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(Willis) Chapter 12 & 13

Convert Someone who has changed from one religion, philosophy, opinion, etc. to another.
Despite In spite of, or regardless.
Inferences Conclusions that are based on reasoning & logic.
Percentage Part of a whole that is measured in parts of one hundred.
Restored Reestablished & brought back into use after a period of not being used.
Korea A peninsula in East Asia located to the northeast of China that has historically been strongly influenced & even controlled at times by the Chinese.
Japan A chain of more than 3,000 islands that stretches north to south in the northern Pacific Ocean; it lies off the coast of the Korean peninsula. Its people were strongly influenced by Chinese culture before it isolated itself from the mainland.
Wendi Chinese general who declared himself emperor of China in A.D. 581. He reunited China and founded a new dynasty called the Sui Dynasty.
Empress Wu Empress of China during the late A.D. 600s and the only woman in China's history who ruled the country on her own. She ruled first as regent for many years, then broke tradition by founding her own Dynasty.
Warlord Military leaders with their own armies.
Economy The organized ways in which people produce, sell, and buy goods and services.
Reform Change that tries to bring about an improvement.
Monastery A religious community where monks live and work in seclusion from the secular, or non-religious, world.
Changan A magnificent city and the capital during the Tang dynasty. Today it is known as Xian.
Li Bo One of the most popular poets during the Tang era in China. He often wrote poems about nature & he is considered to be one of China’s greatest poets ever.
Duo Fu A favorite poet during the Tang era whose poems dealt with issues of social injustice and the problems of the poor.
Porcelain A type of ceramic ware that is made of fine clay and baked at high temperatures. It became a prized export that helped to make China enormously wealthy.
Calligraphy Beautiful handwriting or the art of producing beautiful handwriting.
Mongolia The large area to the north of China that includes the vast Asian Steppes. Famous for being home to the Mongols.
Gobi A vast desert that covers parts of Mongolia and China.
Karakorum The capital city of of the Mongolian empire under Genghis Khan.
Khanbaliq A city in northern China that Kublai Khan chose for his new capital of the Mongolian empire in 1264. Today it is known as Beijing.
Beijing A modern city in present-day China that serves as the capital. It was formerly the city of Khanbaliq, the Mongolian capital under Kublai Khan.
Genghis Khan A Mongolian ruler and ruthless warrior known for his cruelty. He built a huge empire across Asia and conquered all of northern China in the A.D. 1200s. His name means "strong ruler."
Kublai Khan The grandson of Genghis Khan who became the new ruler of the Mongolian empire in A.D. 1260. He continued the Mongol conquest of China, conquering it & founding the Yuan Dynasty in China.
Marco Polo One of the most famous European travelers to reach China. He was from Venice, Italy. He served as a government official of sorts under Kublai Khan. Eventually, he wrote a book about his travels and the wonders of China.
Tribe A group of related families.
Steppe A wide, rolling, grassy plain.
Terror Violent actions that are meant to scare people into surrendering.
Nanjing The capital of China under the Ming dynasty. This city was located in southern China.
Portugal A country in Europe on the Iberian Peninsula that wanted to trade with China in the 1500s, but that also wanted the Chinese to become Christians.
Zhu Yuanzhang A rebel leader and the founder of the Ming dynasty who was also known as Hong Wu. He became emperor of China in 1368 and ruled for 30 years. He reunited the country after the Mongols were driven out.
Yong Le The son of Hong Wu who succeeded his father as emperor of China. He moved the capital north to Beijing in 1421. He also built the Forbidden City, which would be the home of China's emperors for more than 500 years.
Zheng He Born as Ma He, this Chinese Muslim & navigator became Admiral of the famed Treasure Fleet & traveled on seven overseas voyages across the Indian Ocean from 1405 to 1431. His voyages opened the door for trade among China, India, & Africa.
Treason Disloyalty to one’s country through attempts to impair or overthrow the government.
Census An official count of the number of people in a country.
Novel A long fictional story, usually featuring characters and sequences of action.
Barbarian An uncivilized person. This was usually a term that people within an empire used to refer to those who lived outside of their empire.
Analyze To look at or study something closely in order to understand its essential features or parts.
Guaranteed Ensured or made certain.
Inferences Conclusions that are based on reasoning & logic.
Migrated Moved from one country, region, or place to another.
Revolutionized When something has been radically or greatly changed.
Ghana A place in West Africa, from the Atlantic coast to Timbuktu, where trade routes came together in the A.D. 400’s. It was the first empire to develop in Africa during medieval times, & it flourished from about the 9th to 12th centuries.
Mali The West African kingdom that replaced the Ghana Empire after it fell in the 1200’s. It was founded by Sundiata Keita & became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa I.
Timbuktu A trading city in West Africa, that became famous for its wealth. It is often used as a reference for any place that is very far away or very different.
Songhai The West African trading empire that was built during the 15th & 16th centuries by conquering Timbuktu. This Empire was the successor to Mali.
Axum A city-state in East Africa which was the center of power of the empire of Abyssinia. It also served as a trading center for the ancient Mediterranean & East Asian worlds, & was famous for being a very early Christian empire.
Sundiata Keita A great warrior-king known as the "Lion Prince." He seized the capital of Ghana in 1240, making Mali the new dominant trading empire in West Africa.
Mansa Musa The last strong king of Mali, which began a slow decline after his death. He is famous for his hajj to Makkah, during which he spent so much gold that it ruined the North African economies for more than 20 years.
Sunni Ali The leader of Songhai who drove out the Berbers from Timbuktu in 1468. By the time of his death in 1492, he had built the largest empire in West Africa, which lasted almost 100 years.
Plateau An area of high flat land.
Griot In Western Africa, a member of a caste responsible for maintaining an oral record of tribal history in the form of music, poetry, and storytelling.
Dhow An Arab sailboat, usually used off of the Arabian, East African, or Indian coasts.
Makkah Also known as Mecca, it was the largest and richest town along trade routes in Arabia. It was the birthplace of the prophet Muhammad, making it an important religious site for Islam and the holiest place in Arabia.
Olaudah Equiano A member of the Igbo who was enslaved & sent to the Americas. After he gained his freedom, he became a famous writer & abolitionist who disagreed with the European idea that Africans did not have a religion. He said the Igbo believed in one supreme god.
Ibn Battuta An Arab lawyer from Morocco who set out to explore the Muslim world in 1325. He traveled for almost 30 years, exploring much of N. Africa, the M. East, Europe, & Asia. He made it as far as China & is considered one of the greatest travelers in history.
Askia Muhammad One of Sunni Ali's generals, he declared himself king after the death of Sunni Ali and drove Sunni Ali's family from Songhai. He built the largest empire in medieval West Africa.
Clan A group of families related by blood or marriage.
Sultan A military and political leader with absolute authority over a Muslim country.
Swahili A culture & language created from the mixing of East African Bantu culture & Arabic culture.
Benue River A river in present-day eastern Nigeria from which groups of fishing people known as the Bantu migrated south from. The Bantu began migrating around 3000 B.C. & had settled most of Africa by A.D. 400.
Dahia al-Kahina An African war leader or queen of the Berber tribes. She led the fight against the Muslim invasion of North Africa during the A.D. 600’s.
Nzinga An African woman who ruled lands in what are now Angola and Congo. She was known for her military leadership and political skills, she spent almost 40 years fighting against Portuguese slave traders.
Extended Family A family group including several generations as well as other relatives.
Matrilineal This term refers to a group that traces descent through mothers rather than fathers.
Oral History The stories of a people’s past, passed down from generation to generation, but not written down.
Created by: chadmw