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Kasey2004 Flashcards

Chapter 3

skeletal muscle attaches to the bones of the skeleton
voluntary muscles muscles that are attached to the skeleton and move by a person's conscious effort
striated muscles muscles that will have a striped appearance
contraction or shortening of the muscle one bone where the muscle is attached does not move, while the other bone can move more freely
muscle fibers long slender cells that make up the skeletal muscle
fascia connective tissue that covers and binds the muscles together
tendons bands of dense white fibrous connective tissue that connect the muscle to the bones and help with movement
ligaments tough, strong, flexible bands of tissue that connect bone to bone giving support to the joints
joints the points of contact that are between two bones and hole the bones together
bursae small synovial fluid sacs that are found at the friction points around the joints between the tendons, ligaments, and bones
smooth muscles involuntary muscles found lining the walls of hollow internal organs of the body
visceral muscles smooth muscle located in a large internal organ of the body
cardiac muscle specialized muscle which forms the wall of the heart; involuntary and controlled by the autonomic nervous system
my/o muscle
arthr/o joint
articul/o joint
ligament/o ligament
ten/o tendon
tend/o tendon
tendin/o tendon
leiomy/o smooth muscle
rhabdomy/o skeletal muscle
fibr/o fiber
fasci/o band of fibrous tissue
burs/o bursae, sac, bursa
bucc/o cheek
origin the place where the muscle begins or originates and attaches to the less movable bone
insertion the point where the muscle ends or inserts and is attached to the more movable bone
fibrous joint the surfaces of the bones fitting closely together with fibrous connective tissue, forms a non-moving joint
cartilaginous joint joint where the bones are connected by cartilage, allows limited movement
synovial joint allow free movement, include ball and socket joints
abduction moving away from the midline of the body such as lifting your arm
adduction moving toward the midline such as bringing your arm down to your side
flexion bending, or decreasing the angle at the joint; this would be bending your arm at the elbow
extension straightening, or increasing the angle at the joint to straighten your arm out straight
elevation the motion of raising a body part such as when you take a deep breath and the ribs rise
depression the lowering of a body part such as when you exhale and the ribs lower when you breathe out
rotation the turning of the bone on its own axis, or pivoting such as turning your head
circumduction moving an extremity in a circular motion such as swinging your arm around your body
supination the turning of your arm so that your palm is facing upward
pronation the turning of your arm so that you palm is facing down
dorsiflexion the action of bending your foot upward at the ankle toward your face
plantar flexion bending your foot downward toward the ground at the ankle
retraction moving a body part backward such as tilting your head backward
protraction moving of a body part forward such as bending your head forward
external rotation the turning of a limb about its axis of rotation away from the midline of the body
internal rotation the turning of a limb about its axis of rotation towards the midline of the body
rheumatologist treats inflammation of the connective tissue and muscles
neurologist treats illnesses that involve paralysis or loss of movement
cardiologist treat disorders of the cardiac muscles
orthopedic surgeon treats injuries and disorders of the bones, joints, muscles, and tendons
a no, or not
an no, or not
dys painful, abnormal
hyper excessive, more than usual
hypo below, less than normal
pro before
re back
retro behind
sub under, below
trans across or through
endo within
itis inflammation
algia pain
ic pertaining to
al pertaining to
tonia muscle tone
oma tumor
opsy the process of viewing
asthenia without feeling or sensation
scopy process of visual examination
tomy incision, to cut into
osis abnormal condition
ankyl/o stiff
chondr/o cartilage
electr/o electricity
oste/o bone
myos/o muscle
muscul/o muscle
electromyography or EMG uses an instrument that converts the electrical activity associated with functioning skeletal muscle and records the strength of the muscle contraction as electrical stimulation is applied
nerve conduction studies or electroneuromyography procedure that is used for testing and recording the neuromuscular activity by the electrical stimulation to the nerve
DTR or deep tendon reflex uses a reflex hammer to strike the tendon in an extremity checking for a response or the absence of a response when the muscle is stimulated by the hammer
range of motion testing evaluates joint mobility and muscle strength
muscle biopsy extracting of muscle tissue for the purpose of diagnosing a disease process
needle aspiration the removal of fluid by inserting a needle into a body cavity
dislocation of a bone the displacement of the bone from its normal position within the joint, which causes the loss of function of the joint
muscular dystrophy or MD inherited disease that causes muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system; the prefix -dys- meaning abnormal and the suffix -trophy- meaning growth, development
myasthenia gravis or MG chronic auto-immune disease affecting the muscles that control the eye movements, chewing, swallowing, coughing, facial expressions, and breathing; the root of the word -my- means muscle & the suffix -asthenia- means without feeling or sensation, weakness
fibromyalgia syndrome chronic disorder that presents with widespread aching pain, tender points when touched, and fatigue; cause is unknown; fibro - means fibrous tissue, -my- means muscle, and -algia- means pain
tendonitis inflammation of the tendons of the joints; the root of the word -tend/o- means tendon, and the suffix -itis- means inflammation
dystonia abnormal muscle tone; the prefix -dys- meaning abnormal or bad, suffix -tonia- meaning muscle tone
contractures abnormal shortening of muscle tissues making the muscle unable to stretch
hyperkinesia or hyperactivity abnormal increased motor function; the prefix -hyper- meaning above, excessive, suffix -kinesia- meaning movement
sprains injuries to the joints and are caused by overuse, or a torn ligament
strains injuries to the body of the muscle or the attachment of the tendon involving a stretched or torn muscle or tendon attachement
paralysis loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movement caused by disease or injury to the nerve supply
hemiparesis weakness of one side of the body; the prefix -hemi- means half, suffix -paresis- means partial paralysis
ankylosis immobility of a joint; the suffix -osis- means condition, the root -ankyl/o- means stiff
Created by: Kasey2004