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Medical Terms

Chapter 7 Respiratory System

acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) a form of the sudden onset of severe lung dysfunction affecting both lungs, making breathing extremely difficult
airway inflammation the swelling and clogging of the airways with mucus
airway obstruction occurs when food or a foreign object blocks the airway and prevents air from entering or leaving the lungs
allergic rhinitis an allergic reaction to airborne allergens that causes an increased flow of mucus
alveoli the very small grape-like clusters found at the end of each bronchiole
anoxia the absence or nearly complete absence of oxygen from the body's gases, blood, or tissues
anthracosis the form of pneumoconios caused by coal dust in the lungs; also known as black lung disease
antitussive administered to prevent or relieve coughing (cough medicine)
aphonia the loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds
apnea the absence of spontaneous respiration
asbestosis the form of pneumoconios caused by asbestos particles in the lungs
asphyxia the condition that occurs when the body cannot get the air it needs to function
asphyxiation any interruption of normal breathing resulting in asphyxia; also known as suffocation
aspiration pneumonia can occur when a foreign substance, such as vomit, is inhaled into the lungs
asthma a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing
atelectasis a condition in which the lung fails to expand completely due to shallow breathing or because the air passages are blocked
bacterial pneumonia often caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae; is the only form of pneumonia that can be prevented through vaccination
bradypnea an abnormally slow rate of respiration usually of less than 10 breaths per minute
bronchi formed where the trachea divides into two branches known as the primary bronchi
bronchioles the smallest branches of the bronchi
bronchodilator a medication that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs
bronchopneumonia a localized form of pneumonia that often affects the bronchioles and surrounding alveoli
bronchorrhea an excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi
bronchoscopy the visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope
bronchospasm a contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze the airway shut
byssinosis caused by inhaling cotton dust into the lungs and usually occurs after working in a textile factory
chest imaging chest x-ray; a valuable tool for diagnosing pneumonia, lung tumors, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, tuberculosis, and emphysema
Cheyne-Stokes respiration a pattern of alternating periods of hypopnea or apnea, followed by hyperpnea
chronic bronchitis a condition where the airways have become inflamed and thickened, and there is an increase in the number and size of mucus-producing cells
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease a lung disease in which it is hard to breathe; COPD
cilia the thin hairs located just inside the nostrils
collapsed lung a lung that is unable to expand to receive air due to a pneumothorax or atelectasis
CPAP device positive pressure ventilation device; treatment for sleep apnea that includes a mask, tubes, and a fan to create air pressure that pushes the tongue forward to maintain an open airway
croup an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough
cyanosis a bluish discoloration or the skin caused by a lack of adequate oxygen
cystic fibrosis a genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus
diaphragm the muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen
diaphragmatic breathing a relaxation technique used to relieve anxiety
diphtheria an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract
dysphonia any change in vocal quality, including hoarseness, weakness, or the cracking of a boy's voice during puberty
dyspnea difficult or labored breathing; also known as shortness of breath
emphysema the progressive loss of lung function that is commonly attributed to long-term smoking
empyema an accumulation of pus or infected fluid in the pleural cavity
endotracheal intubation the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway
epiglottis a lid-like structure located at the base of the tongue
epistaxis bleeding from the nose that is usually caused by an injury, excessive use of blood thinners, or bleeding disorders; also known as a nosebleed
ethmoid sinuses located in the ethmoid bones, separated from the orbital cavity by only a thin layer of bone
eupnea easy or normal breathing
exhalation the act of breathing out
external respiration the act of bringing air into and out of the lungs and exchanging gases from this air
frontal sinuses located in the frontal bone just above the eyebrows; an infection here can cause severe pain in this area
functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) a procedure performed using an endoscope in which chronic sinusitis is treated by enlarging the opening between the nose and sinus
hemoptysis coughing up of blood or bloodstained sputum
hemothorax an accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity
hypercapnia the abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperpnea an increase in the depth and rate of the respiratory movements
hyperventilation an abnormally rapid rate of deep respiration that is usually associated with anxiety
hypopnea shallow or slow respiration
hypoxemia a condition of having below-normal oxygen level in the blood
hypoxia the condition of having below-normal oxygen levels in the body tissues and cells; less severe than anoxia
influenza an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory infection that is spread by respiratory droplets and occurs most commonly in epidemics during the colder months
inhalation the act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward
internal respiration the exchange of gases within the cells of the body organs, cells, and tissues
interstitial fibrosis another name for the inflammation and thickening of the walls of the alveoli
interstitial lung diseases a group of almost 200 diseases that cause inflammation and scarring of the alveoli and their supporting structures
laryngectomy the surgical removal of the larynx
laryngitis an inflammation of the larynx
laryngopharynx the third division of the pharynx, is shared by both the respiratory and digestive systems
laryngoplasty the surgical repair of the larynx
laryngoplegia paralysis of the larynx
laryngoscopy the visual examination of the larynx using a laryngoscope
laryngospasm the sudden spasmodic closure of the larynx
larynx the voice box; a triangular chamber located between the pharynx and the trachea
left lung has 2 lobes: superior and inferior
lobar pneumonia affects larger areas of the lungs, often including one or more sections, or lobes, of a lung
lobectomy the surgical removal of a lobe of the lung
lower respiratory tract consists of the bronchial tree and lungs
lung cancer a condition in which cancer cells form in the tissues of the lung
lungs the organs of respiration
Mantoux PPD skin test a more accurate skin test for diagnosing tuberculosis
maxillary sinuses located in the maxillary bones; an infection here can cause pain in the posterior maxillary teeth
mediastinum the cavity located between the lungs that contains the heart, aorta, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, and thymus gland
