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Anatomy chapt. 9-12

mid-term

QuestionAnswer
-cele hernia, tumor, swelling
cyst/o urinary bladder, cyst, sac of fluid
dia- through, between, apart, complete
-ectasis stretching, dilation, enlargement
glomerul/o glomerulus
lith/o stone, calculus
-lysis breakdown, separation, setting free, destruction, loosening
nephr/o kidney
-pexy surgical fixation
pyel/o renal pelvis, bowl of kidney
-tripsy to crush
ur/o urine, urinary tract
ureter/o ureter
urethr/o urethra
-uria urination, urine
caus/o burning, burn
concuss/o shaken together, violently agitated
contus/o bruise
encephal/o brain
-esthesia sensation, feeling
esthet/o feeling, nervous sensation, sense of perception
-graphy the process of producing a picture or record
klept/o to steal
-mania obsessive preoccupation
mening/o membranes, meninges
myel/o spinal cord, bone marrow
neur/i, neur/o nerve, nerve tissue
-phobia abnormal fear
psych/o mind
-tropic having an affinity for
blephar/o eyelid
-cusis hearing
irid/o iris, colored part of eye
kerat/o horny, hard, cornea
myring/o tympanic membrane, eardrum
ophthalm/o eye, vision
-opia vision condition
opt/o eye, vision
ot/o ear, hearing
phak/o lens of eye
presby/o old age
retin/o retina, net
scler/o sclera, white of eye, hard
trop/o turn, change
tympan/o tympanic membrane, eardrum
bi/o life
derm/o, dermat/o skin
erythr/o red
hidr/o sweat
hirsut/o hairy, rough
kerat/o horny, hard, cornea
lip/o fat, lipid
melan/o black, dark
myc/o fungus
onych/o fingernail or toenail
pedicul/o louse, lice
rhytid/o wrinkle
seb/o sebum
urtic/o nettle, rash, hives
xer/o dry
neurotransmitters are chemical substances that make it possible for messages to cross from the synapse of a neuron to the target receptor.
dura mater is the thick, tough, outermost membrane of the meninges.
anesthetist is a medical professional who specializes in administering anesthesia, but is not a physician.
migraine headache which can be preceded by a warning aura, is characterized by throbbing pain on one side of the head.
meningocele is the congenital herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or spinal column.
hydrocephalus is a condition in which excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the ventricles of the brain. This condition can occur at birth or develop later on in life.
meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges of the brain & spinal column. This condition, which can be fatal, is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection & is characterized by fever, vomiting, intense headache & a stiff neck.
alzheimer's disease is a group of disorders involving the parts of the brain that control thought, memory, & language. It is marked by progressive deterioration that affects both the memory & reasoning capabilities of an individual.
cognition describes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning & memory.
dementia is a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities, including memory, thinking & judgment, that is often accompanied by personality changes.
encephalitis which is an inflammation of the brain, can be caused by a viral infection such as rabies.
parkinson's disease is a chronic, degenerative central nervous disorder characterized by fine muscle tremors, rigidity & a slow or shuffling gait.
reye's syndrome is a potentially serious or deadly disorder in children that is characterized by vomiting & confusion. This syndrome usually follows a viral illness in which the child was treated with aspirin.
concussion is a violent shaking up or jarring of the brain. A concussion may result in a temporary loss of awareness & function.
cerebral contusion is the bruising of brain tissue as the result of a head injury that causes the brain to bounce against the rigid bone of the skull.
cranial hematoma is a collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain.
ablation term used to describe some types of prostate cancer, describes the removal of a body part or the destruction of its function by surgery, hormones, drugs, heat, chemicals, electrocautery or other methods.
anuria the absence of urine formation by the kidneys
benign prostatic hypertrophy AKA benign prostatic hyperplasia, enlarged prostate or prostatomegaly, is an abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland that occurs most often in men over age 50
catheterization the insertion of a tube into the bladder in order to procure a sterile speciment for diagnostic purposes
cystitis inflammation of the bladder
cystocele AKA a fallen bladder, is a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall
cystolith a stone located within the urinary bladder
cystopexy the surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall
cystoscopy the visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope
dialysis a proceduare to remove waste products from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function
diuresis the increased output of urine
enuresis the involuntary discharge of urine
epispadias a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy the destruction of stones with the use of high-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel. The fragments of these stones are then excreted in the urine.
