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Ch 12 Africa

Africa guide/map

QuestionAnswer
Africa second largest continent in the world. covers 1/5 of Earth's land surface.
Climate of Africa has tropical rain forests that cover less than 5%. mostly covered by grassy plains, a savanna
savanna grassy plains
savanna weather good fertile soil, but the irregular rainfall causes droughts
Sahara world's largest desert
desertification as land becomes parched, the desert spread
outposts distant military stations
Piankhi Nubian king who conquered Egypt
Meroƫ the new capital of the Nubian rulers. it controlled both North and south Nile route and the east-west route from the Red Sea into the savanna and North Africa
surplus excess
commodity valuable product
gold and salt were commodities
Ghana 'land of gold" created from Soninke people in 800AD. located between the Niger and Senegal rivers
Almoravids Muslims of North Africa who launched a campaign to spread their form of Islam
Mali after Ghana's fall. 1235
Mansa Musa greatest Mali emperor. 1312. expanded borders and converted to Islam. made a hajj, where he made allies with other Muslim states.
oba king
Amina Hausa ruler of city state of Zaria
Geez the language of Axum
Askia Muhammad set up a Muslim dynasty. Songhai emperor
Sonni Ali soldier king of Songhai. used powerful army to forge the largest state in west Africa
mansas kings
Sundiata founded the empire of Mali
Ife early forest society
hunter-gatherer hunted animals for meat and clothing. Probably how the earliest humans survived.
Louis Leakey found the first evidence of early people in East Africa
domesticate to adapt plants or animals for their own use
fertile productive
surplus more than needed
civilization is a society with cities,a government and social classes
name the two most powerful african empires Egypt and Nubia
what is the Bantu migration a group of people who migrated from Western Africa and introduced herding, farming and iron tools to Southern and Central Africa. Now, there are many ethnic groups and most speak Bantu languages.
ethnic groups or groups that share languages,religions,family ties and customs
When did people begin farming along the Nile River About 4,000 BC
Who ruled ancient Egypt? King and queens called Pharoahs.
Where were pharoahs buried? pyramids
Heiroglyphics murals and picture writings that often decorated the walls in pyramids
What are some of the achievements of the Egyptian civilization? paper making, architecture, medicine and mathematics
When did the civilations of Nubia arise? About 6,000BC
Where is Nubia? South of Egypt
The greatest Nubian kingdom arose in what city? Meroe
The first place in Africa that iron was made was what city? Meroe
When did Meroe thrive? from the 500s BC to the mid 300sAD
Aksum trade center along the Red Sea, in East Africa.
Adulis The most important city in Askum
If Askrum existed today, it would be in what countries? Ethiopia and Eritrea
When did Aksum come to power? After the Nubian kingdom of Meroe fell.
Aksum's trade network stretched from... the Mediterranean Sea to India
What religion spread along the trade routes? Christianity
Aksum became a center of what Church? the early Ethiopian Christian Church
When did Aksum begin to decline? in the 600s
Who took over much of the region's trade? Arabs
What are the three main West African Kingdoms? Ghana, Mali and Songhai
North and West Africa traded what two resources? salt and gold
Ghana Located between the Senegal and Niger rivers. Controlled trade across West Africa. Kings taxed the goods that passed through their lands. Known as the Land of Gold.
Mali Arose in the mid 1200s in the upper Niger Valley. The kings controlled the gold mines of the South and the salt supplies of the North.
Mansa Musa Mali's most famous king. Came to power in 1312. Brought peace and order to the kingdom. Based his laws on the Quron. He was Muslim. Died in 1332
Quran Holy book of Islam
pilgrimage religious journey
Mansa Musa's pilgrimage... 1324, to Mecca(a Muslim holy city), brought about new trading ties with other Muslim states.
Songhai Destroyed the Mali Empire after Mansa Musa's death. Soon became West Africa's most powerful kingdom, controlled important trade routes and trading cities
Timbouctou The wealthiest trading city in Songhai. Great Muslim learning center
Songhai was defeated in... 1591 by North African invaders
city state a city that has its own government and often controls the surrounding land
Name the three greatest city states Kilwa, Mombasa and Malindi
Kilwa East African city-state. Got rich on trade and taxes. Conquered by Portugal in the early 1500s.
Zimbabwe great trading civilization near the bend of Limpopo in So. Africa. Reached its peak about 1300.
Created by: 544