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The Cardiovascular System

Fatigue A feeling of tiredness or weariness resulting from continued activity or as a side effect from some psychotrophic drug
Weakness Lacking physcial strength o vigor
Palpitation A pounding or racing of the heart, associated with normal emotional responses or with heart disorders
Cardiac Enzymes Test Performed on samples of blood obtained by venipuncture to determine the presence of damage to the myocardial muscle
Venous Insufficiency An abnormal circulatory condition characterized by decreased return of venous blood from the legs to the trunk of the body
Echocardiography Diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart. It is useful in evaluating structural and functional changes in a variety of heart disorders
Atrial Flutter Condition in which the contractions of the atria become extremely rapid, at the rate of between 250 and 350 beats per mninute
Atrial/Ventricular Fibrillation Extremely rapid, incomplete contractions of the atria resulting in disorganized and uncoordinated twitching of the atria
Cardiomyopathy Disease of the heart muscle itself, primarily affecting the pumping ability of the heart. This non-inflammatory disease of the heart results in enlargement of the heart (cardiomegaly) and dysfunction of the ventricles of the heart
Angina Pectoris Severe pain and constriction about the heart, usually radiating to the left shoulder and down the left arm- creating a feeling of pressure in the anterior chest
Coronary Artery Disease The narrowing of the coronary arteries to the extent that adequate blood supply to the myocardium is prevented
Congestive Heart Failure Condition characterized by weakness, breathlessness, &abdominal discomfort. Edema in the lower portions of the body. The pumping ability of the heart is progressively impaired to the point that it no longer meets bodily needs (AKA Cardiac Failure)
Thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a vein associated with the formation of a thrombus (clot); usually occurs in an extremity most frequently a leg
Myocardium The middle muscular layer of the heart
Raynaud's Phenomenon Intermittent attacks of vasoconstriction of the arterioles (causing pallor to the fingers or toes), followed by cyanosis and then redness before returning to normal color; initiated by exposure to cold or emotional disturbance
Atherosclerosis A form of arteriosclerosis characterized by fatty deposits building up within the inner layers of the walls of larger arteries
Pulmonary Artery One of a pair of arteries that transports deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. The pulmonary arteries are the only arteries in the body to carry deoxygenated blood.
Bruit An abnormal sound or murmur heard when listening to a carotid artery, organ, or gland with a stethoscope
Pulmonary Circulation The circulation of deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation and back to the left atrium of the heart
Claudication Cramplike pains in the calves caused by poor circulation to the muscles of the legs; commonly associated with atherosclerosis
Mitral Valve Prolapse Drooping of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular systole, resulting in incomplete closure of the valve and mitral insufficiency
Coronary Artery One of a pair of arteries that branch from the aorta. The coronary arteries and their branches supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscle (myocardium)
Cusp Any one of the small flaps on the valves of the heart
Dependent Edema A fluid accumulation in the tissues influenced by gravity; usually greater in the lower extremities than in tissue levels above the level of the heart
Diastole The period of relaxation of the heart, alternating with the contraction phase known as systole
Pulmonary Vein One of four large veins (two from each lung) that returns oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart
Dysrhythmia Abnormal rhythm
SA Node Sinoatrial node; pacemaker of the heart
Edema The localized or generalized collection of fluid within the body tissues, causing the area to swell
Septum A wall, or partition, that divides or separates two cavities
Myocardial Infarction Heart Attack
Myocarditis Inflammation of the myocardium
Pericarditis Inflammation of the pericardium
Endocarditis Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
Hypertension Elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 135/85 mm Hg
Hypotension Low blood pressure; less than normal blood pressure reading
Infarction A localized area of necrosis in tissue, a vessel, an organ, or a part resulting from lack of oxygen due to interrupted blood flow to the area
Vomiting Ejection through the mouth of the gastric content
Tachycardia abnormal rapidity of heart action, usually defined as a heart rate over 100 beats per minute
Sweat Perspiration; the liquid secreted by the sweat glands
Pallor Lack of color; paleness
Nausea Unpleasant sensation, usually preceding vomiting
Headache A diffuse pain in different portions of the head and not confined to any nerve distribution area
Fever Elevation of temperature above the normal
Mediastinum The area between the lungs in the chest cavity that contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, and bronchii
Murmur A low-pitched humming or fluttering sound heard on auscultation
Occlusion closure; state of being closed
Pacemaker The SA Node of the heart, located in the right atrium. It is responsible for initiating the heartbeat, influencing the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat.
Pericardium The double membranous sac that encloses the heart and the origins of the great blood vessels
Pitting Edema Swelling, usually of the skin of the extremities, that when pressed firmly with a finger will maintain the dent produced by the finger
Systemic Circulation Oxygenated blood leaves the left ventricle of the heart and is distributed to the capillaries. Deoxygenated blood is picked up from the capillaries and is transported back to the right atrium of the heart
Systole The contraction phase of the heartbeat forcing blood into the aorta and the pulmonary arteries
Aneurysm Localized dilation of a weakened area of the wall of an artery. The weakened area balloons out with every pulsation of the artery
Vasoconstriction Narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel
Rheumatic fever An inflammatory disease that may develop as a delayed reaction to insufficiently treated group A betahemolytic streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract
Vegetation An abnormal growth of tissue around a valve
Anorexia Loss of appetite
Anxiety A feeling of apprehension, worry, uneasiness, or dread, especially of the future
Bradycardia A slow heart rate characterized by a pulse rate under 60 beats per minute
Chest Pain A feeling of discomfort in the chest area
Cyanosis Slightlybluish, grayish, slatelike, or dark discoloration of the skin due to the presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
Varicose Veins Enlarged, superficial veins; A twisted, dilated vein with incompetent valves
Angiography X-ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the heart and blood vessels after introducing a radiopaque substance that promotes the imaging of internal structures that are otherwise difficult to see on x-ray film.
Thallium Stress Test One of several nuclear stress tests, is a combination of exercise stress testing with thallium imaging (myocardial perfusion scan) to assess changes in coronary blood flow during exercise
Exercise Stress Testing A means of assessing cardiac function, by subjecting the patient to carefully controlled amounts of physical stress
Holter Monitoring A small, portable monitoring device that makes prolonged electrocardiograph recordings on a portable tape recorder. The continuous EKG is recorded on a magnetic tape recording while the patient conducts normal daily activities
Event Monitor Similar to the Holter Monitor in that it also records the electrical activity of the heart while the patient goes about usual daily activities. A cardiac event monitor can be used for a longer period of time than a Holter Monitor. (usually a month)
Defibrillator A small, lightweight, electronic device placed under the skin or muscle in either the chest or abdomen to monitor the heart's rhythm. If an abnormal rhythm occurs, the ICD helps return the heart to its normal rhythm
Electrocardiogram Graphic record of the electrical action of the heart as reflected from various angles to the surface of the skin; AKA EKG or ECG
Cardiac Catherterization A diagnostic procedure in which a catheter is introduced into a large vein or artery and then threaded through the circulatory system to the heart. Used to obtain detailed info about structure and function of the heart chambers, valves, and great vessels
Dyspnea Air hunger resulting in labored or difficult breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain (normal when caused by vigorous work or athletic activity)
Created by: sanzijessica