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Amanda

AP Geography #1

QuestionAnswer
Absolute Location Position of an object on the global grid; latitude and longitude. Exactly where something is located on earth. Can also be a direct address.
Arithmetic Density Density is most often calculated by the number of things per square unit of distance. Exactly where something is located on earth. Can also be a direct address.
Core and Periphery The dominant core region (city) is where the main economic, political and cultural power is distributed. The outlying region or periphery has lesser economic and political power.
Cultural Landscape The natural landscape as modified by human activities and bearing the imprint of a culture group of society; the built environment.
Diffusion Patterns The different ways and in which human phenomena diffuse spatially, or spread across the earth’s surface from its hearth. Types of diffusion are expansion, hierarchical, relocation, contagious and stimulus
Distance Decay The pattern in which the interaction between two places declines as the distance between the two places increases.
GIS Geographic Information System A computer program that stores geographic data and produces maps to show the data.
GPS Global Positioning System A system of satellites used to determine an exact location on the global grid.
Gravity Model A mathematical model that is used in a number of different types of spatial analysis. This is used to calculate transportation flow between two points, determine the area of influence of a city’s businesses, and estimate the flow of immigrants to a place.
Map Scale (or cartographic scale) The relationship between distance on the map and the actual measurement in the real world
Map Types Topographic—shows natural landscape Thematic—shows a theme like population Isoline—calculates data between points Dot Density—expresses volume & density Flow-line—shows direction and volume of a geographic movement pattern Car
Mental Map The cognitive image of landscape in the human mind. The more we know about a location—the more we improve our mental map.
Physiologic density Measures the number of people per square unit of arable land—meaning both the land that is farmed and the land that has the potential to be farmed but is not active.
Place The theme in Geography that involves the unique combination of physical and cultural attributes that give each location on the earth its individual “stamp
Place-Name A toponym is the name given to a place on earth.
Region The theme in Geography involving a spatial unit that has many places sharing similar characteristics.
Relative Location The location of a place or object described in relation to places or objects around it.
Remote Sensing A technique of obtaining information about objects through the study of data collected by special instruments that are not in physical contact with the objects being analyzed.
Scale The relationship of an object or place to the earth as a whole. A map scale describes the ratio of distance on a map and in the real world. Relative scale describes the level you group things together for examination.
Space The geometric surface of the earth
Cardinal Directions North, south, east and west
Cartography The process of mapmaking
Cultural Ecology The study of human-environment interaction
Distortion Necessary error resulting from trying to represent the round, nearly spherical earth on a flat plane, or map.
Formal Region Region composed of areas that have a common or uniform cultural or physical feature; sometimes referred to as uniform regions.
Great Circles Circles formed on the surface of the earth by a plane that passes through the center. The equator and every line of longitude paired with its twin on the opposite side of the earth form these. Any arc of a great circle shows the shortest distance between
GMT Greenwich Mean Time Baseline for time zones around the world, centered on the prime meridian; sometimes called the Universal time.
Human Geography Branch of geography primarily concerned with analyzing the structures, processes, and location of human creations and interactions with the earth.
Intermediate Directions Northwest, southwest, northeast, and southeast
Lines of Latitude Measured in degrees north and south from the equator, which is 0 degrees latitude. The North Pole is 90 degrees north latitude, and the South Pole is 90 degrees south latitude. These lines never intersect, so geographers often call them parallels.
Lines of Longitude Measured in degrees east and west of one line of longitude known as the prime meridian, the line of longitude that runs through England’s Greenwich Observatory. The prime meridian represents 0 degrees longitude.
Movement Theme in Geography involving the movement occurring in a space; movement of information, people, goods, and other phenomena
Perceptual or Vernacular Region Region whose boundaries are determined by people’s beliefs, not a scientifically measurable process.
Relative Directions Directions commonly given by people, such as right, left, up, and down among others.
Site Internal physical and cultural characteristics of a place, such as its terrain and dominant religions, among others
Situation Location or context of a place relative to the physical and cultural characteristics around it. The more interconnected a place is to other powerful places, the better its situation
Space-time Compression Increasing sense of accessibility and connectivity that seems to be bringing humans in distance places closer and closer
Spatial Perspective Outlook through which geographers identify, explain, and predict the human and physical patterns in space and the interconnectedness of different spaces.
Created by: mshall77