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Nervous System

study of nervous system and its disorders neurology
a physician who specializes in treating the diseases and disorders of the nervous system neurologist
an surgery involving the brain, spinal cord, or periphyeral nerves neurosurgery
a physician who specializes in surgury of the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves nurosurgeon
second subdivison of nervous system that consists of twelve pairs of cranial nerves and thirty one pairs of spinal nerves peripheral nervous system (PNS)
first subdivision of nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord central nervous system (CNS)
a cordlike bundle of nerve fibers that transmits impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body nerve
carry impulses from the body to the central nervous system; part of the peripheral nervous system afferent nerves**
carry impulses from the CNS to the muscles and glands-causing the target organs to do something in response to the commands received efferent nerves
provides involuntary control over smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular activity and secretions in response to the commands of the CNS automatic nervous system
regulate essential involuntary body functions such as increasing the heart rate, constricting blood vessels, and rasing the blood pressure sympathetic nerves
regulate essential involuntary body functions such as slowing the heart rate, increasing peristalsis of the intestines, increasing glandular secretions, and relaxing sphincters parasympathetic nerves
actual nerve cell, functional unit neuron
a single slender projection that extends from the cell body axons
protects the axon and speeds the transmission of the impulses myelin sheath
space between the two nerves over which the impulse must cross synapse
connecting neurons that conduct impulses from afferent nerves to motor nerves interneurons**
a special type of connective tissue for the nervous system, provide a support for neurons neuroglia
found in the interstitial nervous tissue, fan out from cell body and coil around the axons of many neurons to form the protective myelin sheath that covers the axons of many nerves in the body oligodendrocyte
three layers of protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord meninges**
largest part (uppermost portion) of the brain cerebrum
attached to the brain stem cerebellum**
receives all sensory stimuli (except smell) and relays them to the cerebral cortex thalamus
a small cone-shaped structure that extends from the posterior portion of the diencephalon pineal body
the region between the diencephalon and the spinal cord. consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata brain stem**
lowest part of the brain stem and is continuous with the spinal cord, controls such vital functions as respiration, blood pressure, and heart rate medulla oblongata**
inability to convert one's thoughts into writing agraphia
without sensitivity to pain analgesia
without feeling or sensation anesthesia**
a localized dilation in the wall of an artery that expands with each pulsation of the artery aneurysm**
inability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs because of an injury to or disease of certain areas of the brain aphasia
without muscular coordination ataxia
the sensation an individual experiences prior to the onset of a migraine headache or an epileptic seizure aura
abnormally slow movement bradykinesia
a hole drilled into the skull using a from of drill burr hole**
pain in the head, headache cephalalgia
small scattered venous hemorrhages in the brain cerebral contusion**
breif interruption of a brain function, usually with a loss of conciousness lasting for a few seconds cerebral concussion
the fluid flowing through the brain and around the spinal cord that protects them from physical blow or impact cerebrospinal fluid**
a deep sleep in which the individual cannot be aroused and does not respond to external stimuli coma**
a surgical incision into the cranium or skull craniotomy**
any deficiency or variation of the normal, as in weakness deficit resulting from a cerebrovascular accident deficit
difficult speech dysphasia**
paralysis of one half of the body hemiplegia**
an acute infection caused by the same virus that causes chickenbox, characterized by painful vesicular lesions along the path of a spinal nerve, also called shingles herpes zoster**
excessive sensitivity to sensory stimuli, such as pain or touch hyperesthesia**
state of being sluggish lethargy**
uncontrolled, sudden attacks of sleep narcolepsy**
injection of local anesthetic along the course of a nerve or nerves to eliminate sensation to the area supplied by the nerve nerve block
severe, sharpe, spasmlike pain that extends along the course of one or more nerves neuralgia
inflammation of a nerve neuritis
blockage occlusion**
soothing palliative
paralysis of the lower extremities and trunk, usually due to spinal cord injuries paraplegia
a sensation of numbness or tingling paresthesia**
a network of interwoven nerves plexus
paralysis of all four extremities and the trunk of the body quadriplegia
inflammation of the sciatic nerve; characterized by pain along the course of the nerve, radiating through the thigh and down the back of the leg sciatica**
fainting syncope
an abnormal conditon in which a clot develops in a blood vessel thrombosis
a small hollow within the brain that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid ventricle, brain
an injury to the cervical vertebrae and their supporting structures due to a sudden back-and-forth jerking movement of the head and neck whiplash