metered-dose inhaler mixes a single dose of the medication with a puff of air and pushes it into the mouth via a chemical propellant
mucous membranes the specialized tissues that line the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems
mucus secreted by the mucous membranes
mycoplasma pneumonia a milder but longer lasting form of the disease caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae
nasal septum a wall of cartilage that divides the nose into two equal sections
nasopharynx the first division of the pharynx, posterior to the nasal cavity and continues downward to behind the mouth
nebulizer pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor, which is then inhaled by the patient via a face mask or mouthpiece
olfactory receptors nerve endings that act as the receptors for the sense of smell
oropharynx the second division of the pharynx, the portion that is visible when looking into the mouth
otolaryngologist a physician with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, throat, and related structures of the head and neck; also known as an ENT
paranasal sinuses air-filled cavities lined with mucous membrane, located in the bones of the skull
parietal pleura the outer layer of the pleura that lines the walls of the thoracic cavity, covers the diaphragm, and forms the sac containing each lung
peak flow meter a handheld device often used to test those with asthma to measure how quickly the patient can expel air
pertussis a contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract
pharyngitis an inflammation of the pharynx
pharyngoplasty the surgical repair of the pharynx
pharyngotomy a surgical incision of the pharynx
pharynx the throat; receives the air after it passes through the nose
phlegm thick mucus secreted by the tissues lining the respiratory passages
phrenic nerves stimulate the diaphragm and cause it to contract
pleura a thin, moist, and slippery membrane that covers the outer surface of the lungs and lines the inner surface of the rib cage
pleural cavity the airtight area between the layers of the pleural membranes
pleural effusion the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space
pleurectomy the surgical removal of part of the pleura
pleurisy an inflammation of the pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath
pleurodynia pain in the pleura or in the side that occurs in relation to breathing movements
pneumoconiosis an abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after years of environmental or occupational contact
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia an opportunistic infection caused by the fungus Pneumocystis carinii
pneumonectomy the surgical removal of all or part of a lung
pneumonia a serious infection or inflammation of the lungs in which the smallest bronchioles and alveoli fill with pus and other liquid
pneumorrhagia bleeding from the lungs
pneumothorax the accumulation of air in the pleural space causing a pressure imbalance that prevents the lung from fully expanding or can cause it to collapse
polysomnography the diagnostic measurement of physiological activity during sleep; also known as a sleep apnea study
pulmonary edema an accumulation of fluid in lung tissue
pulmonary fibrosis the formation of scar tissue in the lung, resulting in decreased lung capacity and increased difficulty in breathing
pulmonary function tests a group of tests that measure volume and flow of air by utilizing a spirometer
pulmonologist a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the lungs and associated tissues
pulse oximeter an external monitor placed on the patient's finger or earlobe to measure the oxygen saturation level in the blood
pyothorax the presence of pus in the pleural cavity between the layers of the pleural membrane
respiration the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide that is essential to life
respirator an apparatus for administering artificial respiration in cases of respiratory failure
respiratory failure a condition in which the level of oxygen in the blood becomes dangerously low or the level of carbon dioxide becomes dangerously high
respiratory system brings oxygen into the body for transportation to the cells
rhinorrhea the watery flow of mucus from the nose
right lung has 3 lobes: superior, middle, and inferior
septoplasty the surgical repair or alteration of parts of the nasal septum
silicosis caused by inhaling silica dust in the lungs and usually occurs after working in occupations including foundry work, quarrying, ceramics, glass work, and sandblasting
sinusitis an inflammation of the sinuses
sleep apnea syndromes a group of potentially fatal disorders in which breathing repeatedly stops during sleep for long enough periods to cause a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels
smoke inhalation damage to the lungs in which particles from a fire coat the alveoli and prevent the normal exchange of gases
sphenoid sinuses located in the sphenoid bone, close to the optic nerves; an infection here can damage vision
spirometer a recording device that measure the amount of air inhaled or exhaled (volume) and the length of time required for each breath
sputum phlegm ejected through the mouth that can be examined for diagnostic purposes
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) the sudden and unexplainable death of an apparently healthy sleeping infant between the ages of 2 weeks and 1 year
supplemental oxygen administered when the patient is unable to maintain an adequate oxygen saturation level in the blood
tachypnea an abnormally rapid rate of respiration usually or more than 20 breaths per minute
thoracentesis the surgical puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity
thoracostomy the surgical creation of an opening into the chest cavity to establish drainage of empyema
thoracotomy a surgical treatment of lung cancer by removing all or part of a lung
tonsils form a protective circle of lymphatic tissue around the entrance to the respiratory system
trachea the tube located directly in front of the esophagus that extends from the neck to the chest; the windpipe
tracheoplasty the surgical repair of the trachea
tracheorrhagia bleeding from the mucous membranes of the trachea
tracheostomy the surgical creation of an opening into the trachea and insertion of a tube to facilitate the passage of air or the removal of secretions
tracheotomy an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage
tuberculin skin testing a screening test for tuberculosis in which the skin of the arm is injected with a harmless antigen extracted from TB bacteria
tuberculosis an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, usually attacks the lungs
upper respiratory infections among the terms used to describe the common cold; can be caused by any one of 200 different viruses
upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea
ventilator a mechanical device for artificial ventilation of the lungs that is used to replace or supplement the patient's natural breathing function
video-assisted thoracic surgery the use of a video-assisted thoracoscope to view the inside of the chest cavity through very small incisions
viral pneumonia caused by several different types of viruses and accounts for approximately half of all pneumonias
visceral pleura the inner layer of pleura that surrounds each lung
Created by: SaraJKamp