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Diseases of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. Cardiology
Cellular structure and functions Cytology
Study of Skin Dermatology
Diseases of the encocrine (glands and hormones) system. Endocrinology
Diseases of the intestinal or digestive system. Gastroenterology
Gynecology Diseases of the female reproductive system.
Hematology Study of Blood
Histology Microscopic structures of tissues
Immunology Diseases of the Immune System
Microbiology Study of Microbes.
Diseases of the kidney and urinary system. Nephrology
Diseases of the Nervous system. Neurology
Tumors Onclology
Study of Parasites Parasitology
Pathology Pathogens or disease causing agents.
Antibodies in the system. Serology
Urinary System (Study of) Urology
Homeostasis refers to which of the following Study-state condition
The term Superficial vein means which of the following? Vein that is close to the skin surface
What is the best position for a patient to be in when the health care worker performs a phlebotomy procedure? Supine position
Arteries differ from veins in which ways? Blood from arteries appears bright red.
Capillary blood contains the following? Cells, plasma arterial blood, venous blood.
A patient has a severe burn on his left writst, Select the best description of its location relative to his fingers. The burn is: Proximal to his fingers.
Venous blood is: Dark red
What volume of blood (in liters) does a normal adult have? 4-5 liters.
A patient is taking aspirin. How might this affect a venipuncture? Bleeding may be excessive or prolonged.
Hemostasis refers to: Control of blood clotting
Erythrocyte Red Blood Cells (RBC)
Leukocyte White Blood Cells (WBC)
Arteries Thick walled vessels
Venules Thin walled vessels, and branching vessels that flow back to the heart.
Capillary contains a mixture of arterial and venous blood
Veins Thin valed vessels, and branching vessels that flow back to the heart.
Plasma Blood specimen that does contain an anticoagulant.
Serum Blood specimen that does does not contain anticoagulant.
Antecubital Near the bend of the elbow.
Median Cubital Vein. Best vein to use for venipuncture.
Leukocyte White Blood Cells (WBC)
Arteries Thick walled vessels
Venules Thin walled vessels, and branching vessels that flow back to the heart.
Capillary contains a mixture of arterial and venous blood
Veins Thin valed vessels, and branching vessels that flow back to the heart.
Plasma Blood specimen that does contain an anticoagulant.
Serum Blood specimen that does does not contain anticoagulant.
Antecubital Near the bend of the elbow.
Median Cubital Vein. Best vein to use for venipuncture.
Basilic vein Alternative vein to use for veinpuncture.
Saphenous vein The longest vessel in the body.
Fibrnogen A blood clotting factor
Femoral Artery Deep Vessel in the leg.
Platelets Thrombcytes
CO 2 Carbon dioxide
Hemostasis Blood clotting mechanism in the body
Homeostasis Steady state condition of the body.
Deoxygenated blood Blood that is carried in the veins
Cardiac muscle The Heart.
Process of forming a blood clot. Coagulate
Substance that prevents blood clotting Anticoagulate.
Excess sugar in the blood Hyperglycema
White blood cell (WBC) Leukocyte
Red Blood Cell Erthrocyte
Front area of the elbow. Anticubital
Pathology Study of diseases
Decrease in white blood cells Leukopenia
Arteriosclerosis Hardening of the Arteries
Heart Muscular organ about the size of an adult's closed fist. Contractions push blood throughout the body. Average heart beats 60 to 80 times per minute.
Arteries 1. Transport blood from the right and left chambers of the heart to the entire body. 2. Large arteries branch into arterioles the farther they are from the heart. 3. Carry oxygenated blood that is bright red in color.
Arteries 2 4. Have thicker elastic walls than veins do. 5. Have a pulse. 6. Are located deep in muscles/tissues
From Artery to Arteriole to Capillaries to venule to vein
The yellow-topped vacuum collection tube has which of the following additives? Sodium polyanetholesulfonate (SPS)
The butterfly blood collection set is frequently used with the needle gauge size of: 23
Which of the following anticoagulants is found in a royal blue topped blood collection tube? no additive
Lithium heparin is a suitable anticoagulant for collecting blood to run which of the following tests? Glucose Level.
Which of the following is a blood microcollection system? RAM SAFE-T-FILL
Specimens for which of the following tests must be collected in light blue-topped blood collection tubes? PT and APTT
Blood Collection for blood-banking procedures can be collected in which of the following tubes? Pink topped tubes
A prefilled device used as a collection and dilution unit is the: BD Unopette
Which of the following anticoagulants is recommeneded for blood smear preparations? EDTA
Which blood collection tube should be used to obtain the blood for the glucose level? Gray topped tube
What does the Sodium Flouride in the gray topped tubes destroy? Destroys many enzymes (e.g. AST, CK, ALP, ALT) in the blood, it shouldn't be used for enzyme collection
Gold/Red Black (Tiger) Vacutainer Tubes Clot activator and gel for serum separation
Gold/Red Black Vacutainer Tubes Laboratory Use is: For serum determinations in chemistry. May be used for routine blood donor screening and diagnostic testing of serum for infectious disease. Tube inversions ensure mixing of clot activator with blood. (Blood clotting time is 30 minutes).
The terms antiglycolytic agent and glycolytic inhibitor are the terms for this tubes additive(The Gray topped tube). because: It prevents glucose breakdown
Circulatory System Keeps things moving.
