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(Chadmw) Chapter 15

(Willis) Chapter 15

Consisted Made up or composed of.
Distinct Easily recognized as different, exceptional, or notable.
Document Any written item, such as a book, article, or letter. Often of a factual or informative nature and used as evidence or proof.
Emphasis Special attention or stress given to something.
Range A chain of mountains.
Aachen The capital city and political center of Charlemagne's empire, which covered much of western and central Europe.
Scandinavia An area in northern Europe that is made up of present-day Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. It was the home of the Vikings, whose raids terrified all of Europe.
Holy Roman Empire A Germanic empire in central Europe that included most of Germany & northern Italy & began with the coronation of Otto the Great, king of Germany, in 962. It was made up of many loosely allied smaller territories.
Clovis King of the Franks, who lived in the area that is now France. He was the first king to unite the Frankish tribes and he is known for being the first to become a Catholic Christian, which he did in A.D. 496.
Charles Martel The most powerful of the Frankish mayors of the palace. He is remembered because he stopped the Muslim advance into Europe, & as a result, Western Europe remained Christian. He also laid the foundation for Feudalism & Knighthood.
Charlemagne Known as Charles the Great, he became king of the Franks & was eventually crowned Emperor of the Romans. His kingdom covered much of W. & C. Europe. He is remembered for a cultural & educational revival known as the Carolingian Renaissance.
Otto I One of the stronger kings of Germany who fought the Magyars and sent troops into Italy to protect the pope. The pope declared him emperor of the Romans in A.D. 962, making him the first one since Charlemagne.
Gregory the Great Pope who wanted to convert all of Europe to Christianity. In 597, he sent missionaries to Britain & they converted Ethelbert, ruler of the kingdom of Kent.
Fjord A long, steep-sided valley that is an inlet of the sea.
Missionary A person who travels to carry the ideas of a religion to others.
Excommunicate To declare that a person or group no longer belongs to a Christian church, & therefore can no longer participate in the Sacraments. This was a way to essentially deny people access to Heaven.
Concordat An agreement between the pope & the ruler of a country that dictates how the church will be regulated in that country.
Venice A city in Italy which became a major trading center in the Mediterranean by A.D. 1000.
Flanders Part of present-day Belgium, its towns became the center of trade for northern Europe. Flemish towns such as Bruges and Ghent became centers for making & trading cloth.
Feudalism Political system that bound lords & their subjects in Europe during the Middle Ages. The king owned the land & gave it to his top nobles in return for their loyalty & service. They allowed others rights to the land in exchange for similar agreements.
Vassal In feudalism, a noble who held land from & served a higher-ranking lord. In return for service they were given protection.
Fief In feudalism, the land a lord granted to a vassal in exchange for military service & loyalty.
Knight In the Middle Ages, a noble warrior who fought on horseback. An apprenticeship had to be served as a page & squire before being raised to the honorable military rank & bound to chivalrous conduct.
Serfs Peasants who were legally bound to the land, which they worked for the lords. They were at the bottom of Feudal Society & were essentially slaves.
Guild A Medieval business group formed by craftspeople & merchants. These were created to maintain the standards of a certain craft & to protect its members.
Normandy The part of Western France that lies across the English Channel from England. It was named after the Vikings, or Norsemen, who ruled it.
Kiev A city around which the Rus state was created by a Viking leader named Oleg around the year A.D. 900. It became a center for trade.
Moscow A city located at the crossroads of several important trade routes in Eastern Europe. It was also the headquarters for the Russian branch of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
William the Conqueror He invaded England & defeated King Harold at the battle of Hastings to become king of England in 1066. His people, the Normans, spoke French but they gradually mixed with the Anglo-Saxons to create a new English culture.
King John The youngest son of Henry II of England. He is remembered for being a poor ruler who angered & alienated his Nobles. English nobles forced John to sign a document of rights called the Magna Carta in 1215, which limited the power of the king.
Philip II King o France from 1180 to 1223. He re-conquered most of the French lands held by the English, making France a much more powerful kingdom.
Saladin Muslim leader & brilliant commander who became ruler of Egypt in 1174. He defeated the Christians of the Crusader Kingdoms & captured Jerusalem in 1187. He is considered to be the greatest Muslim Commander of the Crusades & is remembered for his fairness.
Grand Jury A group that decided whether there was enough evidence to accuse a person of a crime & send them to trial.
Trial Jury A jury that decided whether an accused person was innocent or guilty.
Clergy Religious officials, such as priests, who are given authority to conduct the religious services of the church.
Bologna A city in Italy that was the site of one of the first European universities.
Francis of Assisi An Italian man from a wealthy family who became a monk that preached to the masses. He went on to be the founder of the first order of friars known as Franciscans. He is one of the most venerated religious figures in history.
Thomas Aquinas He was a Dominican friar who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith & reason in a new theology known as scholasticism. He presented philosophical proofs of the existence of God by combining church teachings with those of Aristotle.
Mass A Catholic worship service that celebrates the Eucharist.
Heresy Any belief that differs from or contradicts the accepted teachings of a religion. This became a punishable crime for those who spoke against the teachings of the Catholic Church during the Middle Ages.
Anti-Semitism The hatred of Jews.
Theology The study of religion & God & their influence upon all things.
Scholasticism A medieval philosophy or theology that tried to bring together reason, as it was established by Aristotle, & the faith of the Catholic Church.
Vernacular The everyday language that is used in a particular country or region.
Crecy The first major battle of the Hundred Years' War after Edward invaded France, where the heavily outnumbered English defeated French knights with the longbow. It is considered by many historians to mark the beginning of the end of the Chivalric period.
Orleans French city where the French army, led by Joan of Arc, defeated the English siege of the city & began driving them out of France. It was a turning point in the war, finally swaying things in favor of the French.
Joan of Arc French peasant woman whose faith in God inspired the French army to capture the city of Orleans from the English during the Hundred Years’ War. She was later captured by the English & burnt at the stake as a heretic.
Isabella of Castile The princess of Castile who married Prince Ferdinand of Aragon, thus uniting the two kingdoms into one country called Spain. She completed the Reconquista that expelled the Muslims from Spain & funded Christopher Columbus’ voyage to the new world.
Ferdinand of Aragon The prince of Aragon who married Isabella of Castile, thus uniting the two kingdoms into one country called Spain. He completed the Reconquista that expelled the Muslims from Spain & funded Christopher Columbus’ voyage to the new world.
Plague Any disease that spreads quickly and kills many people.
Reconquista Meaning "re-conquest," this was the Christian struggle to take back the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims. It was finally completed by Isabella of Castile & Ferdinand of Aragon.
Created by: chadmw