall, prevented navigation
monsoon seasonal winds bringing rain good for trade
missionary went out to spread religion
himalayas separates India & China
Christianity Originated in Jerusalem and Rome
Islam originated in Mecca-Arabian Peninsula
Hittites developed iron weapons & law code
babylonians Hammurabi's Law Code (eye for eye)
Lydians Developed coins for money economy
monarchy rule by a king or queen
Democracy gov't in which the people choose
oligarchy rule by a few chosen men
Republic Citizens elect representatives to govern them
Mecca Holy city of Islam, Hajj to
Medina 1st converted Muslim city
Jerusalem Dome of the Rock, Christianity, Judaism, Islam
Moscow 3rd Rome, Capital of Russia
Baghdad ancient Muslim capital and capital of Iraq
Arabian Peninsula large desert region in middle east
Solomon built the great temple in Jerusalem
Abraham left his own country amd went to the land of Canaan which became the Hebrews "promise land". He introduced the belief in one god.
Created by: TrippyGodel