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A/P Final Review 1


Massage therapy had direct, indirect, and reflex effects on the structures and the functions of a human organism. TRUE
Age, gender, and heritage are not predisposing factors that can lead to disease. FALSE (They are predisposing factors)
Cortisol is an anti-inflammatory and antiallergenic. TRUE
Pain, while uncomfortable, does not play a significant role in maintaining homeostasis, it simply is a reaction to overstimmulation of nerve endings. FALSE (Pain's primary function is protection because it warns of tissue damage or destruction somewhere in the body)
There are three responses to pain; psychological, physical, and pathological. FALSE (There are only two responses to pain: psychological and physical)
The pain-spasm-pain cycle, associated with muscle spasms, is a natural reflex reaction that acts to support and protect damaged tissue. TRUE
Generally the more severe the pain, the more severe the tissue damage. TRUE
Massage therapy has little or no effect over breaking the pain-spasm-pain cycle, and the client should be referred immediately to their physician. FALSE (Skillfully applied massage therapy is very effetive in breaking the pain-spasm-pain cycle, relieving the pain, and restoring mobility. Sensitive touch can diver some attention away from the acute intensity of the pain.
Pain cusses muscle contraction and ischemia, thereby causing spasms that causes more pain. TRUE
The degree of tissue repair after injury varies depending on the location, the type of tissue, and the nature of the damage or injury. TRUE
Groups of tissues form complex structures that perform certain functions. Theses structures are called cells. FALSE (The structures are called organs)
The human body is composed of approximately 100 thousand cells, which develop from a single cell, the fertilized ovum. FALSE (100 Trillion cells)
Serous membranes produce serous fluid, a watery substance that also acts as a lubricant. TRUE
Deep fascia covers each muscle fiber, the muscle fascicles, the whole muscle, and groups of muscles. TRUE
Massage is indicated for the subacute stage of fractures once they have been set and immobilized. TRUE
Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systemic, autoimmune inflammatory diseases, and it is the most crippling form of arthritis. TRUE
A strain is an injury to a joint that results in the stretching or tearing of the ligaments. FALSE (Sprain)
All classifications of sprains cause swelling and require rest and support while the tissues heal. TRUE
Massage is contraindicated during an acute episode of a herniated disk. TRUE
The action of muscle cells produce nearly all the movement of the body. TRUE
Muscles comprise 50 to 75 % of the total body weight. FALSE (40 to 60 %)
Irritability is the ability of the muscle to stretch. FALSE (Extensibility)
Skeletal muscle tissue is supplied with a vast network of blood and lymph vessels and capillaries and nerve fibers. TRUE
Superficial fascia covers the entire muscular system. TRUE
Muscle cells are unique in that they have only one nucleus. FALSE (They are mulitnucleated, having many nuclei)
There are few specialized muscle cells called spindle cells that have both sensory and motor functions. TRUE
Larger muscles have the same number of muscle fibers as smaller muscles, and they have more intricate muscle motor units. FALSE (Larger muscles may have several hundred muscle fibers, whereas a smaller muscle group may have only two or three muscle fibers)
There is only enough ATP stored in the muscle cells to sustain a contraction for a few seconds. TRUE
Skeletal muscles have at least one end of the muscle that is attached to bone. TRUE
The medial aspect of an organ means it is farthest point form the origin of the structure. FALSE (medial is nearest the center)
A midsagittal plane divides the human body into equal left and right halves. TRUE
In the human body, the elbow is proximal to the wrist. TRUE
The dorsal cavity of the human body contains the stomach, spleen and pancreas. FALSE (the dorsal cavity contains... the brain and spinal cord)
The pelvic cavity of the human body contains: the bladder, rectum and some of the reproductive organs. TRUE
In the human body the hypochondriac region of the abdomen is lateral to the epigastric region. TRUE
The skin breathes through its pores much as the body breathes through its lungs. TRUE
The papillary layer of the dermis provides the body with a sense of touch. TRUE
The subcutaneous layer is composed of adipose tissue and remains constant in thickness throughout the body's lifetime. FALSE (the subcutaneous layer varies in thickness according to the age, gender and general health of an individual)
Seventy-five percent of the total blood supply of the body is distributed to the skin. FALSE (approximately 50%)
Acne is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin, usually related to hormonal changes and overactive sebaceous glands during adolescence. TRUE
Bone is the hardest structure in the body. FALSE (Dentine, the dense, hard tissue that forms the body of a tooth, is the hardest structure in the body)
Typically long bones have enlarged areas on the ends called the diaphysis. FALSE (epiphysis)
The bones of the skull, thorax, vertebral column, and the hyoid bone comprise the axial skeleton. TRUE
The upper extremities are comprised of 64 bones and the lower extremities are comprised of 66 bones. TRUE
Joints are classified according to the amount of motion they permit. TRUE
Created by: sjb923