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A&P - Ch 8


site where 2+ bones meet joints / articulations
focuses on material binding bones together & whether/not a joint cavity is present structural classification
structural classifications of joints include fibrous, cartilaginous, synovial
based on amount of movement allowed by joint functional classification
functional classifications of joints include synarthroses, amphiarthroses, & diarthroses
immovable joints synarthroses
slightly movable joints amphiarthroses
freely movable joints diarthroses
bones joined by fibrous tissues; no joint cavity; movement depends on length of fibers, most immovable; fibrous joints
three types of fibrous joints include sutures, syndesmoses, & gomphoses
occur btwn bones of skull; comprised of interlocking junctions, completely filled w/short connective tissue fibers; bind bones tightly together, but allow for growth during youth sutures
in middle age, sutures' fibrous tissue __ & skull bones __ ossify; fuse
bones connected by a fibrous tissue ligaments/bands; movement variable depending on length of fibers syndesmoses
examples of syndesmoses include distal tibiofibular joint & interosseous membrane btwn radius & ulna
peg-in-socket fibrous joint gomphoses
teeth bound to bony sockets where fibrous connection is periodontal ligament is example of gomphoses
articulating bones are united by cartilage; lack joint cavity cartilaginous joints
two types of cartilaginous joints include synchondroses & symphyses
bar/plate of hyaline cartilage unites bones; immovable joints synchondroses
synchondroses include __ __ of children epiphyseal plates
synchondroses include joint btwn __ __ of 1st rib & sternum costal cartilage
hyaline cartilage covers articulating surface of bone & is fused to a pad of fibrocartilage symphyses
symphyses are __ __ joints designed for strength & flexibility slightly movable
__ joints & pubic symphysis of pelvis are examples of symphyses intervertebral
are those joints in which articulating bones are separated by a fluid containing joint cavity synovial joints
synovial joints are all __ __ joints freely movable
all __ __ & most joints of body are synovial joints limb joints
covers articular surfaces of bones articular cartilage
lubricates joint surfaces & reduces friction synovial fluid
consists of outer fibrous capsule & inner synovial membrane articular capsule
strengthen joints; unite bones & prevent undesirable motion ligaments
discs of fibrocartilage separating articular surfaces; make joint more stable e.g. knee joint articular discs
another name for articular discs is menisci
fibrous sacs lined w/synovial membranes containing synovial fluid; found where ligaments, muscles, tendons, or bones rub together bursae
elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon tendon sheath
structures of synovial joints that reduce friction include bursae & tendon sheath
general structure of synovial joints include articular cartilage, joint/synovial cavity, synovial fluid, articular capsule, ligaments
example of how shape of articular surfaces effect stability: shallow socket to decrease stability glenoid cavity of scapula
example of how shape of articular surfaces effect stability: deep sockets provide greater stability acetabulum of hip joint
the more ligaments the stronger joint
stretch w/__ __ & can snap ligaments undue tension
tendons that are kept tight at all times by muscle tone
__ __ that cross joints stabilize muscle muscle tendons
2 muscle attachments across a joint are origin & insertion
attachment to immovable bone origin
attachment to movable bone insertion
occurs when muscle contracts across joint, & insertion moves towards origin movement
movement takes place around an __ & along __, __, or __planes axis; transverse; frontal; sagittal
slipping movements only nonaxial
movement in 1 plane uniaxial
movement in 2 planes biaxial
movement in all 3 planes multiaxial
gliding, angular, & rotation are 3 general types of movements
1 flat bone surface slides over another; back & forth, side to side gliding movements
intercarpal & intertarsal joints, as well as btwn flat articular processes of vertebrae are all examples of gliding movements
increase/decrease angle btwn 2 bones; includes flexion, extension, hyperextension, adduction, abduction, circumduction angular movements
