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Chapter 2-Organization of the Body

atom smallest unit of matter
nucleus center of the atom
proton positively charged particle
neutron without an electrical charge
electron negatively charged particle
element made up of atoms cannot be separated or broken down
molecule chemical combination of 2 or more atoms that form a compound
cells building blocks for structures
cell membrane outer covering of the cell
protoplasm substance within the cell membrane
karyoplasm substance of the cell's nucleus contains genetic matter controls cell activity
cytoplasm all protoplasm outside the nucleus provides storage and work areas contains organelles
Endoplasmic Reticulum carries proteins through the cytoplasm
Ribosomes protein factories
Golgi Apparatus chemical processing and packaging center
mitochondria power plants
lysosomes digestive bags
centrioles cell reproduction
cilia hair like processes that propel dust and mucus
flagellum tail of the sperm aid in swimming
tissues grouping of similar cells that perform specialized functions
epithelial tissue sheet like arrangement of cells form the outer layer of skin protect, absorb, secrete and excrete
connective tissue most abundant tissue supporting network for organs
muscle tissue voluntary or striated cardiac involuntary or smooth
nerve tissue excitability and conductivity control and coordinate activities of the body
organs tissues serving a common purpose
systems group of organs functioning together for a common purpose
standard anatomical position body is erect head facing forward arms by the side palms facing forward
primary reference systems directions, planes, cavities, structural units
superior upward direction above
anterior in front of
posterior behind
cephalad toward the head
medial near the middle
lateral the side
proximal nearest the point of attachment
distal away from the point of attachment
ventral front side
dorsal back side
midsagittal plane divides body through midline to form a left and right half
transverse or horizontal plane divides body into superior and interior positions
coronal or frontal plane divides body at right angles to the midsagittal plane into anterior and posterior
cavity hollow space containing body organs
ventral cavity extends from neck to pelvis thoracic, abdominal and pelvic
thoracic cavity contains heart and lungs
pericardial cavity contains heart
pleural cavity contains lungs
abdominal cavity space below diaphragm belly
pelvic cavity pelvic area
dorsal cavity nervous system cranial and spinal
cranial cavity space in the skull containing the brain
spinal cavity space within spinal column that contains the spinal cord and fluid
abdominopelvic cavity combination of abdominal and pelvic cavities
hypochondriac regions of the abdominopelvic cavity upper right and left regions
epigastric regions of the abdominopelvic cavity over the stomach
lumbar regions of the abdominopelvic cavity right and left middle regions
umbilical region of the abdominopelvic cavity at the navel
iliac regions of the abdominopelvic cavity right and left lower regions
hypogastric region of the abdominopelvic cavity lower middle region below the navel
abdomen divided into 4 regions RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
adipose fatty tissue
ambilateral both sides
anatomy to cut up to study the structure of an organism
android resemble man
apex pointed end of a cone shape
base lower foundation
bilateral two sides
biology study of life
caudal tail
chromosome carry genes that determine hereditary characteristics
cytology study of cells
deep far down from the surface
dehydrate remove water
diffusion move from higher concentration to lower concentration
ectogenous formation outside the organism
ectomorph slender body form
endormorph rounder body form
filtration strain particles from a solution
gene hereditary unit that transmits and determines one's characteristics
histology study of tissue
homeostasis state of equilibrium
human genome complete set of genes and chromosomes inside a cell
inferior below
inguinal near the groin
internal within
karyogenesis formation of a cell's nucleus
mesomorph well proportioned body
organic pertaining to an organ
pathology study of disease
perfusion pouring through
phenotype physical appearance
physiology study of the nature of living organisms
somatotrophic stimulation of body growth
superficial near or on the surface
systemic the body as a whole
topical pertaining to a place
unilateral one side
vertex top or highest point crown of head
visceral body organs enclosed within a cavity
Created by: Martin333



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