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WVSOM Phys Body H2O

WVSOM, Physiology, Dr. Hamra, 2011

Extracellular Water 20% of Body Weight Interstitial Water + Plasma Water 14 Liters
Interstitial Water 15% of Body Weight 10.5 Liters
Intacellular Water 49% of Body Weight 28 Liters
Plasma Water 5% of Body Weight 3.5 Liters
Blood Volume Total Blood Volume = 5.5 Liters The plasma portion = 3 to 3.5 Liters The remainder=RBCs, WBCs,and Platelets
Formula for Concentration Concentration=Mass/Volume
Formula for Volume Volume=Mass/Concentration
Formula for Volume Distribution Volume Distribution= (Mass Injected-Mass Lost)/Plasma Concentration
Name 3 indicators for Total Body Water 1. Antipyrine 2. Heavy Water D2O 3.Tritiated Water (DTO)
Name 2 indicators for Plasma Water 1. Evans Blue 2. Iodinated Albumin
Formula for Intracellular Fluid Volume Intracellular Fluid Volume=Total Body Water-Extracellular Water
Name the indicators for Extracellular Water Impermeate Ions=radioactive Na+,Cl-,Sulfate, SO4--,Thiocyanate,Thiosulfate Inert Sugars=inulin,mannitol,sucrose
Formula for interstitial water volume Interstitial water volume=Extracellular Water-Plasma Water
Formula for Total Body Water Total Body Water=Intracellular water=Extracellular Water
Formula for Extracllular Water Extracellular Water=Interstitial Water+Plasma Water
Define Osmolality Osmolality=the number of osmotically active particles in a solution
Name the principle electrolyte in the intracellular compartment K+ at 120mM
Name the principle electrolyte in the extracellular compartment Na+ at 142mM
What is the osmolality of an isotonic/isoosmolal solution? 290mOsm
What is the osmolality of a hypertonic/hyperosomolal solution? >290mOsm
What is the osmolality of a hypotonic/hyperosmolal solution? <290mOsm
By convention, the terms "Volume Expansion" and "Volume Contraction" always refer to ___________________? Extracellular Water
A 145mM NaCl solution is considered isotonic because __________________? 145mM NaCl solution contributes two (Na+ and Cl-)osmotically active particles. 145Na+ + 145Cl-= 290
True or False, Na+ freely crosses the cell membrane. False, this is why hyperosmotic volume expansion of the extracellular space occurs.
Diarrhea results in _____-osmotic volume __________? Iso-osmotic Volume Contraction
Infusion of Isotonic NaCl results in ____-osmotic volume _________? Iso-osmotic Volume Expansion
High NaCl intake results in___-osmotic volume_________? Hyperosmotic Volume Expansion
Water Deprivation results in ____-osmotic volume___________? Hyperosmotic Volume Contraction
Adrenal Insufficiency (not enough aldosterone, causing loss of Na+ and water, but more Na=than water) results in ___-osmotic volume______? Hyperosmotic Volume Contraction
Fever, Sweating, and Diabetes Incipidus (too little ADH) results in ____-osmotice volume __________? Hyperosmotic Volume Contraction
Protein Concentration increases or decreases with volume contraction? Increases
Protein Concentration increases or decreases with volume expansion? Decreases
Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH (AKA:SIASH)causing too much ADH results in ___-osmotic volume_____? Hypoosmotic Volume expansion
What is the body's short term adjustment mechanism to blood pressure changes? Modulation of the autonomic nervous system output to heart and blood vessels
What are the body's intermediate and long-term adjustment mechanisms to blood pressure changes? Regulation of whole-body Na+ content via the kidneys.
The body's four response systems work to increase or decrease Na+ excretion in response to greater blood volume? Increase Excretion
Increased osmolality results in _______ secretion of ADH, and ______ thirst? Increased ADH secretion, and increased thirst.
Low blood volume causes increased or decreased RAAS activity? Increased RAAS Activity
Low blood volume causes increased or decreased sympathetic outflow? Increased Sympathetic Outflow
Low blood volume causes increased or decreased Arginine, Vasopressin, and ADH secretion? Increased secretion
Low blood volume causes increased or decreased Arial Natriuretic Peptide secretion? Decreased ANP, which stops the dumping of Na+ into the urine.
Created by: rdabolt