bending movement, along sagittal plane, decrease angle of joint; brings articulating bones together flexion
movement along sagittal plane that increases joint angle; reverse of flexion extension
bending foot/ toes toward plantar surface plantar flexion
upward movement (extension) of foot/toes or of hand/fingers dorsiflexion
extension of a limb/part beyond normal limit; bending head backward beyond its upright position hyperextension
movement of a limb away from midline along frontal plane; e.g.raising arm laterally abduction
abduction in digits is movement __ __ midline of hand or foot away from
movement of a limb toward midline, in frontal plane adduction
adduction in digits is __ __ midline of hand or foot movement towards
movement describes in circular direction; e.g. baseball pitcher winding up to throw a ball circumduction
turning/movement of a body around its axis; btwn 1st 2 cervical vertebrae (‘no’ movement) & hip/shoulder joints rotation
rotation of forearm such that palm of hand faces anteriorly to anatomic position; rotation of foot such that plantar surface of rotated upward supination
specific rotational motion of forearm that moves palm into a down facing position, a specific rotational motion of foot in which plantar surface is rotated outward pronation
turning inward, upside down, or in any direction contrary to existing one inversion
turning outward, as of eyelid or foot eversion
dentistry, extension of teeth/other maxillary/mandibular structures into a position anterior to normal protraction
shrinking, drawing back, or pulling apart retraction
act of assuming or being raised to an elevated position elevation
displacement of a part downward or inward depression
action taken when touch thumb to tips of other fingers on same hand; makes human hand fine tool for grasping & manipulating objects opposition
synovial joint where articular surfaces are flat; allow only slipping/gliding movements; intercarpal & intertarsal joints; only examples of nonaxial joints plane joints
synovial joint where cylindrical projection of 1 bone fits into a trough-shaped surface on another; motion is along a single plane; elbow joint, interphalangeal joints, knee joint hinge joints
synovial joint where rounded end of 1 bone protrudes into a “sleeve,” or ring; joints btwn atlas & dens of axis & proximal radioulnar joint pivot joints
synovial joint where oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another; both articular surfaces are oval; all angular motions possible; metacarpophalangeal (knuckle) joints & radiocarpal (wrist) joint condyloid joints
synovial joint where similar to condyloid joints but allow greater movement; each articular surface has both concave & convex surface; carpometacarpal joint of thumb saddle joints
synovial joint where spherical or hemispherical head of 1 bone articulates w/cup-like socket of another; most freely moving synovial joints; shoulder & hip joints ball-and-socket joints
hinge joint that allows flexion & extension; radius & ulna articulate w/humerus at elbow joint
gripping of trochlea of humerus by trochlea notch of ulna that forms __ joint of elbow hinge
joint capsule of elbow joint is thin anteriorly & posteriorly, allowing flexion & extension
radial & ulna collateral ligaments. of elbow joint, limits side to side movements
tendons crossing elbow joint provide security
ball-and-socket joint in which stability is sacrificed to obtain greater freedom of movement; head of humerus articulates w/glenoid fossa of scapula glenohumeral (shoulder) joint
weak stability of shoulder joint is maintained by thin, loose joint capsule, from margin of glenoid cavity to anatomical neck of humerus
weak stability of shoulder joint is maintained by four ligaments __, & three __ coracohumeral; glenohumeral
weak stability of shoulder joint is maintained by long head of __ __, which travels through intertubercular sulcus & secures humerus against glenoid cavity biceps' tendon
weak stability of shoulder joint is maintained by rotator cuff (4 tendons) that encircle __ __ & blends w/articular capsule shoulder joint
4 tendons that encircle shoulder joint & blends w/articular capsule rotator cuff
travels through intertubercular sulcus & secures humerus against glenoid cavity tendon of long head of biceps
1 coracohumeral, & 3 glenohumeral ligament of shoulder joint
