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World Religions 2011

World Religions

QuestionAnswer
Chuang Tzu Lao Tuz's disciple who lived 200 years after him, considered best interpreter of Tao Te Ching, his writings are second in importance.
Confucius Founder of Confusionism and "opponent" of Lao Tzu
Fields of Cinnabar three regions of the body - head, chest, and abdomen.
Hsien Those who become immortal
I Ching "Book of Changes" containing explanations of systems of divination; also accepted as one of the five classics of Confusionism
Ko Hung Taoist scholar and proponent of immortality school of religious taoism...
Kuei Bad and unpredictable spirits.
Lao Tzu Founder of Taoism - names means "Old boy."
wu hsing the five elements theory
wu wei “non
yin and Yang complementary opposites
Fields of Cinnabar 3 regions of Body: head, chest, abdomen
P’u uncarved block, things in their original simplicity contain their own natural power (recall the Tao of Pooh)
Shen beneficial spirits
No eschatology death final matters
P’eng lai Paradisical island
5 classics Shu Ching (Book of History) Shih Ching (Book of Poetry) I Ching (Book of Changes) Ch’un ch’iu (Sping and Autumn Annals) Li Chi (Book of Rituals)
The Four Books Lun Yu (Analects) Chung Yung (Doctrine of the Mean) Ta Hsueh (Great Learning) Meng Tzu (Book of Mencius)
jen love, benevolence, goodness, “human heartedness” or “true manhood,” the ideal attribute and goal of a Confucian education
li ettiquette, protocol, propriety, proper ritual, manners, the proper way relationships between people should be managed
hsiao respect and obedience for elders (especially parents), filial piety
chung yung principle of the “golden mean,” central harmony; also one of the Four Books
chun tzu the true, perfect or ideal person; the Confucian gentleman (qualities: Jen, li, hsiao)
cheng ming literally “rectification of names,” true correspondence between words and realities, between titles and behavior
5 relationships Ruler to Subject Father to Son Elder to Junior Husband to Wife Friend to friend
K’ung Fu’tzu (Confucius) was a professional teacher for most of his life, only served in the government for a year or so
Saoshyant the coming Savior, the messiah figure, Zoroastrian
Angra Mainyu (also Ahriman) the evil entity or “Hostile Spirit,” destructive spirit, the devil Zoroastrian
Ahura Mazda (also Ohrmazd) means “Lord of Wisdom,” the supreme being, Creator of the World, power of good, guardian of humankind Zoroastrian
Fravashi/Farohar term and concept of a person’s guardian angel, a spirit which enters this life with a person and continues with him or her beyond death Zoroastrian
navjote public ceremony of initiation into the Zoroastrian faith, sometime between 7 and 15 years of age, receive the sudre and the kusti
sudre a white cotton undershirt worn next to the skin at all times (except when bathing) as a religious symbol of commitment and protection; has a pocket to be filled symbolically with good thoughts, words and deeds Zoroastrian
kusti literally “sacred cord”; a woven woolen hollow cord tied around the waist, symbolic of being girded with faith, untied and retied several times a day to the accompaniment of prayers Zoroastrian
haoma plant known as soma in India which has hallucinogenic properties used in rituals Zoroastrian
Amesha Spentas 6 immortal beings Zoroastrian
asha order and opposite of chaos Zoroastrian
Founder of Zoroastrian had vision, saw God
The Avesta the sacred book of ancient Zoroastrianism; only a quarter of the original has survived
Gathas hymns or poems written by Zarathustra
Zoroastrian beliefs Fire is sacred No cremation, bodies pecked clean on the tower, dakhma. Monotheistic, One God. Dualism, there is an adversary good and evil. sexuality, extremes like asceticism and hedonism are bad, but asceticism is worse of the two b/c it implies an
Kabbalism set of esoteric ancient teachings meant to explain the relationship between eternal, mysterious Creator and mortal finite universe, set of scriptures exist outside of traditional Jewish script
Hasidic Judaism promotes spirituality and joy through Jewish mysticism founder: Rabbi Israel Ball Shem Tov (18th century) VERY orthodox
Abraham's promises posterity, that his descendants would become a great nation land and that he and his posterity would be given the land of Canaan
1700 BCE Abraham flees to Canaan and receives covenants
1200 BCE Israel enslaved in Egypt, Moses frees them, first Passover, 10 Commandments and wandering in the wilderness for 40 years
10th Century BCE Solomon’s Temple (original) built
500 BCE Babylon exile, Solomons temple destroyed, return and construction of the 2nd Temple
0 CE Herod’s Temple built (actually renovation of 2nd Temple)
70 CE Destruction of Jerusalem and Herod’s Temple by Romans
1940’s Holocaust and state of Israel formed
The Tanak (The “Jewish Bible”) Torah: The Pentateuch, or the first five books of the Old Testament Nev’im: prophets Ketuvim: writings
The Talmud the foundational writings of Orthodox Jewish life, in law, lore and lifestyle. Mishnah: written compilation of what was the oral halacha (law), written about 200 CE Aggadeh/Gemara: commentary by later rabbis on issues raised in the Mishnah