glomerulonephritis AKA Bright's disease, is a type of kidney disease caused by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes red blood cells & proteins to leak into the urine
hemodialysis the process by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient's blood
hydronephrosis the dilation (swelling) of one or both kidneys
hydroureter the distention of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked
hyperproteinuria the presence of abnormally high concentrations of protein in the urine
hypoproteinemia the presence of abnormally low concentrations of protein in the blood
hypospadias a congenital abnormality of the urethral opening
incontinence the inability to control the excretion of urine & feces
interstitial cystitis a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder
intravenous pyelogram AKA excretory urography, is a radiographic study of the kidneys & ureters
lithotomy a surgical incision for the removal of a stone from the bladder
nephrectasis the distention of the pelvis of the kidney
nethrolith AKA renal calculus or a kidney stone, is found in the kidney
nephrolithiasis describes the presence of stones in the kidney
nephrolysis the freeing of a kidney from adhesions
nephropathy means any disease of the kidney. This definition includes both degenerative & inflammatory conditions.
nephroptosis AKA a floating kidney, is the prolapse of a kidney
nephropyosis AKA pyonephrosis, is suppuration of the kidney
nephrostomy the establishment of an opening from the pelvis of the kidney to the exterior of the body
nephrotic syndrome a condition in which very high levels of protein are lost in the urine & abnormally low levels of protein are present in the blood
neurogenic bladder a urinary problem in which the bladder does not empty properly due to a neurological condition
nocturia excessive urination during the night
nocturnal enuresis urinary incontinence during sleep
oliguria scanty urination
percutaneous nephrolithotomy is performed by making a small incision in the back & inserting a nephroscope to crush & remove a kidney stone
peritoneal dialysis the lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood
polycystic kidney disease a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys
polyuria excessive urination
prostate-specific antigen blood test; used to screen for prostate cancer
prostatism the condition of having symptoms resulting from compression or obstruction of the urethra due to benign prostatic hypertrophy
pyeloplasty the surgical repair of the renal pelvis
pyelotomy a surgical incision into the renal pelvis
suprapubic catheterization the placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone
uremia AKA uremic poisoning, is a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised & urea is retained in the blood
ureterectasis the distention of a ureter
ureterolith a stone located anywhere along the ureter
ureterorrhagia bleeding from the urethra
ureterorrhaphy the surgical suturing of a ureter
urethritis inflammation of the urethra
urethropexy the surgical fixation of the urethra
urethrorrhagia bleeding from the urethra
urethrostenosis narrowing of the urethra
urethrostomy narrowing of the urethra
vesicovaginal fistula an abnormal opening between the bladder & vagina that allows the constant flow of urine from the bladder into the vagina
voiding cystourethrography a diagnostic procedure in which a fluoroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder & through urethra
Wilms tumor a malignant tumor of the kidney that occurs in young children
BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy
cath catheterization
CRF chronic renal failure
cysto cystoscopy
IVP intravenous pyelogram
PKD polycystic kidney disease
homeostasis the process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment
retroperitoneal pertaining to being located behind the peritoneum
peritoneum the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
cortex the outer portion of an organ
tubule a small tube
reabsorption the return to the blood of some of the substances that were removed during filtration
peristalsis a series of wave-like contractions that moves urine down each ureter to the bladder
urinary sphincters one located at either end of the urethra, control the flow of urine from the bladder into the urethra & out of the urethra through the urethral meatus
sphincter a ring-like muscle that closes a passageway
urinary meatus the external opening of the urethra
meatus the external opening of a canal
voiding or micturition AKA urination, is the normal process of excreting urine
micturate the urge to urinate
genitourinary refers to both the genital & urinary organs
kidney failure AKA renal failure, is the inability of one or both of the kidneys to perform their functions
uremic poisoning AKA uremia, is a toxic condition resulting from renal failure in which kidney function is compromised & urea is retained in the blood
diabetic nephropathy is a kidney disease characterized by hyperproteinuria, which is the result of thickening & hardening of the glomeruli caused by long-term diabetes mellitus
stricture an abnormal band of tissue that narrows or completely blocks a body passage
distention enlarged or stretched
Bright's disease AKA glomerulonephritis, is a type of kidney disease caused by inflammation of the glomeruli that causes red blood cells & proteins to leak into the urine
floating kidney AKA nephroptosis, is the prolapse of a kidney
pyonephrosis AKA nephropyosis, is suppuration of the kidney
suppuration the formation or discharge of pus
colic spasmodic pains in the abdomen
calculus a stone
renal calculus or kidney stone AKA nephrolith, is found in the kidney
cystodynia pain in the urinary bladder
fallen bladder AKA cystocele, is a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall
interstitial relating to spaces within a tissue or organ
fistula an abnormal passage between two internal organs