from margin of glenoid cavity to anatomical neck of humerus, exists a thin, loose __ __ joint capsule
caused by stretch injuries in tennis & baseball players rotator cuff injuries
anterior dislocation of head of humerus; caused by forceful abduction/fall on outstretched hand shoulder dislocation
mandibular condyle articulates w/temporal bone (mandibular fossa) temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
depression & elevation of mandible hinge movement of TMJ
lateral excursion, grinding of teeth side-to-side movement of TMJ
mandibular condyle is braced against articular tubercle when mouth is open wide
largest joint of body; allows flexion, extension, & some rotation; consists of 3 joints in 1 surrounded by a single joint cavity knee joint
btwn patella & lower end of femur (plane joint) femoropatellar joint
lateral & medial joints btwn femoral condyles & tibia (hinge joint) tibiofemoral joint
__ __ of knee posteriorly & laterally only articular capsule
patellar ligament; lateral & medial patellar retinacula; tibial & fibular & collateral ligaments are found __ in knee anteriorly
continuation of tendon of quadriceps femoris muscle lateral & medial patellar retinacula
prevent antero-posterior displacement of joint surfaces anterior & posterior cruciate ligament(s)
(semilunar cartilages) of tibia- shock absorbers; prevent side-to-side rocking lateral & medial menisci
common sports injuries from horizontal blows to knee, treated by repair/graft collateral ligaments, cartilages (menisci), & cruciate ligaments
ball-and-socket joint; head of femur articulates w/acetabulum; good range of motion, but limited by deep socket & strong ligaments hip joint
fibrocartilaginous rim attached to margin of acetabulum of hip bone; deepens cup acetabular labrum
from rim of acetabulum to neck of femur, in hip joint thick capsule
acetabular labrum, thick capsule, iliofemoral, pubofemoral & ischiofemoral ligaments, as well as muscles & tendons provide for hip joint stability
partially/completely torn ligaments; injury to ligaments of a joint i.e. ankle, knee, lumbar spine sprains
__ torn ligaments slowly repair themselves partially
__ torn ligaments require surgery completely
occur when bones are forced out of alignment, e.g. shoulder joint, TMJ; caused by falls & sports injuries dislocations
partial dislocation of a joint subluxation
tearing of knee menisci is example of cartilage injury
inflammation of a bursa, usually caused by a blow/friction bursitis
bursitis of prepatellar bursa housemaids knee
caused by fall on knee bursitis of prepatellar bursa
olecranon bursitis students elbow
inflammation of olecranon bursa, overlying prominence of elbow olecranon bursitis
inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse; causes pain & swelling tendinitis
characterized by erosion of articular cartilage, primary/2ndary to trauma/other conditions; exposed bone ends thicken, enlarge, form bone spurs, & restrict movement osteoarthritis
osteoarthritis causes pain & loss of function result & most affected are cervical & lumbar spine, knees, & hips, fingers, knuckles
osteoarthritis more prevalent in __ & is probably related to normal __ process aged; aging
chronic inflammatory, autoimmune disease; occurs btwn 40-50 years; begins w/synovitis Rheumatoid arthritis
inflamed synovial membrane thickens into a pannus synovitis
erodes cartilage, scar tissue forms; ossifies; fusing bone ends pannus
end result of RA produces deformities
deposition of uric acid crystals in joints & soft tissues, followed by inflammation; typically effects joint at the base of great toe (1st metatarsophalangeal joint) gouty arthritis
joint - synarthrosis immovable
joint - amphiarthrosis slightly movable
joint - diarthrosis freely movable
joint - synostosis formed by fusion of 2 bones
flexion is __ angle btwn bones decreasing
adduction is movement __ midline of body towards
hyperextension is extending body __ anatomical position past
protraction is movement of body part forward in a(n) __ __ horizontal plane
elbow joint is a(n) __ joint hinge
shoulder joint is a(n) __ joint ball-and-socket
carpometacarpal joint is a(n) __ joint saddle
radioulnar joint is a(n) __ joint pivot
metacarpophalangeal joint is a(n) __ joint condyloid
reinforces back of knee joint popliteal ligaments