Jewish belief about death burial ASAP, most oppose cremation except Reform Judaism, death must not be hastened
Jewish High Holy Days Hanukkah, Sabbath, Yom Kippur, and Rosh Hashanah
Jewish Festivals Passover, Shavot, Succoth
Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) focus on repentance. Kal Nidre is the prayer asking for forgiveness (distinctive dissonance in tune, reflecting the dissonance of our will with Gods and bringing them into harmony). 25hour fast of all food and drink and not allowed to
Rosh Hashanah literally “head of the year”; the Jewish New Year in September or October depending on Hebrew lunar calendar, when god makes judgments for that year based on ones actions from the preceding year. there is a ten day period to rectify ones life and alter th
Hanukkah ‘festival of lights’ Antiochus sought to remove Jews
Passover (Festival of Unleavened Bread) seven day festival in Spring; celebrating the exodus from Egypt, when the angel of death passed over Israel’s firstborn in Egypt, as well as Israel’s ultimate deliverance from bondage, the Passover meal is called seder which
Shavot (Feast of Weeks) celebrated in early summer
Succoth (Feast of Tabernacles/Booths (sukkah)) celebrated in the fall, remembrance of the wandering in the wilderness, receiving the 10 Commandments
bar mitzvah literally “son of the commandment”; main public ceremony of initiation for Jewish boys age 13, called up in the synagogue to read from the Torah
bat mitzvah literally “daughter of the commandment”; ritual for 12 year old girls of Conservative and Reformed Jewish traditions similar to the bar mitzvah
seder the Passover meal, highly symbolic and in the same order year after year, includes bitter herbs (to remember the bitterness of Jewish suffering), unleavened bread (which represent 2 normal Sabbath loaves plus “bread of affliction” to remind of the bondage
kosher literally means “fit,” refers mainly to a particular diet: animals with cloven hooves and chew cud permitted (beef and mutton), slaughtered humanely, blood removed, pork is forbidden; birds that don’t eat carrion (chicken, turkey, duck); fish with scales,
kippah (Hebrew) or yarmulke (Yiddish) the round head covering worn by Jewish men
tallit prayer shawl; symbolizes commandments, covering the head in reverence
ashkenazim Jews from eastern Europe
sephardim Jews from Spain +Arab world
mitnagdim opposes the emotionalism of the Hasidim
300 CE scripture connonization, Constantine and the Nicene Council (Christianity)
500 CE benedictine order established (Christianity)
1000 1200 CE
16th century protestant reformation
analogia entis analogy of being (natural order)
analogia fidei analogy of faith
Quakers George Fox was the founder; authority or inspiration and revelation (17th century) scripture came second to the inner spirit of God; rejected payment of ministers
Ecumenical Movement concerned with the recovery of the unity of all believers in Christ, transcending differences of creed, ritual and polity
William Tyndale translated the Bible into English and had it published, was bunt at the stake, brought scriptures to the common man
Roger Williams Started the American Baptist history in the United States when he formed a church in Providence, Rhode Island, based on Baptist principles.
eucharist derived from the Greek “thanksgiving”; another name for Holy Communion, the Lord’s Supper, or in LDS terms the sacrament, holy communion
homoousios of one essence (the believe that the father son and holy spirit is of one essence)
homoiousios like substance
Episcopal founded upon a hierarchical structure
patriarch eastern orthodox leader
penance confession
unction anointment with oil
apocrypha old testament  books not included in the original canon of scripture. It means “hidden”
As saam allekum
shari’a law/legal code
tawheed uncompromised unity, oneness of God “There is no God but Allah.”
shirk belief that there is more than one deity, opposite of tawheed
jihad struggle or holy war; personal battle within self to surrender to God’s will
Ka’aba main mosque in mecca for pilgrimage
masjid mosque
imam spiritual leader
zamzam well in Mecca
umma worldwide community of Muslims
Sunni 80% of all Islam, accepted the “companions” of the prophet as leaders; believe in consensual leadership and reject the Shi’ite method; Abu bakr
Shi’a or Shi’ite means “the party or sect”; 15% of all Islam; believe that leadership should be hereditary; accepted the “family of Muhammad” as leaders; Ali son in law
Sufi Islamic branch that represents the “mystical dimension” and teachings; emphasizes spiritual experience rather than ritual, seeks mystical union with God in this life
Baha ‘U llah (1817 to1892) was a follower of the Bab, claimed to be the Messiah of all religions (12th or Hidden Imam, Khalki, etc.) was exiled and wandered in the wilderness for 2 years calls prophets “Manifestations of God” (prophets include Buddha, Christ,etc)
Created by: mfiso
 

 



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