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08 W H 1500 to Pres

2008 World History 1500 to Present SOL Resources

Why were regional trading patterns important about 1500 A.D. ? The exchange of products and ideas
What technological and scientific advancements were exchanged by about 1500 A.D. ? Paper, compass, silk, porcelain (China) Textiles (India) Numeral system, astronomy, mathematics, medicine (Middle East)
What products were traded on the Silk Routes? Paper, compass, silk, porcelain
What products were traded on Trans-Saharan routes? Gold, salt
What products were traded on South China Sea routes? Spices
What products were traded on Indian Ocean routes? Spices, textiles
What products were traded on European routes? Products and ideas from Asia
A humanist would most likely tell someone to study poetry, philosophy, and history
Who was a well-known Renaissance author of sonnets? Shakespeare
Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
The movement of humanism studied the ancient cultures of Greece and Rome.
What were the approximate dates of the Renaissance? 1350–1600 A.D.
Where did the Renaissance begin? Italy
What does renaissance mean? Rebirth
What are the characteristic of Renaissance art? life-like gestures and action, religious and secular themes, and human emotions and feelings D human emotions and feelings
Leonardo de Vinci painted The Last Supper.
Who best represented the humanist philosophy of the Renaissance? Erasmus
The Songhai Empire traded gold and salt
Chinese goods desired by Europeans? Porcelain, Paper, and Silk
Martin Luther's religious views __________. Salvation by faith alone, Bible as the ultimate authority, all humans equal before God
John Calvin's religious views ___________. Predestination, faith revealed by living a righteous life, and work ethic
King Henry VIII's religious views ___________. Dismissed the authority of the Pope in Rome
Queen Elizabeth I was associated with the _________ Church. Anglican.
Queen Elizabeth I's rule was known for victory over the ______________ in 1588 Spanish Armada
King Henry VIII __________ and remarried, then broke with the Catholic Church. divorced
John Calvin believed in predestination and expanded the _______________. Protestant movement.
After breaking with the Catholic Church, King Henry VIII formed the ________ of _________. Church of England.
The Catholic monarch (Henry IV) granted Protestant Huguenots freedom of worship with the Edict of Nantes.
The Society of Jesus (The Jesuits) was founded to spread ____________ around the world. Catholic doctrine
The _____________ was used to reinforce Catholic Doctrine during the Catholic Reformation. Inquisition
Thirty Years' War in Germany between the _________ and _________ resulted resulted in devastating loss Protestants and Catholics
In England, the rise of Reformation contributed to the growth of capitalism.
__________, a French theologian, advocated that God had preordained the fate of all people. This was called predestination. John Calvin
____________ expressed the beliefs that 1) Salvation by faith alone 2) Bible is the ultimate authority 3) All humans are equal before God Martin Luther
The Anglican Church became a national church throughout the British Isles under what monarch? Elizabeth I.
The ___________ was a conflict between Protestants and Catholics. Thirty Years’ War
Ignatius Loyola established what order of monks? Jesuits
Cardinal Richelieu changed the focus of the Thirty Years’ War from a religious conflict to a __________ conflict. political
The church court established to reinforce Catholic doctrine was the Inquisition.
Freedom of worship was granted to the Huguenots through the Edict of Nantes.
The primary reason that the North German princes supported Martin Luther was economic.
The group formed to reform the Catholic Church was the Council of Trent.
What factors contributed to the discovery of lands in the Western Hemisphere? Economic competition between European empires
Explorer was from Portugal who 1497 hoping to sail around Africa, and reach India. Vasco da Gama
European migration to the Americas resulted in the demise of the Aztec, Maya, and Inca empires.
The impact of the Columbian Exchange included the death of many American Indians from smallpox.
Ferdinand Magellan explored for Spain.
Which explorer received credit for establishing the first permanent colonies in the Americas? Columbus
The second person to circumnavigate the globe was Drake
Where were the majority of seventeenth-century African slaves sent in the New World? Columbian Exchange.
What were the main reasons for exploring during the Age of Discovery? God,gold, and glory
The Ottoman Empire spread to the Balkan Peninsula
Istanbul, formerly named Constantinople, was the capital of the Ottoman Empire
The Taj Mahal was a contribution of the _________ Empire. Mughal
Military leaders, called shoguns, ruled Japan.
The West African empires traded slaves and what other goods? Gold and salt
What is mercantilism? The idea that a nation‘s power is related to its wealth and needs a favorable balance of trade with its colonies.*
With the fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the capital city of Constantinople was renamed Istanbul.
Which was the largest Muslim Empire in the 1500s? Ottoman
The two empires that were isolationist were Ming and Tokugawa
In Japan, the Dutch were allowed to trade from Nagasaki.
William Harvey discovered circulation of the _______. blood
• Isaac Newton formulated law of ________ . gravity
Johannes Kepler discovered _________ motion. planetary
Nicolaus Copernicus developed the _________ theory. heliocentric
Galileo Galilei used the _______ to support heliocentric theory. _________________ telescope
The ____________ takes its name from a series of European monarchs who increased the power of their central governments. Age of Absolutism
The importance of the Scientific Revolution (name 3) 1) Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of nature, 2)Formulation of the scientific method, and 3)Expansion of scientific knowledge.
