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Chapter 15 DRW

Urinary system

Kidney regulate volume and chemical composition of blood by adjusting amounts of water and electrolytes and eliminate waste endocrine gland secretes erythropoietin(EPO) which stimulates production of red blood cells and produces Renin which raises blood pressure
waste products uria, uric acid,creatine
soultes water and other dissolved substances
homeostasis stable internal body environment
home/o same
stasis control
urinary system(urinary tract) 2 kidneys, 2 ureters,1 bladder,1 urethra
retroperitoneal behind peritoneal membrane
adipose tissue thick cushion of fatty tissue protect and support kidney and anchor it to body wall
cortex outer layer of kidney of body or stucture
nephrons microscopic units functional units of kidney
glomerulus ball shaped collection of very tiny coiled and intertwined cappilaries
renal capsule(bowman's capsule double walled cup surrounding glomerulus
proximal convuluted(coiled tube 1st part of renal tubule
loop of henle 2nd part of tubule
distal convuluted tubule 3rd part of tubule empties into collecting tublule and leads to inner part of kidney
medulla inner region of kidney
renal pyramids triangular tissues in renal medulla contain loops and collecting tubules of nephron
minor calyx tip of pyramid extends into cup like urine collection cavity
major calyx several minor calyx merge
renal pelvis central collecting area of kidney that narrows into large upper end of ureter formed whem major calyce merge recieves urine form calyces and drains it into ureters
ureters muscular tubes lined with mucous membrane lead from kidney to bladder carries urine
peristalsis wavelike contractions
bladder hollow muscular sac in pelvic cavity that serves as temporary reservoir for urine holds 1 quart of urine
urethra where urine exits bladder mucous membrane lined tube that leads from bladder to exterior of body female just urine male reproductive as well
urinary meatus external opening of urethra
external sphincter controls release of urine from bladder
hilum depression or pit of kidney where vessels and nerves enter
arterioles smallest branch of arteries lead to glomerulus
glomerulus ball shaped collection of capillaries where urine formation begins in cortex of kidney
glomerular filtration blood passing through glomeruli within cortex of kidneys and blood pressure forces materials through glomerular walls into bowman's capsule
glomerular filtrate filtered waste products and toxins collect in bowman's caspule to be eliminated through urine filter out of blood through glomeruli
tubular reabsorption glomerular filtrate passes through bowman's capsule into renal tubule and water,sugar,salt is returned to blood stream through capillaries
tubular secretion materials selectively transferred from blood into filtrate to be excreted in urine occurs in renal tubules substances that may be excreted are potassium,hydrogen,drugs
urine fluid released by kidneys transported by ureters retained in bladder and eliminated through urethra consists of water and other materials that were filtered or secreted into tubules but were not reabsorbed about 2 quarts excreted a day 95% water 5% urea,c
micturition urination
sphinchters circular muscles surrounding urethra
urine formation blood stream, glomerulus,bowman's capsule,renal tubule-proximal convuluted tubule,loopof henle,distal convoluted tubule collecting tubule, renal pelvis,ureter, bladder, urethra,urinary meatus
antiseptic inhibit growth and reproduction of microorganisms
sept/o infection
aseptic technique prevent contamination of microorganisms
asymptomatic without symptoms
azotemia(uremia) excessive amounts of waste products of metabolism nitrogenous compounds in blood caused by failure of kidneys toremove urea from blood
azot/o nitrogen
Bowman's capsule(glomerular capsule) cup shaped end of renal tubule containing glomerulus
calyx cup shaped division of renal pelvis where urine passes from renal tubules
catheter hollow,flexible tube that can be inserted into body cavity or vessel to instill or withdraw fluid
cytometer instument that measures bladder capacity in relation to changing pressure
cyst/o bladder,sac,or cyst
cystoscope instrument used to view interior of bladder
dialysate(bath) solution that contains water and electrolytes that passes through artificial kidney to remove excess fluids and wasted
lys/o breakdown or destruction
ate something that
dialysis remove waste products form blood when kidneys can't
hemodialysis passing blood through artificial kidney
peritoneal dialysis introduce fluid into abdomen through catheter
osmosis fluid draws waste products out of capillaries into abdomenal cavity and fluid is removed by catheter
dwell time length of time dialysis solution stays in peritoneal cavity
fossa depression especially on surface of end of bone
hydrostatic pressure pressure exerted by liquid
hydroureter distension of ureter with urine due to blockage from obstruction
meatus opening or tunnel through part of body urinary meatus is external opening of urethra
medulla most internal part of structure or organ
nephrolith kidney stone
nephrolithiasis the condition of kidney stones
palpable touch
peritoneum specific serous membrane that covers entire abdominal wall of body and id reflected over viscera or inner lining of abdominal cavity
peritonitis inflammation of peritoneum
pyelitis inflammation of renal pelvis
radiopaque not permitting passage of x rays or other radiant energy apeears white on film
renal artery one of pair of large arteries branching form abdominal aorta that supplys bold to kidneys,adrenal glands,ureters
renal calculus stone formation in kidney
renal tubule long twisted tube leading away form glomerulusto collecting tubules
renal vein 1 of 2 vessels that carries blood away from kidneys
residual urine urine remaining in bladder after urination
solute substance disolved in solution
specific gravity weight of substance compared with equal volume of water
turbid cloudy
uretritis inflammation of urethra
urinary incontinence inability to control urination
urinary retention accumulation of urine in bladder
vesicocele(cystocele) herniation or sownward protrusion of bladder through wall of vagina
cali/o calic/o calyx,calyces
olig/o few,little,scanty
