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Mrs. D Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt Study Stack

Egypt is a country located where? On the northeast corner of the continent of Africa.
When did King Narmer unit Upper and Lower Egypt? 3100 BC/BCE
By what other name is King Narmer known as? King Menes
Why is Lower Egypt above Upper Egypt on a map? Because Upper Egypt is a high land elevation; it isn't north of Lower Egypt, just higher than it.
What season is Inundation? Flood season
When is Inundation season? June to September, June 1st is the Egyptian New Year. They celebrated the coming of the flood season.
What do the farmers do during the flood season? Farmers work on city projects, such as building a pyramid.
What is Emergence season? Farming season, when the flooding stops.
When is Emergence season? September to February. This is when farmers were growing crops like wheat and barley.
What is Drought season? When there is no rain for a long period of time and nothing can grow.
When is the Drought season in Egypt? February to June
What helped farmers grow their crops? The yearly flooding of the Nile river that left good growing soil and the irrigation canals from the Nile River.
Why do we know most about the noble class of Egyptians? Most of the art was drawn about the nobility so we have the most pictures of their lifestyle.
Where did the nobility or aristocracy live? In 3 to 4 story mud brick buildings.
What was life like for the nobility? They had expensive furniture and many servants. The nobility attended parties, dances and played games and had picnics in their free time.
What types of games did nobility play? Games like tug-of-war and senet (a game like checkers)
What did most commoners or peasants do for work in Egypt? They were farmers and craftsman.
How did the farmers water their crops in the dry desert? They dug irrigation canals from the Nile River to their fields to get water to their crops.
How did the Egyptians pay taxes? They paid taxes with what they made or grew. Only commoners paid taxes.
What was life like for the commoners/peasants? Life was filled with hard work. They lived in one to two room houses with little furniture.
What type of government did the ancient Egyptians have? A totalitarian government where the king made all the laws and chose the new ruler. The people had no choice who would rule
What were kings called in ancient Egypt? Kings were called Pharaohs in ancient Egypt, the word is Greek for "Great House". Pharaohs ruled the land until they died.
What was life like for the Pharaohs of Egypt? Pharaohs owned everything and everyone worked for them. Pharaohs would have many wives but would have to marry within the family to preserve the royal bloodlines. People believed Pharaohs were descended from the gods.
What are the crook and flail? They are symbols of office. The crook shows the Pharaoh is the leader of the people and the flail or whip shows he has power over them.
Who helped the Pharaoh? The Pharaoh had many helpers but the vizier was the most important because he was the chief advisor to the pharaoh.
Name some characteristics of the Nile River. The Nile is the longest river in the world, it is over 4,280 miles long. It begins in Lake Victoria in Tanzania and ends in the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile flows south to north.
What did the Egyptians use the Nile River for? Transportation, irrigation, food, and to harvest the papyrus plant for paper making.
What is a delta? A delta is the mouth or end of a river where it meets a larger body of water. Sediment is deposited at the mouth of a river creating new fertile farmland. A process called deposition.
Why was flooding good for the Egyptians? The annual or yearly flooding of the Nile River brought new fertile soil called Kemet each year.
How did the Egyptians control flooding? Through dams and artificial lakes.
How did the Egyptians travel on the Nile River. By boat or barge. They used sails or oars to power the boats.
Name the three kingdoms of time in Ancient Egyptian history. Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom.
What are some of the important events in the Old Kingdom? Upper and Lower Egypt are united the pyramids and Sphinx are built.
What are some important events during the Middle Kingdom? Trading and military expeditions extend Egypt's southern borders and the Hyksos invade Egypt and rule for 200 years.
What are some important events during the New Kingdom? Hatshepsut, the only female pharaoh rules Egypt, King Tutankhamun rules Egypt, Cleopatra rules Egypt and first Alexander the Great and then the Romans defeat Egypt.
Were the Egyptians pagans? yes.
What is another word or synonym for Pagan? polytheistic
How did the Egyptians picture most of their gods? As having an animal head and human body.
Name some Egyptian gods/goddesses. Ra/Re, Amon/Amun, Anubis, Osiris, Isis.
Why did the Egyptians mummify? Because they believed they needed their body in the afterlife.
Which internal organs did they remove during mummification? The lungs, liver, stomach and intestines. Sometimes they removed the kidneys. They left the heart in the body and took the brain out through the nose.