Characteristics of the absolute monarchies Centralization of power, and Concept of rule by divine right
Two absolute monarchs: ____________ - Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal power. And, ___________________ Westernization of Russia Louis XIV of France, Peter the Great of Russia
Political ___________ rests on the principle that government derives power from the consent of the governed. democracy
The foundations of _____ rights include the jury trial, the Magna Carta, and common law. The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution prompted further development of the rights of Englishmen. English
The English Civil War and the Glorious Revolution promoted the development of the rights of Englishmen through what events • Oliver Cromwell and Charles I execution. • The restoration of Charles II • Development of political parties/factions • Glorious Revolution • Increase of parliamentary power & decrease of royal power • English Bill of Rights of 1689 execution
________ thinkers believed that human progress was possible through the application of scientific knowledge and reason to issues of law and government. They also influenced the leaders of American Revolution and the writing of Declaration of Independence. Enlightenment
The Enlightenment Applied reason to the ________ , as well as to the rest of the natural world • Stimulated _______ tolerance • Fueled ________ revolutions around the world human world, religious, democratic
______________ through the Levianthan explained that Humans exist in a primitive "state of nature" and consent to government for self-protection. Thomas Hobbes‘s
__________ Two Treatises on Government: People are sovereign and consent to government for protection of natural rights to life, liberty, and property. John Locke‘s
____________ in The Spirit of Laws stated that The best form of government includes a separation of powers Montesquieu
In ___________ work, The Social Contract: Government is a contract between rulers and the people Jean-Jacques Rousseau‘s
The philosopher, _________, believed Religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism; separation of church and state. Voltaire
________ was a German Baroque composer during the Age of Reason. Johann Sebastian Bach
_________ Classical music composer during the Enlightenment/Age of Reason. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
_____________ famous novelist who wrote Don Quixote. This was the first modern novel in Europe. Miguel de Cervantes
_________ famous painter (transition to the Romantic School of the nineteenth century) Eugène Delacroix
Improved technologies that were important to European economies during the Enlightenment or Age of Reason. All-weather roads improved year-round transport and trade. • New designs in farm tools increased productivity (agricultural revolution). Improvements in ship design lowered the cost of transport.
The ______ was a political prison for individuals who opposed the absolutism of the monarchy, and its fall was a symbolic beginning of the French Revolution. Bastille
Name the outcomes of the French Revolution. • The execution of Louis XVI • War with neighboring countries, who feared this revolution would spread to them • The rise of Napoleon as a strong figure who could bring order out of chaos.
_______ is closely associated with the belief that government should be a contract made by the people.* John Locke
________ is known as a pioneer of the Scientific Revolution for his discovery of planetary motion. Johannes Kepler
Peter the Great was a monarch of Russia.
The principle that government derives power from the consent of the governed is represented through democracy.
The development of the rights of Englishmen included the establishment of common law.
The Enlightenment thinker who wrote The Social Contract was Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
Application of Enlightenment thinking include Reason was applied to the human world, not just the natural world. Religious tolerance was encouraged. Democratic revolutions around the world were fueled.
The first reigning monarch to face a public trial and execution was Charles I.
The separation of powers found in the United States Constitution comes from the writings of which Enlightenment thinker? Montesquieu
The reign of which monarch gave England its first constitutional monarchy? Mary II
The influence of the American and French revolutions on Latin America resulted in Slaves in Haiti rebelled, abolished slavery, and won independence. • Father Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican independence movement. • French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies gained independence.
The contributions of Toussaint L‘Ouverture Former slave who led Haitian rebellion against French • Defeated the armies of three foreign powers: Spain, France, and Britain
_________, July 14th, is similar to July 4th in the United States Bastille Day (July 14, 1789)
Father Miguel Hidalgo, a liberal priest, started the Mexican . independence movement
Rigid class structures that existed in the Latin American colonies include Viceroys and other colonial officers, Creoles, and Mestizos
For more than 300 years, from 1492 to 1800, European countries, primarily ______ and ________, established colonies to provide raw materials and trade for the benefit of the mother countries. Spain and Portugal
What religion had a strong influence on the development of the Latin American colonies during the Latin Revolution? Catholicism
In the colonial Latin American system, colonial governments ______ the home governments in Latin America. mirrored
Major cities that were established as outposts authorities in colonial Latin American include: Havana, Mexico City, Lima, São Paulo, and Buenos Aries
Countries that gained independence during the 1800s: Mexico • Haiti • Colombia • Venezuela • Brazil
The contributions of Simón Bolivar: • Native resident led revolutionary efforts • Liberated the northern areas of Latin America
The Monroe Doctrine was issued by _____ in _____. Latin American nations were acknowledged to be ______. The U.S. would regard any attempt by ______as a threat to its own peace and safety in the Western Hemisphere. James Monroe in 1823. independent. European
After the American Revolution, the United States wished to prevent foreign interference in America. ________ was issued in 1823, alerting European powers that the American continents should not be considered for any future colonization. The Monroe Doctrine
Who led a successful revolution in Haiti to free Haitians from French rule? Toussaint L‘Ouverture
Who led a successful revolution in the northern area of South America, eventually having a country named after him? Simón Bolivar
Viceroys were colonial officials
Which nation claimed the region extending from Mexico through South America? Spain
The European colonies in the Americas imitated the cultures and social patterns of their parent countries.
The United States issued the Monroe Doctrine because there was conflict over who would control Latin America.
Revolutions in Latin America were influenced by the French Revolution.
Who started the Mexican independence movement? Father Miguel Hidalgo
Napoleon's legacy includes Unsuccessful attempt to unify Europe under French domination, The Napoleonic Code, Awakening of feelings of national pride and growth of nationalism.
Congress of Vienna political and philosophical contributions during the 19 Century include "Balance of power" doctrine • Restoration of monarchies • New political map of Europe • New political philosophies (liberalism, conservatism)
The terms of the Congress of Vienna led to widespread _________ in Europe, especially in Italy and the German states. Unsuccessful revolutions in 1848 increased nationalistic tensions. discontent
The United Kingdom expanded political rights through _________ means and made slavery illegal in the British Empire. legislative
What events are related to the unification of Italy and the role of Italian nationalists? Count Cavour unified northern Italy. • Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to northern Italy. • The Papal States (including Rome) became the last to join Italy.