reinforces lateral surface of knee joint fibular collateral ligament
range of motion for synovial joint for nonaxial gliding
range of motion for synovial joint for uniaxial 1 plane
range of motion for synovial joint for biaxial 2 planes
range of motion for synovial joint for multiaxial 3 planes
diarthrosis is a(n) __ joint synovial
symphysis is a(n) __ joint cartilaginous
syndesmosis is a(n) __ joint fibrous
shoulder joint contains __ ligament(s) coracohumeral
hip joint contains __ ligament(s) iliofemoral
knee joint contains __ ligament(s) cruciate
elbow joint contains __ ligament(s) anular
radiocarpal joint is a(n) __ joint ellipsoidal
intervertebral joint is a(n) __ joint plane
multiaxial joint is a(n) __ joint ball-and-socket
uniaxial joint is a(n) __ joint pivot
abnormal fusion of bones, in a joint, as result of disease/damage ankylosing spondylitis
general term for pain & stiffness that affects skeletal/muscular system rheumatism
joint inflammation caused by deposit of urate salts in soft joint tissues gouty arthritis
degenerative condition, most common in elderly osteoarthritis
acromion of scapula & clavicle is considered a(n) synovial, plane joint
scapula and humerus is considered a(n) synovial, ball-and-socket joint
ulna & radius w/humerus is considered a(n) synovial, hinge joint
radius and ulna is considered a(n) synovial, pivot joint
radius & proximal carpals is considered a(n) synovial, condyloid joint
prevents hyperextension of knee extracapsular collateral ligaments
prevents lateral/medial rotation when knee extended fibular & tibial collateral ligaments
prevents forward sliding of tibia & checks hyperextension of knee anterior cruciate ligaments
prevents backward displacement of tibia, &/or forward sliding of femur posterior cruciate ligaments
exemplify movements of temporomandibular joint elevation-depression
exemplify movements of radioulnar joint pronation-supination
exemplify movements of coxal joint circumduction of thigh
exemplify movements of ankle joint dorsiflexion-plantar flexion
torn ligament/tendon, sometimes w/damage to meniscus/other cartilage sprain
inflammation of joint capsule, often as complication of sprain synovitis
displacement of bone from its normal position at joint; usually accompanied by sprain of adjoining connective tissues dislocation
articular cartilage is smooth, slippery __ cartilage hyaline
articular capsule is composed of __ & __ layers fibrous; synovial
synovial fluid is secreted into joint & contains large amounts of __ __ hyaluronic acid
reinforcing ligaments can be __ intrinsic
flexion is a movement permitted by the __ joint elbow
plantar flexion is pointing __ downward toes
inversion is turning sole of foot __ medially
eversion is movement permitted by __ joint atlantoaxial
example of pivot joint is the proximal __ joint radioulnar
example of ball-and-socket joint is the __ joint glenohumeral
example of hinge joint is the __ joint interphalangeal
example of condyloid joint is the __ joint metatarsophalangeal joint
opening your mouth exemplifies depression
shrugging your shoulders exemplifies elevation
touching your chin to your chest exemplifies flexion
shaking your head no exemplifies rotation
turning the palm up exemplifies supination
turning the palm down exemplifies pronation
turning sole of foot medially exemplifies inversion
turning sole of foot laterally exemplifies eversion
a fibrocartilage disc menisci
synovial sac bursa
bone to bone attachment ligament
muscle to bone attachment tendon
syndesmosis is a(n) ligamentous connection, such as that between the bones of the lower leg
adduction is a(n) movement towards the midline of the body
all synovial joints are freely movable diarthroses
inversion is a(n) twisting motion of the foot that turns the sole inward
a synarthrosis is a(n) immovable joint
bursae are common in sites where ligaments, muscles, skin, or muscle tendons overlie & rub against bone
bursae would not be located around blood vessels
flexion occurs when angle btwn bones is decreased
in an monoaxial articulation movement can occur in only one axis
osteoarthritis is a(n) non-inflammatory type of arthritis
osteoarthritis is referred to as degenerative joint disease or "wear-and-tear arthritis"
example of a saddle joint carpometacarpal joint at the base of the thumb