pyel/o renal pelvis
normal urine color pale yellow to deep gold
clarity of urine normal is clear cloudy could indicate pyuria(pus in urine) or bacteria
odor of urine normal is strong,agreeable,foul odor could indicate infection friuty odor could be diabetes starvation or dehydration
specific gravity of urine normal would be 1.003 to 1.030 measures amount of solids in urine low could be kidney disease and high could be diabetes
PH normal 4.5 to 8.0 acid 6.0 measures acid may be alkaline high acid could be infection
protein normal small amounts albumin-kidney disease
albuninuria(proteinuria) large amounts of protein in urine could be leak in glomerular membrane
glucose normal no glucose could be some causes for glucose in normal urine glucose could be diabetes
ketones none in normal could also be starvation,dehydration, too much aspirin
anuria no urine production
bacteriuria bacteria in urine
dysuria painful urination
enuresis urinary incontinence at night
esis condition of
fatigue exhaustion or loss of strengh or endurance
frequency number of repetitions within a fixed period of time could be bladder infection sign
glycosuria sugar in urine
hematuria blood in urine
ketonuria(ketoaciduria) excessive amounts of ketone bodies in urine
lethargy without emotion or sluggish
malaise weakness or discomfort
nocturia excessive urination at night
oliguria diminished urine output
polydipsia excessive thirst
polyuria large amounts of urine
pyuria excessive white blood cells and pus in urine
urgency need to void immediately
cystitis inflammation of the bladder
glomerulonephritis (acute) inflammation of glomerulus of kidneys
periorbital around eye socket
hydronephrosis distension of pelvis and calyces of the kidney caused by urine that cannot flow past an obstruction in ureter
hydroureter distended ureter
nephrotic syndrome droup of symptomes occuring when damage to glomerulus of kidney is present and there is large amounts of protein in the urine
albumin excessive loss of protein
polycystic kidney disease heridetary disorder of kidneys grapelike fluid filled sacs or cysts replace normal kidney tissue
uremia kidney failure
pyelonephritis bacterial infection of renal pelvis of kidney
renal calculi stone formations in the kidney
renal colic severe attack of pain in region of kidney and toward thigh
renal cell carcinoma a malignant tumor of the kidney occuring in adulthood
renal failure chronic slow developing kidney failure
epogen injectable erthropoietin
vesicoureteral reflux abnormal backflow of urine to ureter
wilm's tumor malignant tumor of kidney mainly occuring in childhood
dialysis mechanical filtering process used to cleanse the blood of waste products,draw excessive fluids, and regulate body chemistry when kidneys can't
peritoneal dialysis peritoneal membrane or peritoneum is used as filter catheter in lower abdomen dialysate solution is used drains fluid
exchange cycle draining and infusing dialysate
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD) does not require machine patient can do several times a day
continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) machine used at night when pt is sleeping takes 8-10 hrs
dwell time retention of solution in abdominal cavity
hemodialysis remove excess fluids and toxins from blood 3 times a average time is 3-4 hrs
arteriovenous fistula opening or fistula created between artery and vein in forearm
kidney transplantation surgical implantation of a healthy human donor kidney into body of patient with irreversible kidney failure could be living or nonliving renal artery of donor kidney connected to recipient's iliac artery and iliac veins are connected
blood urea nitrogen(BUN) blood test to determine amount of urea and nitrogen in blood
catheterization introduce catheter into body cavity or organ ot instill substance or remove fluid
creatine clearance test test for kidney function measures filtration
cystometrography evaluate bladder pressure during filling and voiding with catheter and cystometer
cystoscopy process of viewing interior of bladder using cystoscope
extracorporeal lithotripsy(extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy) noninvasive procedure using sound waves to break renal calculi so they can pass through ureters
Intravenous pyelogram(IVP)(intravenous pyelography, excretory urogram) radiographic procedure that provides visualization of entire urinary tract kidneys ureters bladder urethra IV contrast dye is used
Kidneys,ureters,bladder(KUB) x-ray of lower abdomen that defines shape,size, location of kidneys ureters and bladder without contrast medium
renal angiography x-ray visualization of internal anatomy of renal blood vessels after injection of contrast medium
renal scan radioactive tracer through IV and radioactivity over kidney is measured as tracer passes through kidney
retrograde pyelogram (RP) radiographic procedure where small caliber catherters are passed through a cystoscope into the ureters to viusalize the ureters and renal pelvis
ultrasonography sound waves transmitted into body structures as transducer is passed over skin
urinalysis physical,chemical,microscopic examination of urine
urine culture urine sample tested for bacteria in urine
c urine culture and sensitivity
24-hour urine specimen(composite ureine specimen) collect all urine excreted over 24 hour period collected in 1 larde container blood sample taken as well
voiding cystourethrography x-ray visualization of the bladder and urethra during voiding after bladder is filled with contrast
catheterized specimen urine specimen withdrawed through catheter
clean catch specimen external genitalia is cleansed with antiseptic wipe expell small amount of urine then specimen is collected in sterile container and then patient can expell the rest of the urine avoids contamination
first voided specimen(early morning specimen) collect first voided specimen of morning and refrigerate until taken to medical office or laboratory done when more concentrated urine is needed
random specimen collected at any time tested in medical office immediately
residual urine specimen obtained by catheterization anfter patient voids to empty bladder measures amount of urine left in bladder after voiding
Created by: drw5



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