What events are related to the unification of Germany and the role of Bismarck? Otto von Bismarck led Prussia in unification of Germany through war & by appealing to nationalist.•Bismarck‘s actions were seen as Realpolitik, which justifies all means to achieve & hold power.•Franco-Prussian War led to creation of German state.
A meeting of the victorious powers after Napoleon‘s exile whose objective was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. Congress of Vienna of 1815
The reasons for the rise in nationalism in the 1800s in Europe • National pride • Economic competition • Democratic ideals • Influence of certain writers, such as Goethe
How was Great Britain was able to avoid the revolutionary events on the continent in the early to mid-1800s Britain was no longer an absolute monarchy, so the people already had a say in their government. • Britain had begun some reforms, such as abolishing slavery and expanding political reforms (e.g., the Reform Bill of 1832, which expanded the electorate).
Who was the Sardinian (Piedmont) minister, was responsible for unifying northern Italy under the Piedmont monarchy. Count Cavour
Who was the nationalistic leader of the "red shirts" in southern Italy, overthrew the monarch in that area. Even though he preferred a republic, he turned the area over to Cavour, leaving the Papal States as the last holdout. Garibaldi
In 1870, the ______ States were forced to join the unification, leaving them only with what is today the Vatican. Papal
Who was known as the "Iron Chancellor" of Prussia, led the unification process for Germany around the state of Prussia. Otto von Bismarck
The _____________ of 1870 was the final step in the German unification process and helped lay the foundation for World War I, in which France was punished severely and lost territory to Germany. Franco-Prussian War
__________ actions reflected the Machiavellian Realpolitik belief, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power. Bismarck‘s
What was the impact of the unification of Italy and Germany on European politics? Two more powers in Europe. •Italy & Germany must compete with others for industrial-colonial development. Bismarck wins the Franco-Prussian War. • France seeks revenge for Franco-Prussian War. Alliances develop in Europe. Military buildup in Europe.
The Congress of Vienna restored European monarchies.
The unification of southern Italy was accomplished by Giuseppe Garibaldi.
The Franco-Prussian War led to the creation of a German state.
What was the significance of the Code of Napoleon? It established a series of rights and laws that did not rely on earlier customs.
Attempting to restore Europe as it had been before the French Revolution and Napoleonic conquests, the Congress of Vienna left a legacy of two new political philosophies, liberalism and conservatism.
Otto von Bismarck coined this term to describe his political philosophy of “doing what works instead of what would be ideal.” Realpolitik
The Congress of Vienna accomplish compensation for damages, restoring legitimate monarchs, and restoring balance of power
What leader of the Congress of Vienna opposed the formation of a unified Italian state? Clemens von Metternich
The “red shirts” under Garibaldi defeated opponents using guerilla warfare, a military style best described as small groups striking enemies unexpectedly.
The Industrial Revolution began in ______ and spread to the rest of Western Europe and the United States. England (because of her natural resources (e.g., coal, iron ore) and the invention and improvement of the steam engine.
The Industrial Revolution created an increased demand for _______ from the Americas, Asia, and Africa. raw materials
The advancements in technology produced the ______________, while advancements in science and medicine altered the lives of people living in the new industrial cities. Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution produced changes in ______ and _______. culture and society
the Industrial Revolution caused a rise of the ________ and a demise of the _________. factory system, cottage industries
The Industrial Revolution caused rising economic powers to wanted the control of raw materials and markets throughout the world.
Technological advancements that helped produce the Industrial Revolution: • Spinning jenny:___________ • Steam engine: _________ • Cotton gin: ________ •and the process for making steel: __________. James Hargreaves, James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer
The following advancements in science and medicine: Development of smallpox vaccination: __________, and Discovery of bacteria: ___________. Edward Jenner, Louis Pasteur
The impact of the Industrial Revolution on industrialized countries include population increase, increased standards of living, Improved transportation, urbanization, environmental pollution,Increased education, dissatisfaction of working class with working conditions, and growth of the middle class
The describe the dominant economic pattern and emergence of capitalism during the Industrial Revolution Adam Smith‘s Wealth of Nations • Role of market competition and entrepreneurial abilities • Impact on standard of living and the growth of the middle class • Dissatisfaction with poor working conditions and the unequal distribution of wealth in society
Describe the components of the development of socialism and communism during the Industrial Revolution Karl Marx‘s The Communist Manifesto (written with Friedrich Engels) and Das Kapital • Response to the injustices of capitalism • Importance to communists of redistribution of wealth
Agricultural economies were based on the _____ unit. The _________ had a significant impact on the structure and function of the family. family, Industrial Revolution
The nature of work in the factory system include Family-based cottage industries displaced by factory system • Harsh working conditions (men competing against women/children) • Child labor kept costs of production low & profits high • Owners of mines/factories exercised considerable control over labors.
the impact of the Industrial Revolution on slavery: • The cotton gin increased demand for slave labor on American plantations. • The United States and Britain outlawed the slave trade and then slavery
Name the social effects of the Industrial Revolution: Women and children entering the workplace as cheap labor • Introduction of reforms to end child labor • Expansion of education • Women‘s increased demands for suffrage
The rise of labor unions during the Industrial Revolution encouraged worker-organized strikes to demand increased wages and improved working conditions • employees to lobby for laws to improve the benfits/conditions, •increased workers‘ rights and collective bargaining between labor and management
Industrial nations in Europe needed natural resources and markets to expand their ________. economies
Nationalism motivated European nations to compete for colonial _____________. possessions
Imperialism spread economic, political, and social philosophies of Europe throughout the world. Name the types of imperialism: • Colonies • Protectorates • Spheres of influence
European nations competed to control Africa and Asia to secure their own ______ and _______ success. economic and political
Imperialism in Africa and Asia was characterized by European domination, European conflicts carried to the colonies, Christian missionary efforts, Spheres of influence in China, Suez Canal, East India Company‘s domination of Indian states, and American opening of Japan to trade
An economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit capitalism
A system in which the people as a whole rather than private individuals own all property and operate all businesses socialism
A form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx; according to Marx, class struggle was inevitable and would lead to the creation of a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole communism
Who developed the smallpox vaccination? Edward Jenner
The Industrial Revolution made an impact on the industrialized countries of the world by improving transportation.