shoulder joint is the joint that permits the greatest range of mobility of any joint in the body
anterior & posterior cruciate ligaments attach to anterior & posterior intercondylar area of the tibia respectively
anterior cruciate ligament prevents forward sliding of the tibia
posterior cruciate ligament prevents backward displacement of the tibia or forward sliding of the femur
synovial fluid has a(n) __ __ to reduce friction btwn articular cartilages viscous consistency
example of a synchondrosis epiphyseal growth plate
movement of a joint could potentially damage blood vessels by pinching them btwn bones
there are no blood vessels inside joint cavities of synovial joints because movement would damage the delicate blood vessels
joints btwn ribs & sternum are connected by cartilage & are thus cartilaginous joints
only joint in the body that can oppose thumb
osseous components of a joint are not used to structurally classify a joint
knee joints have a(n) joint space
caused by the synovial fluid in a synovial joint weeping lubrication
presence of tendon sheaths and bursae would not provide stability to a synovial joint
ligaments be stretched up to 6% of their length and not snap
considered simplest synovial joint movement gliding of ribs on articular facet of vertebra
example of circumduction movement pitcher winding up to throw ball
force to knee that would be considered most dangerous lateral force to extended knee
knee can absorb __ __ up to 7x body weight vertical force
tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii "superstabilizer" of the shoulder joint
factor that contributes the most to the stability of the hip joint deep socket that encloses the femoral head
provides the most stability to the elbow ulnar trochlear notch
bursitis of the prepatellar bursa causes water on the knee
is thought to contribute to the development of osteoarthritis release of enzyme metalloproteinase
abduction and adduction always refer to movements of appendicular skeleton
menisci are attached only at the outer margins of the knee & are common athletic injuries
synovial joints are typically found at the ends of long bones
pivot joints only permit rotation
knee is a(n) freely movable synovial joint of the diarthrotic type
protraction non-angular anterior movement in a transverse plane
depression occurs when the movement of the body part is downward
only example of gomphosis is the articulation of a(n) tooth with its bony alveolar socket
pubic symphysis represents amphiarthrotic articulation
suture is an example of a synarthrosis
dislocation common injury at the glenohumeral joint
metacarpophalangeal joints are biaxial, condylar joints
because it has a loose joint capsule, the TMJ is one of the easiest joints in the body to dislocate
gomphosis is classified as a(n) fibrous joint
symphyses and synchondroses are classified as cartilaginous joints
pivot joints are classified as synovial joints
in sutures, bony edges interlock
in syndesmoses, bones connected exclusively by ligaments
gomphoses are __ fibrous joint peg-in-socket
in synchondroses, plate of hyaline cartilage unites bones
in symphyses, fibrocartilage is main connecting material
all joints of __ are classified as synovial joints limbs
muscle tone is a natural contributor to joint stability
lubrication of joints role of synovial fluid
bursae flattened fibrous sacs that reduce friction between adjacent structures
nonaxial movement slipping movements only
extension is the __ of flexion reverse
supination refers to movement of radius around ulna when palms of hands are rotated so that palms are facing upward
example of elevation & depression shrugging one's shoulders
knuckle joints are typical condyloid joints
shoulder & hip are typical ball-and-socket joints
elbow is typical hinge joint
suture joint is __ a synovial joint not
oblique popliteal ligament stabilizes the posterior aspect of the knee joint
patellar ligament connects the kneecap (patella) to the tibia
patellar ligament can be tapped to generate knee-jerk reflex
fibular and tibial collateral ligaments critical in preventing lateral or medial rotation when the knee is extended
size of the glenoid cavity contributes to instability of shoulder joint
depth of the socket in a ball-and-socket joint usually affects joint stability
Created by: lfrancois



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