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AP U2 Terms

Brock AP U2 Terms

QuestionAnswer
Buddha-Cutey reformed Hinduism by getting rid of?.. Caste system and brahmins
Women had bigger roles in what early kind of Christianity? House Christianity Churches.. Catholics RUINED it!
bakufu military government established by the Minamoto, a powerful Japanese clan in 1185
Bantu term used to describe 400 diff enthnic groups in Africa, Cameroon to south Africa, which were untied by a common language (Bantu languages)
Byzantine Empire Eastern Half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; capital at Constantinople
Caste Social status or position conferred by a system based on class in India
Charlemagne king of the Franks and Holy Roman Emperor; conqueror of the Lombards and Saxons (742-814)
Charles Martel Charles the "Hammer"; led the the Battle of Tours and saved Europe from the Islamic expansion. (732 C.E.)
Chichen Itza Originally a Mayan city; conquered by the Toltecs (1000 C.E)
chinampas known as floating gardens, small, rectangle-shapes area of fertile arable land used for agriculture in the Xochimilco region of the Basin of Mexico
Code of Chivalry The collective term for the social codes of knighthood that originated in France in the Middle Ages. It was based on brave, courteous and honourable behaviour - what came to be known as 'gentlemanly conduct.'
Conservative Person who generally likes to uphold current conditions and oppose changes; religious movement whose position lies between the Orthodox and Reform
Counter-reformation The Catholic Reformation or the Counter-Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism
Crusades series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims (temporarily succeeded in capturing Jersalem and establishing Christian kingdoms)
Cuzco capital city of the Incan Empire
Czar male monarch/emperor of Russia
Daimyo warlord rulers of 300 small kingdoms following Onin War and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate
despotism a system of government where a single authority rules with absolute power
dome a common structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere
Dome of the Rock Islamic shrine in Jerusalem; believed to be the site where Muhammed ascended to Heaven
Dynasty a family/group that maintains power for several generations
Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen of France as the wife of Louis VII; married Henry II that marriage was annulled and became Queen of England during 1152-1204
excommunication banishment from certain religion & Church
Ferdinand marriage to Isabella created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World
Feudalism system where lords provided protection/aid to serfs in return for labor
Five pillars of Islam obligatory religious duties of all Muslims: confession of faith, prayer (5 times a day facing Mecca), fasting during Ramadan, zakat (tax for charity), and the hajj (pilgrimage)
footbinding as metaphor The societal restrictions imposed upon women as families became wealthier, women status lowered
foraging Gathering food, usually nuts, berries, roots, etc
Francisco Pizarro Spanish conquerer who defeated the Incan Empire of Peru from 1535-1540
Franks a group of Germanic tribes in the early Christian era; spread from the Rhine into the Roman Empire
Gempei Wars five year war fought between two of Japan's powerful families, the Taira and the Minamoto
Golden Horde one of four subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after Genghis Khan's death; territory covered much of present south-central Russia
Gothic architecture A style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries; characterized by slender vertical piers and counterbalancing buttresses and by vaulting and pointed arches
Greek Orthodox Church The state church of Greece, an autonomous part of the Eastern Orthodox Church
Guilds Western European trade associations, grew strongly in the 12th and 13th centuries to protect and promote trade groups
Hadith Traditions of the prophet Mohammad that played a critical role in Islamic law and rituals; recorded by women
Hagia Sophia It is a 6th century masterpiece of Byzantine architecture in Istanbul; built as a Christian church by Justinian, converted to a mosque in 1453, and made into a museum in the middle of the 20th century
hajj Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca
Hanseatic League organization of cities in N. Germany/Scandinavia for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance
harem living quarters reserved for wives and concubines and female relatives in a Muslim household
Heresies any opinions/doctrines at variance with the established or orthodox position; beliefs that reject the orthodox tenets of a religion
Hernan Cortes Spanish explorer who defeated the Aztec Empire and brought most of Mexico under Spanish control
hijrah Mohammad's flight from Mecca to Medina
Hillside terracing method growing rice in bulk
Holy Roman Empire a continuation of the Roman Empire in central-western Europe (at least, loosely organized/modeled on it)
humanism focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular to the study of ancient languages
Hundred Years' War (1337 - 1453) conflict between England and France -fought over lands England possessed in France (issue of feudal rights vs. emerging claims of national states)
Ibn Battuta Arab traveler/trader who commented on African traveling security, cities
iconoclastic controversy religious controversy with the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons
Incan Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire incorporating various Andean cultures. Term also used for leader of empire
inquisition An investigation; A tribunal formerly held in the Roman Catholic Church and directed at the suppression of heresy
Islam Major world religion originating in 610 CE in the Arabian peninsula; literally meaning submission; based o prophecy of Muhammad
Ivan the Terrible confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars(aristocrats); continued policy of Russian expansion; established contacts with western European commerce and culture
jihad is an Arabic word meaning " striving in the way of God", but it is often translated as "holy war". Refer to an armed struggle fought in the defense of Islam to please Allah
Joan of Arc A French military leader of the fifteenth century, a national heroine who at the age of seventeen took up arms to establish the rightful king on the French throne. She claimed to have heard God speak to her in voices. These claims eventually led to her tr
Justinian Eastern Roman emperor 527-565 CE; tried to restore unity of old Roman Empire; issued most famous compilation of Roman law
Justinian code Compilation of Roman law
ka'aba Islamic shrine in Mecca; focus of annual truce among Bedouin tribes
kamikaze a legendary typhoon said to have saved Japan from a Mongol invasion fleet in 1281. In Japanese, the word "kamikaze" is used only for this typhoon
Legalism In Christian theology, legalism is belief, stated or supposedly implied, that law, not faith, is the pre-eminent principle of redemption
Mohammed The prophet of Islam
Muslims People who believe and follow the Islamic religion
Neo-Confucianism a response by the Confucians to the dominance of the Daoists and Buddhists, severe Confucianism
Orthodox Christianity is a generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions which descend from the Roman Catholic Church
Plato Greek philosopher; knowledge based on consideration of ideal forms outside the material world; proposed ideal abstract form of government abstract principles
Pope Pope in Rome had top authority, while regional churches had bishops
Quipu system of knotted strings utilized by the Incas in place of a writing system...could contain numerical and other types of information for censuses and financial records
Roman Catholic Church The Christian church characterized by an episcopal hierarchy with the pope as its head and belief in seven sacraments and the authority of tradition
Scholasticism dominant medieval philosophy approach; base in the schools and universities; use of logic to resolve theological problems
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Created by: pikeville1