incontinence the inability to control the voiding of urine
neuropathy a peripheral nervous system disorder affecting nerves anywhere except the brain or the spinal cord
hypertrophy the general increase in bulk of a body part or organ that is not due to tumor formation
bed-wetting AKA nocturnal enuresis, is urinary incontinence during sleep
nocturnal pertaining to night
bashful bladder syndrome in younger people, the inability to urinate when another person is present
urge incontinence AKA overactive bladder, occurs when the detrusor muscle in the wall of the bladder is too active
excretory urography AKA intravenous pyelogram, is a radiographic study of the kidneys & ureters
CAT scan AKA computed tomography, is more commonly used as a primary tool for evaluation of the urinary system because it can be rapidly performed & provides additional imaging of the abdomen, which may reveal other potential sources for the patient's symptoms
flat-plate of the abdomen AKA KUB (kidneys, ureters, bladder)
digital performed with a gloved finger placed in the rectum to palpate the prostate gland
palpate the use of the hands to examine a body part
PSA test prostate-specific antigen, blood test is used to screen for prostate cancer
prostate-specific antigen a protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland
shunt an artificial passage that allows the blood to flow between the body & the hemodialysis unit
dialysate a solution made up of water & electrolytes
electrolytes are the salts that conduct electricity & are found in the body fluid, tissue & blood
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis provides dialysis as the patient goes about his or her daily activities
continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis uses a machine to cycle the dialysate fluid during the night while the patient sleeps
adhesion a band of fibers that holds structures together abnormally
nephrorrhaphy AKA nephropexy, is the surgical fixation of a floating kidney
kidney transplant AKA renal transplantation, is the grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient's failed kidneys
extracorporeal situated or occurring outside the body
percutaneous performed through the skin
nephroscope a specialized endoscope used in the treatment of the kidneys
radical prostatectomy is performed through the abdomen, is the surgical removal of the entire prostate gland, the seminal vesicles & some surrounding tissues
TURP AKA transurethral prostatectomy, is the removal of an overgrowth of tissue from the prostate gland through a resectoscope
resectoscope a specialized endoscopic instrument that resembles a cystoscope
radiation therapy & hormone therapy additional treatments used to control prostate cancer
shaken baby syndrome describes the results of a child being voilently shaken by someone. This action can cause brain injury, blindness, fractures, seizures, paralysis & death
lethargy a lowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness, drowsiness & apathy
syncope AKA fainting, is the brief loss of consciousness caused by the decreased flow of blood to the brain
coma is a profound (deep) state of unconsciousness marked by the absence of spontaneous eye movements, no response to painful stimuli & the lack of speech
delirium is an acute condition of confusion, disorientation, disordered thinking & memory, agitation & hallucinations
cerebrovascular accident a stroke or CVA. This condition is damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted because a blood vessel is either blocked or has ruptured
ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke in older people, occurs when the flow of blood to the brain is blocked. This type of stroke may be caused by narrowing of the carotid artery or by a cerebral thrombosis
hemorrhagic stroke AKA a bleed, occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks. A bleed also occurs when an aneurysm within the brain ruptures
narcolepsy a sleep disorder consisting of sudden & uncontrollable brief episodes of falling asleep during the day
myelitis an inflammation of the spinal cord
cervical radiculopathy nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region
multiple sclerosis a progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation that causes demyelination of the myelin sheath
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis AKA Lou Gehrig's disease, is a rapidly progressive neurological disease that attacks the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscles.
bell's palsy the temporary paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve that causes paralysis only of the affected side of the face
Guillain-Barre syndrome AKA infectious polyneuritis, is an inflammation of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves, characterized by rapidly worsening muscle weakness that can lead to temporary paralysis.
sciatica inflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain, burning & tingling along the course of the affected sciatic nerve through the thigh, leg & foot
trigeminal neuralgia is characterized by severe lightning-like pain due to an inflammation of the fifth cranial nerve.
cerebral palsy a condition characterized by poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects & other neurologic deficiencies due to damage that affects the cerebrum
epilepsy a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures of varying severity. AKA a seizure disorder, epilepsy can usually be controlled with medication
causalgia is persistent, severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
hyperesthesia a condition of abnormal & excessive sensitivity to touch, pain or other sensory stimuli
paresthesia refers to a burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs or feet, but can also occur in other parts of the body
peripheral neuropathy AKA peripheral neuritis, is a disorder of the nerves that carry information to & from the brain
Created by: KarenAndVic