Adam Smith, in his work Wealth of Nations, contributed to the development of capitalism by defending the idea of free markets.*
What prompted imperialism to develop? Nationalism, Industrial Revolution, and Religious fervor
In 1853, Matthew Perry used naval power to force Japan to trade with the U.S.
What German economist/philosopher is credited with the idea of communism? Karl Marx
According to communism, history is dominated by the struggle between what two groups? the bourgeoisie and the proletariat
Eli Whitney’s cotton gin increased the demand in the American South for slaves.
World War I (1914–1918) was caused by _____ among industrial nations in Europe and a failure of diplomacy. The war transformed European and American life, wrecked the economies of Europe, and planted the seeds for a _______________. competition, second world war
The causes of World War I: Alliances that divided Europe into competing camps • Nationalistic feelings • Diplomatic failures • Imperialism • Competition over colonies • Militarism
The major events of World War I: Assassination of Austria‘s Archduke Ferdinand • United States enters war • Russia leaves the war
What were the outcomes and global effects of World War I: Colonies‘ participation in the war, which increased demands for independence _________________ • End of the Russian Imperial, Ottoman, German, and Austro-Hungarian empires • Enormous cost of the war in lives, property, and social disruption
Name the terms of the Treaty of Versailles: Forced Germany to accept guilt for war and loss of territory and to pay reparations • Limited the German military • League of Nations
Tsarist Russia entered WW I as an ________ with sharp class divisions between nobility and peasants. Workers and peasants grievences were not ______ by the Tsar. Inadequate administration in WW I led to _______ and an unsuccessful provisional government. absolute monarchy, resolved, revolution, U.S.S.R.
A second revolution by the Bolsheviks created the communist state that ultimately became the __________. U.S.S.R.
Causes of the 1917 Russian revolutions Defeat in war with Japan in 1905 • Landless peasantry • Incompetence of Tsar Nicholas II • Military defeats and high casualties in World War I
Summarize the rise of communism in Russia Bolshevik Revolution and civil war • Vladimir Lenin‘s New Economic Policy (NEP) • Joseph Stalin, Lenin‘s successor
The Causes of World War I. M – Militarism, A – Alliances divided Europe into competing camps, N – Nationalistic feelings, I – Imperialism A – Alliances caused diplomatic failures, C – Competition over colonies in Africa/Asia, S – Serbian assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
Name the five important World War I figures: Archduke Franz Ferdinand • Kaiser Wilhelm II • Tsar Nicolas II • Woodrow Wilson • Vladimir Lenin
Name the five major new types of weapons of World War I: • submarine • machine gun • poison gas • tank • airplane
The causes of the Russian Revolution (Mnemonic) R-Russia lost to Japan(1905). E–Every landless peasant demanded land V–Violence broke out over bread shortage & military defeats. O–Overthrow of provisional government led by Bolsheviks. L–Lenin created communist U.S.S.R. T–The New Economic Policy (NEP).
Mnemonic (and meaning) for punishing impact of the Treaty of Versailles on Germany. RAW: R – Reparations were demanded of Germany. A – Allies took German land and limited German military. W – War‘s total guilt was forced on Germany.
What are the dates for World War I? 1914–1918
The leader of Germany during World War I was Wilhelm II.
What was the “spark” that started World War I? The assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
The leader of the Bolsheviks before the revolution was Vladimir Lenin.
The Treaty of Versailles was especially harsh against which participant in the war? Germany
Which country joined the Allies in 1917? United States
Which term means “money paid for war damages?” Reparations
Cause of World War I? Imperialism, Militarism, and Failure of diplomacy
The Treaty of Versailles accomplished 1) Set up the League of Nations, 2) force Germany to pay reparations. and 3)limit Germany‘s military.
The U.S. President during World War I was Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry Truman, and Teddy Roosevelt.
The leader of Russia during World War I was Tsar Nicholas II.
Before World War I, Russia had what form of government. Absolute monarchy
Reason the Russian Revolution took place? There was anger over military defeats during World War I. Japan defeated Russia in the Russo-Japanese War. Landless peasants wanted to own their own property.
Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP) allowed capitalism in order to give incentives for food production.
"What! This isn‘t peace! This is just a truce for 20 years!" (Marshal Foch, 1919) The author of this statement is predicting that another war is likely because the peace treaty is unfair.
Describe the League of Nations and the reasons it failed International cooperative organization • Established to prevent future wars • United States not a member • Failure because it did not have power to enforce its decisions
During World War I, Great Britain and France agreed to divide large portions of the ________ in the Middle East between themselves. Ottoman Empire
After the World War I, the __________ gave Great Britain and France control over the lands that became Iraq, Transjordan, and Palestine (British controlled), and Syria and Lebanon (French controlled). mandate system
The division of the Ottoman Empire through the mandate system planted the seeds for future conflicts in the ___________. Middle East.
Uneven prosperity in the decade following World War I (the 1920s) was followed by worldwide ________ in the 1930s. It weakened Western democracies, making it difficult for them to challenge the threat of totalitarianism. depression
Causes of the worldwide depression following World War I: German reparations, Expansion of production capacities and dominance of the United States in the global economy, High protective tariffs, Excessive expansion of credit, and Stock Market Crash of 1929
The impact of the worldwide depression following World War I, High unemployment in industrial countries, Bank failures and collapse of credit, Collapse of prices in world trade, Nazi Party‘s growing importance in Germany; and Nazi Party‘s blame of European Jews for economic collapse
Worldwide depression in the 1930s provided opportunities for the rise of ________ in the Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, and Japan. dictators
After World War I, a communist dictatorship was established by Vladimir Lenin and continued by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union.
