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chapter 2 AP HUG

chapter 2 vocab AP HUG rubenstein

agricultural density the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
agricultural revolution the time when humans beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
arithmetic density the total number of people divided by the total land area
census the numbering of a population
crude birth rate (cbr) the total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
crude death rate (cdr) the total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society
demographic transition change in a society's population
demography the scientific study of population characteristics
dependency ratio the number of people under the age 15 and over the age 64 compared the number of people active in the labor force
doubling time the number of years needed to double a population assuming a constant rate of natural increase
ecumene the portion of earths surface occupied by permanent human settlement
epidemiologic transition distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
epidemiology branch of medical science concerned with the incidence distribution and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people
industrial revolution a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
infant mortality rate (IMR) the total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year for every 1000 live births in a society
life expectancy the average number of years an individual can be expected to live given current social economic and medical conditions
medical revolution medical terminology invented in europe and north america that is diffused to the poorer countries of latin america africa and asia have eliminated many traditional causes of death in poorer countries and more people lived longer and healthier
natural increase rate (nir) the percentage growth of a population in a year computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
overpopulation the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
pandemic disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
physiological density the number of people per unit of area of land suitable for agriculture
population pyramid a bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
sex ratio the number of males per 100 females in the population
total fertility rate (tfr) the average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
zero population growth (zpg) a decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero