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Kasey2004 Flashcards

Chapter 8

QuestionAnswer
acr/o extremities
aden/o gland
adren/o adrenal glands
adrenal/o adrenal glands
andr/o male; man
blast/o germ cell; cell which forms
calc/i calcium
cortic/o cortex
crin/o secrete
dips/o thirst
gonad/o sex glands
gluc/o glucose, sugar, sweet
glyc/o glucose, sugar, sweet
kal/i potassium
ket/o ketones
lact/o milk
natr/o sodium
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid glands
somat/o body
toxic/o poison
thym/o thymus gland
thyr/o thyroid gland
thyroid/o thyroid gland
eu same, normal
ex out, outward
hyper above normal, excessive
hypo below normal, deficient
oxy sharp, quick
para beside, near
poly many, excessive
crine secrete
emia condition of the blood
aemia condition of the blood
genesis formation of
megaly enlargement
plasia condition of growth
ptosis falling/displacement/prolapse
toxic pertaining to poisoning
tropin stimulating effect of a hormone
pituitary gland the master gland located at the base of the brain
growth hormone (GH) regulates growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues
somatopropin (STH) regulates growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates and maintains the thyroid gland
lactogenic hormone (LTH) stimulates breast development in pregnancy and milk production after birth of the baby
prolactin stimulates breast development in pregnancy and milk production after birth of the baby
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates estrogen secretion and the production of ovum (egg) in females and production of sperm in males
luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates ovulation and testosterone production
melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) controls intensity of pigmentation of skin cells
oxytocin (OXT) stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and release of breast milk
antidiuretic stimulating hormone (ASH) controls urine secretion
vasopressin controls urine secretion
pineal gland located in midbrain, cone shaped
melatonin hormone secreted by the pineal gland
thyroid gland located in front of the neck; there is a right and left lobe - one on either side of the trachea; they are connected by a narrow strip of a tissue called the isthmus
triiodothyronine one of the thyroid hormones, an organic iodine-containing compound liberated from thyroglobulin by hydrolysis; it has several times the biological activity of thyroxine; Symbol T3
thyroxine an iodine-containing hormone that is produced by the thyroid gland, increases the rate of cell metabolism, regulates growth, and is made synthetically for treatment of thyroid disorders; Symbol T4
calcitonin hormone that regulates the amount of calcium in the blood
parathyroid gland any of usually four small kidney-shaped glands that lie in pairs near or within the posterior surface of the thyroid gland and secrete a hormone necessary for the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
thymus lymph and endocrine gland
thymosin a hormone secreted by the thymus that stimulates development of T cells
thymopoietin these hormones stimulate the production of T cells, specialized lymphocytes, which are involved in the immune response
adrenal glands two small glands located on top of each kidney
adrenal cortex the outer portion of the adrenal gland
adrenal medulla the inner portion of the adrenal gland
corticosteriods steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex
catecholamines non-steroid hormones secreted by adrenal medulla
mineralocorticoids regulate fluid and electrolyte balance; aldosterone is primary mineralocorticoid
glucocorticoids influence metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins; maintains normal blood pressure; anti-inflammatory effects in times of stress, primary glucocorticoid is cortisol or hydrocortisone
gonadocorticoids contribute to secondary sex characteristics in males and females; androgen is one of the gonadocorticoids
epinephrine increases heart rate, dilates bronchioles, increase blood sugar levels; role in body's response to stress by increasing oxygen and glucose availability in blood
adrenaline increases heart rate, dilates bronchioles, increase blood sugar levels; role in body's response to stress by increasing oxygen and glucose availability in blood
norepinephrine causes blood vessels to constrict thus increasing blood pressure; also plays a role in stress response; increases blood pressure
noradrenaline causes blood vessels to constrict thus increasing blood pressure; also plays a role in stress response; increases blood pressure
ovaries female sex organs
estrogen responsible for promoting the maturation of the ovum (egg)and for preparing the lining of the uterus for implantation of a fertilized eggs; promotes the development of secondary sex characteristics of females
progesterone hormone secreted by the ovaries
testes male sex organs
scrotum scrotal sac located posterior to the penis
testosterone hormone produced by the testes
cortex pertaining to outer region or an organ or structure
cortical pertaining to the cortex
corticoid pertaining to the hormones of the adrenal cortex
endocrinologist physician who specializes in the disease and disorders of the endocrine system
endocrinology study of the endocrine system and the treatment of diseases and disorders of the endocrine system
euthyroid normal thyroid function
hormone chemical substance which affects the function of a specific organ
metabolism all the chemical changes that take place in the body
acromegaly metabolic condition with enlargement of the bones and cartilages of the extremities and face
Addison's Disease deficiency in secretion of adrenal cortex hormones
cretinism congenital (birth) condition due to lace of thyroid hormone secretion, causes dwarfism, slow mental development, puffy facial features, and dry skin
Cushing's Syndrome hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex glucocorticoids
diabetes mellitus disorder of the pancreas where there is insufficient insulin secretion; the body cannot appropriately metabolize carbohydrates
exophthalmia marked outward protrusion of the eyeballs; call exophthalmus
gigantism condition characterized by excessive size and height related to excessive secretion of growth hormone during childhood
goiter thyroid gland enlargement due to excessive growth of thyroid cells and tissues
Grave's Disease hyperthyroidism; excessive secretion of thyroid hormone and exophthalmia
hirsutism condition of excessive body hair on a female in a male distribution pattern
hypopysectomy surgical removal of pituitary gland
ketoacidosis accumulation of ketone bodies causing acidosis (increase acidity of blood)
myxedema hypothyroidism in adult, most severe form causes puffiness of hands and face, course thick skin, enlarged tongue, slow speech, loss of hair, sensitivity to cold, drowsiness, and mental apathy
polydipsia excessive thirst
polyphagia excessive eating
thyrotoxicosis hyperactivity of thyroid gland causes toxic condition
virilism growth of male physical traits in a female; can be caused by an adrenal gland disorder
fasting blood sugar (FBS) blood test which measures glucose in the blood after a person has been fasting all night; test for diabetes mellitus
glucose tolerance test (GTT) blood test measures blood glucose levels over a period of time, 2-3 hours, after consuming concentrated oral glucose
radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) thyroid function test; measures thyroid activity after a person receives a known amount of radioactive iodine and amount taken up by thyroid is determined
thyroid echogram ultrasound exam of thyroid distinguishes between solid between solid thyroid nodules and cystic nodules
thyroid ultrasound ultrasound exam of thyroid distinguishes between solid between solid thyroid nodules and cystic nodules
thyroid function tests blood tests measure levels of T3, T4, and TSH
thyroid scan nuclear medicine exam of thyroid gland; determines size, shape, and function of thyroid gland
thyroid-stimulating hormone test blood test which measures level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood
diabetes insipidus deficiency of antidiuretic hormone
Created by: Kasey2004