Name the key aspects of Joseph Stalin's reign of the U.S.S.R. during the Interwar Period • Entrenchment of communism • Stalin‘s policies: Five-year plans, collectivization of farms, state industrialization, secret police, • Great Purge
The Treaty of Versailles worsened economic and political conditions in Europe and led to the rise of _______ regimes in Italy and Germany. totalitarian
Describe Germany under Adolf Hitler during the Interwar Period, • Inflation and depression • Democratic government weakened • Anti-Semitism • Extreme nationalism • National Socialism (Nazism)• German occupation of nearby countries
Name the key aspects of Adolf Hitler's reign over Germany during the Interwar Period, • Inflation and depression • Democratic government weakened • Anti-Semitism • Extreme nationalism • National Socialism (Nazism)• German occupation of nearby countries
Name the key aspects of Benito Mussolini's reign of Italy during the Interwar Period Rise of fascism • Ambition to restore the glory of Rome • Invasion of Ethiopia
_______ emerged as a world power after World War I and conducted aggressive imperialistic policies in Asia. Japan
Name the key aspects of Hirohito and Hideki Tojo's reign of Japan during the Interwar Period, • Militarism • Industrialization of Japan, leading to drive for raw materials • Invasion of Korea, Manchuria, and the rest of China
Determine the reasons for the failure of the League of Nations • The United States was not a member. • The League did not have power to enforce its decisions. • Major divisions existed among countries after World War I. • Strong isolationism existed after WWI among the democracies.
Reasons why the United States did not join the League of Nations. • America did not sign the Treaty of Versailles ending the war. • Strong feelings of isolationism were pervasive in America. • Political feuding was taking place between President Wilson and Senate Majority Leader Lodge.
The League of Nations created the mandate system. Mandates were territories formerly controlled by nations that had been defeated, principally Germany and the Ottoman Empire. Under the mandate systems, various Allied Powers were to govern these lands until they were able to stand on their own.
Great Britain and France were to administer most of the mandates in the _______, thereby establishing their foothold in that region. These mandates included Iraq, Transjordan, and Palestine,(Britain), Syria and Lebanon,(France). Middle East
As prices rise, the value of the currency declines; soon things become so expensive that people cut back on their buying, which leads to companies cutting back, which leads to layoffs of employees Runaway inflation:
When countries place high tariffs on imported goods, other countries retaliate, leading to a "tariff war." As a result, jobs are lost in the import-export businesses. Protective tariffs:
When companies overproduce, inventory accumulates and production is cut back, leading to layoffs of employees. overproduction
When stock prices go up rapidly, buying stock increases until many stocks become overvalued and a panic occurs, dropping prices too quickly and wiping out many people‘s investments. rapid rise in stock prices
List the impact or results of the worldwide depression after World War I. • High unemployment • Bank failures & collapse of credit • Collapse of prices in world trade • Nazi Party‘s growing importance in Germany; • Weakening of the democracies • Popularity of fascism and its relation to National Socialism
Name the reasons why dictatorships arose in the Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, and Japan between WWI and WWII. Economic crises • Problems associated with the Treaty of Versailles • Rise of Lenin and later Stalin in the U.S.S.R. • Quick rise of economic and political power in Japan
Goals were set for heavy industry (e.g., steel industry) to produce quotas that were to be met in five years. Medals and other awards were handed out as incentives to meet such goals. Five-year plans
Peasants were forced to give up their individual farms and become workers for the state on what were called collective farms. Collectivization
Those who disagreed with Stalin were either sent to gulags (soviet prisons) or simply disappeared when the secret police came knocking on their doors. Many of these people were convicted, with little or no evidence, of treason against the states. Great Purge
A secret police organization was established to monitor everyone and everything in the U.S.S.R. police state
A major result of collectivization in the U.S.S.R. was to eliminate large number of peasant farmers.
The League of Nations, established to prevent future wars, failed because it did not have the power to enforce its decisions.
Following World War I, the system established to administer colonies of defeated powers was known as the Mandate System.
The Treaty of Versailles resulted in payment of reparations by Germany, reduction in the size of Germany‘s army, stripping Germany of its colonies.
France and Great Britain engaged in a policy of appeasement during the 1930s in hopes of avoiding war with what country and its leader? Germany and Hitler
The worldwide depression of the 1920s and 1930s led, in Germany and Italy, to the rise of totalitarian dictators.
Reasons for the worldwide depression include: quotas and high protective tariffs, the expansion of credit, the Stock Market Crash of 1929.
The Fourteen Points adopted into the Treaty of Versailles was drawn up by Woodrow Wilson of the United States.
Which nations administered territorial mandates in the Middle East under the League of Nations? France and Great Britain
The efforts for reconstruction of Germany during World War II include: Democratic government installed in West Germany and West Berlin • Germany and Berlin divided among the four Allied powers • Emergence of West Germany as economic power in postwar Europe
Elements that lead to the Holocaust: • Totalitarianism combined with nationalism • History of anti-Semitism • Defeat in World War I and economic depression blamed on German Jews • Hitler‘s belief in the master race • Final solution: Extermination camps, gas chambers
The systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group. genocide
Major events of World War II: • German invasion of Poland • Fall of France • Battle of Britain • German invasion of the Soviet Union • Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor • D-Day (Allied invasion of Europe) • Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Economic and political causes of World War II: • Aggression by totalitarian powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan • Nationalism • Failures of the Treaty of Versailles • Weakness of the League of Nations • Appeasement • Tendencies towards isolationism and pacifism in Europe and the United States
Genocides during World War II Armenians by Ottoman Empire leaders, Peasants, government & military leaders, & Soviet Union elite by Joseph Stalin, Educated, artists, technicians, former government officials, monks, & minorities by Cambodia Pol Pot, Tutsi minority by Hutu in Rwanda
Outcomes of World War II: Loss of empires by European powers, War crimes trials,Division of Europe, Iron Curtain, Establishment of the United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Marshall Plan, and Formation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and Warsaw Pact
The efforts for reconstruction of Germany: Democratic government installed in West Germany and West Berlin • Germany and Berlin divided among the four Allied powers • Emergence of West Germany as economic power in postwar Europe
Describe the efforts for reconstruction of Japan United States occupation of Japan under MacArthur‘s administration, Democracy and economic development, Elimination of Japan‘s military offensive capabilities; guarantee of Japan‘s security by the U.S., and Emergence of Japan as dominant economy in Asia.
