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chapter 1 AP HUG

AP human geography chapter 1 vocab

agricultural density the ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
arithmetic density the total number of people divided by the total land area
base line an east west line designated under the land ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the U.S.
cartography the science of map making
clustered/centralized pattern where houses and/or buildings are situated very close to each other
concentration the spread of something over a given area
connections relationships among people and objects without being connected
contagious diffusion the rapid widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
cultural ecology geography that emphasizes human environment relationships
cultural landscape changing natural landscape by a cultural group
culture customs or beliefs shared amongst a group of people
density the frequency within which something exists within a given unit of area
diffusion the process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
dispersed isolated farms rather than clustered villages
distance decay the diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
distribution the arrangements of something across earths surface
environmental determinism 19th early 20th century approach to the study of geography arguing that the general laws found by human geographers were in physical science was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities
expansion diffusion the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
formal region an area that everyone shares in one or more characteristics
functional region an area organized around a node or focal
geographic information system (GIS) a computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
global positioning system (GPS) a system that determines the precise position of something on earth through a series of satellites tracking stations and receivers
globalization actions that involve the entire world and result in making something into a worldwide focus
Greenwich mean time (GMT) master reference time for all points on earth
hearth the region from which innovative ideas originate
hierarchical diffusion the spread of feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
international date line an arc that mostly follows 180 degrees longitude
land ordinance of 1785 a law that divided much of the US into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers
latitude used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator
location the position of anything on earth
longitude used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distances east and west of the prime meridian
map a two dimensional representation of earths surface or a part of it
mental map an internal representation of a portion of earths surface based on what an individual knows about a place containing personal impressions or what is in a place and where places are located
meridian an arc drawn on a map between the north and south poles
nodal region a region characterized by a set of places connected to another place by lines of communication or movement
parallel a circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
pattern the geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
physiological density the number of people per unit of area of land suitable for agriculture
place a specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character
polder land created by the dutch by draining water from an area
possibilism the theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of actions from many alternatives
prime meridian line designated at 0 degrees longitude that passes through the royal observatory at Greenwich England
principal meridian a north south line designated in the land ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the US
projection a system used to transfer locations from earths surface to a flat map
region an area with a unique combination of trends or features
regional studies geography that shows the relationships among social and physical issues in a particular area
relocation diffusion the spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
remote sensing the receiving of data about earths surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long distance method
resource a substance in the environment that is useful to people is economically and technologically able to access and is socially acceptable to use
scale the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on the earths surface
sections a square normally one mile on a side the land ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the US into 36 sections
site physical character of a place
situation the location of a place relative to other places
space the physical gap or interval between 2 objects
space time compression the reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
stimulus diffusion the spread of an underlying principle even through a specific character is rejected
toponym a name given to a portion of earths surface
township a square normally 6 miles on a side the land ordinance of 1785 divided much of the US into townships
transnational corporation company that conducts research operates factories and sells products in many countries not just where its headquarters are located
uneven development the increasing gap in the economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
vernacular region an area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity