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ANTH 1000 Final

QuestionAnswer
Social identities are the aspect of self that makes a difference in how one's rights and duties distribute to specific others. This includes one's rights and duties in their society
Inequalities result from 3 advantages Power, Prestige, and Property
Ascribed Status a set of traits that are given, or with little choice. For example: age sex or family of birth
Achieved Status a set of traits one attains during one's lifetime. these traits are tied to our behaviors and actions. For example: achievement, skills, and learning
Egalitarian societies with fewer status positions. for example: ranks, class, and caste systems
Class an open system of social stratification while it infers ability for mobility and allows movement between social classes
Karl Marx argues that class was the driving force between social changes. He also believed that human history is full of social conflicts, which interested him
Bourgeois what Marx called the capitalists of owning class
Proletariats what Marx called the working class
Caste closed systems found in stratified societies, endogamous groups that do not allow social mobility
Races are groups that are believed to differ from other groups in discrete ways. there is no gene for race
Hypodescent is the "one-drop rule" which says that American children are assigned the same racial category as the minority parent
Kinship a network of culturally recognized relationships among individuals, either through affinal (related through affiliation like adoption) ro consanguinal (related through blood) ties
Descent relationships based on birth or presumed common ancestry. Descent groups involves rules that connect individuals with particular sets of kin because of known or presumed common ancestry
Adoption a relationship based on nuturance alone
Marriage a culturally approved relationship based on mating. the definition of marriage differs cross-culturally
Ego the center of the kinship chart. ego is whom the chart is based around or you if you were to make a kinship chart
Kinship Diagrams show the pattern of a particular family, very similar to a family tree and typically shows multiple generations. Can also help identify identities
Kinship Chart Key -ego is a square. - males and triangles - females are circles - marriage is (=) - divorce is an equal sign with a slash through it
Unilineal Descent significant kin relations traced either through mother or father's line by entire community
Nuer a culture in East Africa, with open grassland which they herd cattle an farm. Politically, they are traditional, egalitarian tribes with no political offices. It is a nation-state. They are Patrilineal
Navajo culture in North America near New Mexico, Arizona and Utah. They farm, sheepherding, make art and silver. Politically they are traditional clans, public census and today a tribal counsel
Clans descent groups comprised of multiple lineages linked by a common ancestor. the common ancestor may be mythical represented symbolically by Totems.
Tlingit a culture with matrilineal clans
Unilateral is through the mother's side or the father's side.
Bilateral is through both the mother and father's side
Marriage is a social institution that tells us 1. who we can or cannot marry 2. where we live and with whom 3. regulated economic rights and duties
Monogamy having one spouse at a time
Serial Monogamy having more that one spouse in a lifetime but not at one particular time
Polygamy having multiple spouses at the same time
Polygyny one man married to multiple wives. not typically practiced due to economic reasons
Asante in Ghana practice polygamy. social status relies on the amount of children (especially male), amount of wives and economic status. The wife that bore the most children, especially the most males has the most status within the multiple wife marriage
Polyandry one woman with multiple husbands. least common
Exogamy marriage outside of one;s group (family, culture, neighborhood, country). Benefits of this would be genetically varying the gene pool, improved relations through groups, and forges alliances
Endogamy marriage within one's group. Drawbacks with this practice include genetic disorders and health problems. Benefits include keeping the group within the group, no outsiders. For example; The Caste system in India: people marry within their caste only
Incest Taboo the union between close kin. All societies have rules that prohibit sexual unions between close kin. Universal aspect of incest taboo in contemporary societies: parent/child and siblings. The details vary throughout cultures and there are some exceptions
Instinctive Horror Theory says that humans have an innate horror against certain instances such as brother and sister getting married. Society and culture helps individuals avoid activities such as incest
Cross Cousins marriage between children of parent's opposite sex siblings. This means your father's sister's children and your mother's brother's children
Parallel Cousins marriage between children of the parent's same sex sibling. This means your father's brother's children and your mother's sister's children. Can be found in Muslim families
Defense of Marriage Act law passed in 1996 that says only opposite sex marriage in the US was allowed. Has been changed starting in 2006. Same sex marriage is allowed in: The Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Canada, and South Africa
Partilocal the married couple located themselves near the father's family
Martilocal the married couple located themselves near the mother's family
bilocal the married couple lives near both families
avunculocal societies where the family locates near the mother's brother
neolocal the married couple located themselves not according to the family but other reasons for example work or certain attractions
Blended Families multiple house-holds. for example: parents divorce
Extended Families multiple generations living within one household
Nuclear families mother, father, and children living in one house
Medical Anthropology the study of health and medical systems in a cross-cultural perspective. Includes the study of bicultural adaptations to disease, ethno-medical systems, and cultural factors in health seeking behavior
Diseases caused by harmful bacterial or biological eco-phenomena
Illnes the experience of being sick, it is not necessarily a pathogen
Ethnography a written account of cultural processes, understanding human groups
Biomedicine modern medicine as practiced in the United States and Europe. It is the most common practice of medicine in the world today. the understanding of pathogens has saved billions of lives. Biomedicine emphasizes the biological causation and remedy for illness
Enthomedicine includes the health-related beliefs, knowledge, and practices of a specific cultural group
Etiology the study of the causes of diseases
Hominids a group of hominoids (apes) that includes humans and direct ancestors.
Hominid Traits bipedal movement, dental modifications, and cranial expansion.
Hominoids Apes
Lucy an Australopithecus afarensis. found in Tanzania she is one of the first clues of bipedal adaption
Participant Observation becoming part of the culture in order to observe and record data
Cultural relativism the view that no cultural traditions are inherently inferior or superior. for example, genocide and human sacrifice
fieldwork the hallmark of research in cultural anthropology, it usually involves long-term residence with the people being studied
society a socially bounded, spatially contiguous group of people who interact in basic economic and political institutions and share and particular culture, societies retain relative stability across generations
band (foragers) includes fishing, hunting and gathering
chiefdom a society more complex than a tribal society, characterized by social ranking, a redistributive economy, and a centralized political economy
science versus religion
Charles Darwin English naturalist who, at the age of 22, began fiver years of travel on the HMS Beagle Based on observations, he suggested that species descended from other species under the influence of environmental factors
Neolithic Revolution stage in cultural evolution marked by the appearance of stone tools and the domestication of plants and animals
Kula ring traditional long distance trading network for valuable objects among Trobriand islanders first described by B. Malinowski
Ishi was the last member of the Yahi, the last surviving group of the Yana people
Artifact portable materials that humans manufacture or modify
anthropoids humans
Australopithecine a member of the genus Australopithecus, the hominid ancestor of humans
gracile australopithecine
robust australopithecine
norms standards of behavior characteristic of a society or social group to which members are expected to conform
ethnocentrism is the practice of judging another culture by your own standards
holism
culture a learned, shared, way of life that includes technology, values, and beliefs transmitted within a particular society from generation to generation
tribe (horitculturalists) a relatively small, horticultural society organized on principles of kinship, characterized by little social stratification and no centralized political authority, and whose members share a culture and language.
state a complex society characterized by urban centers, agricultural production, labor specialization, standing armies, permanent boundaries, taxation, centralized authority, public works, and laws designed to maintain status quo
taxonomy
Carolus Linneaus Developed a taxonomy of living species •Based on structure and form His major contributions were •Classification •Nomenclature
Language a way of communicating, it is shared, learned, a way of sharing information, symbols, and it is a rule based pattern systems
domestication the act of modifying plants and animals through selection for human use and consumption
Moundville
feature non-portable material culture. for example, post mold, hearth, storage pits, and burials
Major Subfields of Anthropology physical/biological, archaeology, linguistic, and cultural
When did the first primates evolve?
When did the first hominids evolve?
What are some of the traits that tell us about bipedal locomotion? Traits in the skeleton that tell us about walking erect • Spine connects at the base of the skull instead of the back • Hips more bowl shaped • Change in pelvis shape • Change in foot structure • Angle of the femur comes in and down
Why and Where did writing first develop?
What are some characteristics that have been associated with gendered speech (male versus female linguistic patterns and enculturation/roles)?
What are the pros and cons of domestication?
What types of evidence are available for the origins of plant and animal domestication?
monotheistic
polytheistic
ethnogenesis
epidemic higher than normal occurrence of a disease in a particular area
forensic anthropology a subfield of anthropology that uses techniques from biological and archaeological anthropology to help resolve legal matters
structural violence
clitorectomy removal of the clitoris
infibulation one of 3 forms of female circumcision and excision, followed by sewing up the sides of the vulva so that scar tissue covers the vaginal opening, except for a small gap for uriniation and menstruation. requires surgery for first intercourse and birth
FGM female genital mutilation or female genital modification.
sunna circumcision one of 3 forms of female circumcision. this procedure includes removal of the clitoris and hood and sometimes refers only to the cutting of the hood. the name Sunna relates the practice of Islamic traditions
human rights became an international movement after WW2. includes: healthcare, equality before the law, fair trial, property, thought, religion, opinion and expression, peaceful assembly
neocolonialism after the age of traditional colonialism, this refers to continued economic and political policies by which a great power indirectly maintains or extends its influence over other areas or people
ideal body images culturally defined standards for ideal boy shapes
obesity a medically defined condition of excessive fat storage
shaman a part time religious practitioner typical of tribal societies who goes into trance to directly communicate with the spirit world for the benefit of the community
Created by: asculpepper