Identify the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, • Established and adopted by members of the United Nations, • Provided a code of conduct for the treatment of people under the protection of their government
What were the major causes of World War II? ◦Italy invaded Ethiopia. ◦ Germany invaded Austria and Poland. ◦ Japan invaded Manchuria, China, and Korea and attacked Pearl Harbor.
Causes that led to Failures of the Treaty of Versailles ◦ The treaty failed to include most of Wilson‘s Fourteen Points. ◦ The treaty punished Germany. ◦ The treaty did not include self-determination.
Reasons for the League of Nations' weakness ◦ The League could not stop the aggression of dictatorships. ◦ The United States was not a member of the League
The policy of appeasing Hitler when he demanded certain territories and trusting him when he said his demands would be limited to only German areas. This policy was especially associated with Great Britain and Prime Minister Chamberlain and know as Appeasement
British prime minister during World War II. Winston Churchill
American president at outbreak of World War II? Franklin Delano Roosevelt
American president at end of World War II? Harry Truman
Japanese emperor during World War II? Emperor Hirohito
Soviet dictator during World War II? Joseph Stalin
American general, Philippine campaign and postwar Japan Douglas MacArthur
Nazi German leader during World War II? Adolf Hitler
American general in charge of D-Day invasion? Dwight D. Eisenhower
American general, top advisor to Roosevelt George Marshall
Japanese General during World War II? Hideki Tōjō
What are the elements/events that led to the Holocaust • Totalitarianism combined with nationalism • History of anti-Semitism • Defeat in World War I and economic depression blamed on German Jews • Hitler‘s belief in the master race • Final solution: Extermination camps, gas chambers
List the outcomes of WWII • Creation of United Nations • The Cold War • Creation of NATO and Warsaw Pact • Implementation of Iron Curtain • Creation of two super powers: U.S. and the U.S.S.R. • The Marshall Plan • Nuremberg war trials
Struggle for global supremacy between United States and communist Soviet Union. Occurred approximately between 1945 to 1990s. Cold War
The post (World War II) boundary in Europe between self-governing nations of the West and those in Eastern Europe which had recently come under the powerful grip of Soviet Russia. Iron Curtain
The first permanent international security organization whose principle mission was to maintain world peace by preventing war through collective security, disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. League of Nations
The World War II Allies set up an international organization to ensure peace. In April 1945, delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco to draft their charter. United Nations
Cold War policy of limiting communism to areas already under Soviet control. Containment
The United States offered a massive aid package that funneled food and economic assistance to Europe to help countries rebuild. Billions in American aid helped war-shattered Europe recover rapidly in an effort to stop the spread of communism. Marshall Plan
How did allies dealt with Germany after WWII? Germany: divided into east and west. West was occupied by America, Great Britain, and France; East by the Soviet Union. West Germany began to have an economic revival, while the east lagged behind. Berlin Wall became a symmbol of the Cold War.
What problems developed in Germany following WWII? Families were split up. The east and west became economic and political rivals. The government of East Germany tried to keep citizens from leaving the country (Iron Curtain, Berlin Wall). People tried to flee to the west, where conditions were better.
Explain the establishment of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights It was established and adopted by members of the United Nations to provide a code of conduct for treatment of people under the protection of their government.
The Marshall Plan, the Iron Curtain, and the Berlin Airlift are events associated with the Cold War.
Which organization was a model for the current United Nations? The League of Nations
Briefly explains the Allied victory in World War II? The mobilization of the American economy and armed forces
Name the Allied Power during WWII? Great Britain, France, Russia, China, and the United States
Name the Axis Power during WWII? Germany, Italy, and Japan
In 1994, Rwanda experienced a biter civil war between what two tribes? Tutsi and Hutu
Indira Gandhi's contributions ◦ Closer relationship between India and the ◦ Soviet Union during the Cold War ◦ Developed nuclear program
Margaret Thatcher's contributions ◦ British prime minister ◦ Free trade and less government regulation of business ◦ Close relationship with United States and U.S. foreign policy ◦ Assertion of United Kingdom‘s military power
Mikhail Gorbachev's contributions ◦ Glasnost and perestroika ◦ Fall of the Berlin Wall ◦ Last president of Soviet Union
Deng Xiaoping's contributions ◦ Reformed Communist China‘s economy to a market economy, leading to rapid economic growth ◦ Continued communist control of government
What were the six components or events of the Cold War: ◦ North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) vs. Warsaw Pact ◦ Korean War ◦ Vietnam War ◦ Berlin Wall ◦ Cuban Missile Crisis ◦ Communist buildup in China
The United States' political ideologies include Republican form of democracy: Citizens elect government officials. Government is based on a multi-party system. Government is based on Enlightenment ideas. Bill of Rights guarantees protection from government‘s power.
The Soviet Union's political ideologies include Communist dictatorship: Communist party selects government officials. Government is based on one-party system controlled by one leader. Government is based on Lenin & Stalin ideas. Citizens have only rights granted by gov't Rights may be denied by gov't.
United States' economic ideologies include Capitalism: Economic system is based on The Wealth of Nations ideas by Adam Smith. Individuals control the market. Economy is based on consumer goods that help individuals make a profit. Citizens pay taxes to government for services.