Where did the Egyptians put the internal organs after mummification? Into canopic jars.
Which organ was thought to be the center of intelligence and therefore left in the body? The heart
How did Egyptians remove the brain in the embalming process? Using a hook it was removed through the nose.
During the mummification process, how were the organs and the body dried out? Using a solution of natron and water.
What is natron? A strong powdery salt
What is a synonym for the word mummify or mummification? Embalm or embalming
What three parts did your being split into when you died? The Ba, the Ka and the Akh
What is the Ba? The part of you that roamed the earth when you died
What is the Ka? The part of you that remained in the tomb. It was for the Ka that the person was mummified and the items were in the tomb.
What is the Akh? The part of you that traveled to the kingdom of the dead. Represented by your heart, you had to pass the test of truth to pass.
What were the first tombs of the Pharaohs? Mastabas, low flat topped mud brick buildings. Coming from the Arabic word for bench.
What type of tomb appeared in 2700 BC/BCE? The first step pyramid, designed by Imhotep for the king Djsor [Zoser].
Why would grave robbers want to rob a mummy's tomb? To get the riches inside as nobility were buried with their possessions.
The three largest pyramids are the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing. Where are they located? The Giza plain in Egypt.
What do Pharaohs Khufu, Khafre adn Menkaure have in common? They all have a pyramid build on the Giza plain (and they are all from the same family)
What is the Valley of The Kings? The place where the Pharaohs of the New Kingdom are buried.
Whom did Cleopatra marry? Ptolemy XIII, Ptolemy XIV, and Mark Antony.
How many children did Cleopatra have? 4, one with Julius Caesar and 3 with Mark Antony.
Was Cleopatra Egyptian? No, she was Macedonian Greek
Who was the last ruler of Egypt? Cleopatra, she was the last of the Ptolemies to rule before Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC/BCE
Who defeated Cleopatra and Mark Antony? Octavian, Julius Caesar's nephew. When Octavian ruled Rome he called himself Augustus Caesar.
How were Mark Antony and Cleopatra defeated? Mark Antony thought Cleopatra was dead so he killed himself. Cleopatra was captured by Octavian and rather than be a slave to Rome she poisoned herself.
Who was Cleopatra buried next to? Alexander the Great, in Alexandria, that part of the city fell into the Mediterranean Sea after an earthquake.
Which of the Seven Wonders of the World was in Alexandria Egypt? The Pharos Lighthouse.
When was Egypt conquered by Greece? 331 BC/BCE by Alexander the Great
How old was King Tut when he began ruling Egypt? 9 years old
What is King Tut's full name and what does it mean? Tutankhamun which means Tut lives as the god Amun.
What name was King Tut born with and Why? Tutankhaten because his father, Akhenaten changed Egyptian religion so everyone had to worship the sun disk god, Aten.
Who did King Tut marry? His half sister Ankhesenamun who was born under the name Ankhesenaten.
What are some theories on how Tut died? 1.) He had Marfan's Syndrome 2.) He had an infection from a broken leg.
Who discovered Tut's tomb in 1922? Howard Carter
Why was Tut's tomb so important? It was the only tomb with the mummy and all the artifacts in it.
Where was Tut's tomb located? The Valley of the Kings
Who paid for the excavation of Tut's tomb? Lord Carnarvon
Is the excavation of Tut's tomb fall under Classic or Modern Archaeology? Modern Archaeology. Items were carefully preserved.
What does the word "hieroglyphics" mean? It is a Greek word meaning "sacred carvings"
What is a logogramic language? When a symbol picture represents a word or idea.
What is a phonogramic language? When a symbol represents a sound and the sounds combine to form larger words and more complicated ideas.
Where did we get our alphabet from? The Phonecian alphabet. The Phonecians got it from the Romans who got theirs from the Greek and Egyptian.
Where was the Rosetta Stone found? Rashid [Rosetta] Egypt (near the Nile Delta).
Who found the Rosetta Stone? A soldier traveling with Napoleon.
What is the Rosetta Stone made of? Basalt stone
What was written on the Rosetta Stone? A proclamation from Ptolemy V, written in 3 languages.
Why was the Rosetta Stone important? Because the proclamation was the same in three languages, people could translate the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs and learn what all the hieroglyphs mean.
Who translated the Rosetta Stone? The Frenchman Jean Francios Champollion, it took him 22 years!
Created by: mdavis