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Chapters 29-33 Rev.

AP World History - Chapters 29-33 Review - Traditions and Encounters

Effects of Gouges "Declaration" o revolutionary leaders dismissed her appeal as a publicity stunt and refused to put women’s rights on their political agenda
• Effects of 18th and 19th century of revolutions o helped to spread a cluster of Enlightenment ideas. o encouraged the consolidation of national states as the principal form of political organization
• Basic Enlightenment ideals o freedom o equality o popular sovereignty
• Effects of Seven Years’ Wars (2) o resentment between the English government and the colonists that eventually led to the American Revolution of 1775. o Increased taxes of American colonists
• Goals of the French Revolution o Liberty o Equality o Fraternity
• Ancien Regime o “the old order” o the aristocratic, social and political system established in France
• The Directory o a group of conservative men of property seized power and ruled France under The Directory o members of the Directory were unable to resolve the economic and military problems that plagued revolutionary France
• Napoleon’s Civil Code o a revised body of civil law which helped stabilize French society
• Napoleon’s Down Fall o Napoleon’s disastrous Russian campaign emboldened his enemies o A coalition of Russian, Prussian, Austrian, and British armies converged on France and forced Napoleon to abdicate his throne.
• Haitian Revolt, Known for? o the only successful slave revolt in history
• Goals of Creole revolutions (2) o sought to displace the peninsulares but retain their privileged position in society
• Leader of Congress of Vienna o Prince Klemens von Metternich
• Industrial vs. Pre-Industrial sources of motive energies o Preindustrial: inanimate objects used for power (i.e. people, animals) o Industrial: animate objects used for power (i.e. tractors, electricity)
• Cotton threatened… o wool producers
• Price of iron: affected by? o Use of coke (refined coal)
• Significance of the Factory o made possible a high degree of coordination in the production process
• Luddites o English hand craftsmen that went on a rampage and destroyed textile machines that they blamed for their low wages and unemployment
• Demographic transition o the shifting patterns of fertility and mortality
• Industrialization, affect on families o workers led increasingly separate lives
• Holy Monday o precedes the commemoration of the Death and Resurrection of Jesus o extra day off of work
• “Opiate of the Masses” o Marx’s referral to religion due to the encouragement of workers to focus on a hypothetical realm of existence beyond this world rather than trying to improve their lot in society.
• Marx’s ultimate goal o Dictatorship of the Proletariat
• Effects of trade Unions o restrain trade o improved lives of working o made it less likely for a revolution to happen
• International effects of industrialization o industrial powers used their tools, technologies, business organization, financial influence, and transportation networks to obtain raw materials from preindustrial societies around the world.
• “Trail of Tears” o the most important relocation; forced removal of Cherokees from the eastern woodlands to Oklahoma
• Causes of Mexican-American War o manifest destiny
• Founders did not abolish slavery, why? o leaders of the American Revolution and framers of the Constitution recognized the sanctity of private property, including slaves
• Emancipation Proclamation o officially declared the abolition of slavery as one of the war’s explicit goals
• US invasion of Canada o Canadian forces repelled US incursions (Victories promoted a sense of Canadian pride)
• Emiliano Zapata o formed and commanded an important revolutionary force known as the Liberation Army of the South o leading figure in the Mexican Revolution
• Main exporter of beef to Britain o Argentina
• Northwest Rebellion o was a brief and unsuccessful uprising by the Métis people of the District of Saskatchewan under Louis Riel against the Dominion of Canada.
• “The Gaucho Martin Fierro” o work depicting the life of a persecuted gaucho
• Muhammad Ali (not the boxer) o Ruler of Egypt
• Capitulations o agreements that exempted European visitors from Ottoman law and provided European powers with extraterritoriality (the right to exercise jurisdiction over their own citizens according to their own laws)
• Tanzimat, influenced by? o Enlightenment thought and the constitutional foundation of western European states
• Young Turk proposals o universal suffrage o equality before the law o freedom of religion o free public education o secularization of the state o emancipation of women
• Importance of emancipation of serfs o it was the key to social reform in Russia
• Zemstvos o elected district assemblies used to deal with local issues of health, education, and welfare
• Russian working class conditions o Bad o Left vulnerable to Russian propaganda
• Japanese tactics in Russo-Japanese war (2) o overran Russian installations before reinforcements could arrive from Europe o surprise attack
• Turning point in the Opium War o British steam ships threatened to destroy Grand Canal
• Treaty of Nanjing (part one) o released Korea, Vietnam, and Burma (known now as Myanmar) from Chinese authority, thus dismantling the Chinese system of tributary states o placed Hong Kong under British authority
• Treaty of Nanjing (part two) o granted extraterritoriality to British visitors in China o opened Chinese ports to commerce o legalized opium trade o permitted establishment of Christian missions throughout China
• Treaty of Nanjing (part three) o compelled the Qing government to extend most-favored-nation status to Britain
• Self-Strengthening Movement o Several local leaders sought a reform to strengthen military and economy. Imperial grants allowed them authority to raise troops, levy taxes, and run bureaucracies. They tried to blend Chinese cultural traditions with European industrialism.
• Japan opened to foreign trades o An American naval fleet set its targets on Edo (modern Tokyo) and forced Japanese gov’t to sign unequal treaties. The treaties took away tariffs on trade and granted foreigners to extraterritorial rights.
• Suez Canal; essential to whom? o Empires who needed a method of transporting large naval ships between seas to control their subject lands. British and Indian forces used it the most.
• “Great Game” o the military officers and imperialist adventurers engaged in a risky pursuit of influence and intelligence known to the British as the “Great Game”
• Siam o Not colonized by western powers b/c it was a buffer between French Indo-China and British India
• Berlin Conference o produced agreement that any European state could establish African colonies after notifying the others of its intentions and occupying previously unclaimed territory.
• Monroe Doctrine o Justified the US in being able to intervene in hemispheric affairs. It benefitted US entrepneurs who wanted to promote American agr. Prod. And nat. resources to the world. It enabled a free market economy in many regions.
• Queen Lili’vokalani o the last monarch of Hawai’i o Overthrown by US Marines at request of Dole Fruit Company
• Causes of Sino-Japanese War (part one) o An unequal treaty in 1877 gave way to Japanese for businesses to take hold of Korea. Korean rebellion sprouts to expel foreign forces.
• Causes of Sino-Japanese War (part two) China sent in army to set order to deter US and Euro imperialism to intervene. Japanese forces did not want to lose Korean to Chinese so war was declared.
• British used Ceylon for… o felling trees o converting rain forests to tea plantations o Recruiting Ceylonese women to harvest mature tea leaves.
• Most indentured laborers came from where? o Densely populated and relatively poor areas
• Social Darwinism o “survival of the fittest”
Created by: punisher42