Soviet Union's economic ideologies include Communism:Economy is loosely based on Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' ideas. Gov't commands resources to answer economic questions. Economy is based on capital goods to build up power of state. Citizens may experience shortages of everyday consumer goods.
Who were the "Big Three" at The Yalta Conference? 1. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (U.S.) 2. Prime Minister Winston Churchill (U.K.) 3. Soviet Leader Joseph Stalin (U.S.S.R.)
What was the purposes of the Yalta Conference? Reorganize postwar Europe. Divide Germany and its capital, Berlin, into four occupation zones. U.S., Great Britain, & France unified zones to create democratic West Germany & West Berlin. Soviet Union‘s communist zones became East Germany & East Berlin.
What were the effects of the Yalta Conference? 1. Fulfilled Stalin‘s desire for creating a buffer zone 2. Divided Europe between democratic states and communist states 3. Instigated long period of mistrust between Eastern and Western countries
The Cold War was a philosophical war between the United States and the Soviet Union
The following events were a result of __________: The destruction of the Berlin Wall, The breakup of the Soviet Union, and The Soviet economic collapse. the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
Truman’s policy of preventing the expansion of communism was called Containment
Vietnam, divided during the Cold War, became a controversial conflict for the United States. Currently, Vietnam is a country that has been reunited under a communist government.
Which parallel marked the internationally recognized divide between North and South Korea both before and after the Korean War? 38th
The Cold War ended between 1989 and 1991 with the destruction of the Berlin Wall and the fall of The Soviet Union
What multi-national military pact did the Soviet Union organize to counter NATO? Warsaw Pact
During the Cold War, the greatest deterrence to a nuclear war between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. was the threat that both nations would destroy one another if a nuclear war were to occur.
During the Cold War, the greatest deterrence to a nuclear war between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. was the threat that both nations would destroy one another if a nuclear war were to occur.
Summarize the evolution of the Indian independence movement •British rule - India •Indian National Congress •Leadership of Gandhi •Role of civil disobedience & passive resistance •Political division along Hindu-Muslim lines—Pakistan/India •Republic of India:World‘s most populous democratic nation & Federal system
Characteristics of Indian democracy •Jawaharlal Nehru, supported western-style industrialization. •1950 Constitution prohibited caste discrimination. •Ethnic & religious differences caused problems in development of India as a democratic nation. •New economic development eased national fina
The United Nations' charter of the United Nations guaranteed colonial populations the right to self-determination.
The independence movements in Africa challenged European imperialism.
What events caused the independence movements in Africa, and why were they successful following World War II? •Right to self-determination •Peaceful and violent revolutions after WW II •Pride in African cultures/heritage • Imperial rule/economic exploitation resentment •Loss of colonies by Great Britain, France, Belgium, Portugal •Influence of superpower rivalry.
The mandate system established after World War I was phased out after World War II, and with the end of the mandates, new states were created in the Middle East.
Mandates in the Middle East included ◦ Established by the League of Nations ◦ Granted independence after World War II ◦ Resulted in Middle East conflicts created by religious differences
French mandates in the Middle East include Syria and Lebanon
British mandates in the Middle East include ◦ Jordan (originally Transjordan) ◦ Palestine (a part became independent as the State of Israel)
Golda Meir's accomplishments ◦ Prime Minister of Israel initial setbacks, led Israel to victory in Yom Kippur War ◦ Sought support of United States
Gamal Abdul Nasser's accomplishments ◦ President of Egypt ◦ Nationalized Suez Canal ◦ Established relationship with Soviet Union ◦ Built Aswan High Dam
Black South Africans‘ struggle against apartheid was led by ________, who became the first black president of the Republic of South Africa. Nelson Mandela
Policy of strict racial separation in South Africa; abolished in 1989 apartheid
In 1948, Gandhi was assassinated by a _______ extremist. Hindu
In 1971, Pakistan split, and East Pakistan became Bangladesh.
In 1947, India was split into East and West Pakistan (_______-controlled) and India (______-controlled). Tensions escalated when trainloads of religious refugees were killed trying to flee to lands controlled by their religious group. Muslim, Hindu
Which regional setting for Indian independence was formerly called Ceylon? Sri Lanka
From the birth of Israel in 1948 to the end of the twentieth century, Israelis and Palestinians have struggled to resolve numerous issues. What are those issues? water rights, sovereignty of Jerusalem, and plight of Palestinian refugees
Which country did NOT gain independence from Great Britain? Algeria
Which country was a French mandate in the Middle East? Syria
What method did Mohandas Gandhi advocate for Indians to use to gain independence from Great Britain? Civil disobedience
India was a colony of Great Britain.
The leader of the Indian independence movement was Mohandas Gandhi.
In 1947 when India won its independence, Muslims were given East and West Pakistan
What events occurred in Africa due to imperialism Africans lost their land. Africans were forced to work the land for low wages. Africans were forced to dress and act like Europeans.
The time period in Japan when the emperor regained his power was called the Meiji Restoration.