Circulation Process (Pulmonary Circulation) Carries deoxygenated blood back to the heart and lungs for gas exchange.
Circulation Process (Systemic Circulation) Carries Blood between the heart and the rest of the body's tissues.
Functions of the Circulatory System Oxygen transport, Nutrient Trasnport, Waste Transport, Water Balance, Heat Balance, Vitamin Transport, Hormone Transport, Infection Control, Loss Control (clotting)
The Heart Functions as the primary pump for the circulatory system.
heart - Made up of four main chambers through which the bllod flows. Located slightly left of the midline in the thoracis (chest cavity)
Heart Chambers (4) Left Atrium, Right Atrium, Left Ventrical, Right Ventrical.
heart (Blood) 1 Blood enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior vena cavae
heart (Blood) 2 The blood moves throught the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle.
heart (Blood) 3 The ventricle contracts and blood exits through the pulmonary valve, into the pulmonary arteries.
Blood Provides nutrients, oxygen, chemical substances and wasted removal for each of the individual cell in the body.
Provides nutrients, oxygen, chemical substances and waste removal for each of the individual cells in the body. Blood
The fluid, circulating connective tissue primarily responsible for circulation with the body. Blood
Blood interacting with every part of the body, blood tests show key data abour organ function, infection and other physical conditions Blood
What is the average amount of blood that an adult has? 5 to 6 liters.
Comprimised of different types of cells, water, and dissolved substances. There are 3 main types of blood cells. Composed of Erythrocytes (red blood cells), Leukocytes (WBC), Thrombocytes, platelets, Plasma, (main component), serum (plasma, without clotting factors)
Blood Cells (Erythrocytes): RBC Commonly called red blood cells, these are the most numerous cells in the blood. The avg. adult has 20-30 trillion RBC's. Each cell is 6 to 8 micrometers across.
Erythrocytes Packed with proten called hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and allows transport Also gives blood it's red color.
Hemoglobin 4 part protein which can attach to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.
Life span of 120 days, before being removed by the liver, bone marrow or spleen. Flexible shape allows them to pass through capillaries. About 7mm in diameter and 2 mm thick. hemoglobin
Leukocytes (WBC) Differ in size and shape, defense mechanism, formed in bone marrow and lymphatic tissues/ 5,000 to 10,000 WBC's in a microliter of blood. WBC's divided into granular and agranular
Filled with enzymes and proteins to aid in the fight agains foreign microbes; 50-70%.(Leukocytes) granular
Neutrophils (Leukocytes) Most abundant WBC; digest bacteria (phagocytosis)
Eosinophils (Leukocytes) Combat infection; control allergies and asthma.
Basophils (Leukocytes) Release histamines to defend the body.
Agranular:(Leukocytes) Without cytoplasmic granules 25-35% of all WBC's
B- and T- cells; play a role in immunity Lymphocytes (Leukocytes)
Largest of the WBC's; stimulate other WBC's to defend the body. Monocytes (Leukocytes)
Thrombocytes & Platelets Created in the Bone Marrow. Smallest of the blood cells (250,000 - 450,000 mm) Aid in the clotting process. Life span of 9-12 days.
Plasma Liquid portion of the blood. Contains clotting factors. Constitutes 55% of total blood volume. Composed of 90% water and 10% combination of: proteins, amino acids, gases, electrolytes, sugars, hnormones, lipids, waste products.
The most significant element of plasman is albumin, which is responsible for osmotic pressure and molecular transport. Plasma
Serum Blood plasma WITHOUT clotting factors. contains the same chemical makeup as plasma.
Blood Types (ABO) Based on the presence or absence of A and B antigens on the surface of RBC's.
Antigen A substance that prompts the generation of antibodies and can cause an immune response.
Blood group AB Individuals have both A and B antigens on the surface of their RBC's.
Blood group A Individuals have the A antigen on the surface of their RBC's.
Blood group B Individuals have the B antigen on the surface of their RBC's.
Blood group O Individuals have neither A nor B antigens on the surface of their RBC's.
Hemoglobin (HGB) Measures the level of hemoglobin in the blood, which determines the oxygen carrying ability.
Red Cell Indices Mean Corpuscular Hgb (MCH) determines the avg., amount of hemoglobin in the avg. RBC.
Mean Corpuscular Hgb concentration (MCHC) Determines the ratio of hemoglobin in a cell as compared to the size of the cell.
Common Coagulation Tests Includes, Activated clotting time, activated partial thromboplastin time, bleeding time, factor activity assays, fibrinogen and fibrin degradation tests, international normalized ratio, prothrombin time, thrombin clotting tieme.
The Phlebotomist knows Physicians typically order the following labs in order to assess the general health of the patient: Chem 7, ALP, AST, LDH, cholestrol, triglycerides, uric acid, total protein/albumin, bilirubin, calcium.
(Common Chemistry Tests & Panels)Most Blood Chemistry Tests Are performed on either Serum, or plasma.
Blood Chem Tests/Panels Serum is collected in a plain red-topped tube, without anticoagulants or in a serum separator tube (SST) clots for about 30 mins. before the serum is separated by a centrifuge.
Blood Chem Tests/Panels Plasma is collected with tubes that contain either heparin or fluoride.
(Test Type) Chem 7 (Test Purpose) To assess basic organ function; general metabolic screen/basic panel.
Created by: drehmon2237



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