What are the five world religions have had a profound impact on culture and civilization Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism
Characteristics of Judaism (found worldwide, but concentrated in Israel and North America) ◦ Monotheism ◦ Ten Commandments of moral and religious conduct ◦ Torah: Written record and beliefs of the Jews
Characteristics of Christianity (found worldwide, but concentrated in Europe and North and South America) ◦ Monotheism ◦ Jesus as Son of God ◦ Life after death ◦ New Testament: Life and teachings of Jesus ◦ Establishment of Christian doctrines by early church councils
Characteristics of Islam (found worldwide, but concentrated in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia ◦ Monotheism ◦ Muhammad, the prophet ◦ Qur‘an (Koran) ◦ Five Pillars of Islam ◦ Mecca and Medina
Characteristics of Buddhism (found worldwide, but concentrated in East and Southeast Asia) Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha) ◦ Four Noble Truths ◦ Eightfold Path to Enlightenment ◦ Spread of Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia, resulting from Asoka‘s missionaries and their writings
Characteristics of Hinduism (worldwide, but concentrated in India) ◦ Many forms of one God ◦ Reincarnation: Rebirth based upon karma ◦ Karma: Knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences
What are the three major monotheistic world religions? Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Judaism religion's major book, founder, beliefs, place founded, and principal location today: Judaism: Sacred Book: Torah, Founder: Abraham, Beliefs: Ten Commandments, Place Founded: Land of Israel, Principal Locations Today: Israel and North America
Christianity religion's major book, founder, beliefs, place founded, and principal location today: Christianity: Sacred Book: New Testament, Founder: Jesus of Nazareth, Beliefs: Life after death, Place Founded: Bethlehem, Principal Locations Today: Europe, North and South America
Islam religion's major book, founder, beliefs, place founded, and principal location today: Sacred Book: Koran (Qur‘an), Founder: Muhammad, the prophet, Beliefs: Five Pillars of Islam, Place Founded: Mecca and Medina,Principal Locations Today: Middle East, North Africa, and Asia
Buddhism Religion Founder, Beliefs, Goal, and Principal Locations Today Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha), Beliefs: Four Noble Truths; Eightfold Path to Enlightenment, Goal:Reach Nirvana (Enlightenment), and Principal Locations Today: East Asia and Southeast Asia Reach Nirvana (Enlightenment)
Hinduism Religion Beliefs, Goal, and Principal Locations Today Beliefs: Many forms of one God; Reincarnation: rebirth based upon karma; Karma: knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences, Goal: Reincarnation: rebirth based upon karma,Principal Locations Today: India
What are the five Pillars of Islam? Faith, Prayer, Alms, Pilgrimage, and Fasting
Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God.
The founder of Islam was Muhammad.
Which belief is associated with Islam? Five Pillars
Which term means “belief in one God”? Monotheism
Buddha is a term that simply means "enlightened one."
This Hindu belief can be defined as a “soul rebirth” or coming back to life as another human or other living creature. Reincarnation
In the early Christian church, Christian doctrine was established by church councils.
The homeland of the Jews is Israel.
Jewish people call their holy writings (sacred scriptures) the Torah.
The founder of Buddhism was Siddhartha Gautama.
The second holiest city of Islam is Medina.
What are the environmental challenges our world faces today? Environmental challenges ◦ Pollution ◦ Loss of habitat ◦ Global climate change
What are the social challenges our world faces today? ◦ Poverty ◦ Poor health ◦ Illiteracy ◦ Famine ◦ Migration
Developed Nation A nation that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible.
Developing Nation A nation where the average income is much lower than in industrial nations, and economy relies on a few export crops. Farming is conducted by primitive methods. In many developing nations, rapid population growth threatens the supply of food.
___________ economies produce rising standards of living and an expanding middle class, which produces growing demands for political freedoms and individual rights. Free market
Countries of the world are increasingly dependent on each other for raw materials markets and financial resources. This is referred to as economic interdependence
___________ is the use of violence and threats to intimidate and coerce for political or religious reasons. Terrorism
Examples of international terrorism in the contemporary world that have impacted developed and developing nations include • Munich Olympics attacks • Terrorist attacks in the United States (e.g., 9/11/2001) motivated by extremism - Osama Bin Laden • Car bombings • Suicide bombings • Airline hijackings
Governmental responses to terrorist activities, including • Surveillance • Review of privacy rights • Security screenings at ports and airports • Identification badges and photos
Why is Western Europe more developed than Eastern Europe? Communism failed in Eastern Europe. And/or the Industrial Revolution began in Western Europe.
Why is Western Europe more developed than Africa and India? Imperialism and colonization of Africa and India limited their development.
What factors over the past 60 years have made the United States the most developed nation in the world? Capitalism, growth after World War II, and role in the Cold War
Primary industry make direct use of natural resources (Ex: mining, farming, logging)
Secondary industries take goods from primary industires and turn them into consumer goods (Ex: dairy, clothing, furniture)
Tertiary industries provide services to primary and secondary industries, communities, and individuals (Ex: plumbers, truckers, bakers, banking)
Quaternary industries are composed of professionals who provide specialized skills (Ex: information research, management, administration)
Total value of goods and services produced by a country both within and outside of the country Gross National Product (GNP)
Total value of goods and services produced only within a country‘s borders Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Per Capita GDP: GDP divided by total number of citizens
Characteristics of Developed Nations: 80%+ Literacy Rate, $16,000+ per capita GDP, 74 yrs. or more life expectancy, Good health care, Strong infrastructure, Rapid telecommunications, Strong education system, More urban than rural, Low pop. growth, birth rate, infant mortality and death rate
Developed nations have all industrial levels, but especially, __________ and __________. Developed nations also have a __________ Government systems, Their economic system is referred to as ________ and is _______. tertiary, quaternary. Democracy, free enterprise, stable.
Developing nations have _______ and ________industries. primary, secondary
Characteristics of developing nations include: Characteristics: Lower than those listed for developed nations, but improving Lower Literacy rate: 60–80 percent, Per capita GDP: $1,001–$15,999, and Life expectancy of 55–73 years
Developing nations have a _________ economic system. Their government system is referred to as ___________. It is _________. Command, Communism, Unstable military and/or dictatorial government
Undeveloped nations only have ________ industries. primary
What was the deadliest terrorist attack in the United States and Worldwide? Both were September 11, 2001. Crashing of hijacked planes into World Trade Center in New York City, the Pentagon in Alexandria, VA, and a site in Pennsylvania. Total of 2,750 fatalaties and 6,000+ casulaties.
Created by: kltnunley