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Chapter 13 D

Endocrine System

QuestionAnswer
Diabetes Mellitus Disorder of pancreas where there is failure to produce an adequate amount of insulin classic characteristic is high blood sugar (hyperglycemia)type 1 insulin depensent
Ketones waste products released by breaking down fats and proteins
glycosuria sugar in urine
polydipsia excessive thirst
polyuria excessive urine output
polyphagia increased eating
pruritis itching
Bolus dose greatest amount of insulin during greatest need 4 daily Novalog-fast acting and lantus long acting
basal dose once daily provides steady control of blood sugar level throughout day and night
insulin pump small mechanical device about the size of a pager worn on body administers 24 hrs a day
basal rate amount of insulin/hour X 24 hours a day
Diabetes Mellitus Disorder of pancreas where there is failure to produce an adequate amount of insulin classic characteristic is high blood sugar (hyperglycemia)type 1 insulin depensent
Ketones waste products released by breaking down fats and proteins
glycosuria sugar in urine
polydipsia excessive thirst
polyuria excessive urine output
polyphagia increased eating
pruritis itching
Bolus dose greatest amount of insulin during greatest need 4 daily Novalog-fast acting and lantus long acting
basal dose once daily provides steady control of blood sugar level throughout day and night
insulin pump small mechanical device about the size of a pager worn on body administers 24 hrs a day
basal rate amount of insulin/hour X 24 hours a day
glycohemoglobin test that determines overall effectiveness of plan for blood glucose control average glucose levels for 3 months
insulin shock drastic dorp in blood sugar level
diabetic retinopathy leading cause of blindness capillaries of retina experience localized areas of bulging(microaneurysms), hemorrhages,leakage,scarring
Diabetiv neuropathy involvement of nervous system
pancreatic cancer life threatening primary malignant neoplasm found in the heas of the pancreas
chronic pancreatitis permanent, progressive destruction of pancreatic cells
fasting blood sugar blood glucose sample taken usually early in the morning after the patient had been without food or drink since midnight
glucose tolerance test evaluates person's ability to tolerate a concentrated oral glucose by measuring glucose levels
hemoglobin A1c test( HgbA1c) blood test that shows average level of glucose in blood during the past 3 months
radioactive iodine uptake test evaluates function of thyroid by administering a known amount of radioactive iodine and later placing a gama ray detector over the thyroid gland to determine absorption by the gland increased uptake of iodine
serum glucose tes measures amount of glucose in blood at time sample was drawn
thyroid Echogram ultrasound examination of thyroid to disinguish thyroid nodules from cystic nodules
thyroid Function test test that measures blood levels of thyroid hormones
thyroid scan examination that determines position,size,shape, and physiological function of thyroid gland
hot functioning
cold nonfunctioning
thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) blood test measures concentration of TSH in the blood
Endocrine System Network of ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into blood stream not ducts like a sweat or oil gland
Infundibulum stalk like projection that connects pituitary gland to hypothalamus
Growth hormone(somatotropic STH) regulates growth
Adenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH) stimulates normal growth and development of adrenal cortex and secretes corticosteroids- cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone
Thyroid Stimulating hormone(TSH)- normal growth and development of thyroid and secretes thyroid hormones
Lactogenic hormone(LTH)(prolactin) development of breasts during pregnancy secretion of milk
Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) secretion of estrogen and production of eggs in female and sperm in male
Luteinizing hormone(LH) ovulation and secretion of testosterone in male
Melanocyte stimulating hormone(MSH)- controls intensity of pigmentation
Antidieuretic hormone(ADH)(vasopressin) decreases excretion of large amounts of urine from body maintain water balance
Oxytocin-(OT) contractions of uterus during child birth and releases milk from breast feeding women
Pineal gland tiny pine cone shaped gland- secretes melatonin part of support of biological clock
Isthmus narrow island shaped piece that connects thyroid across front of trachea
Triiodothyronine(T3) growth and development, metabolism,body temp
Thyroxine(T4)- Thyroxine(T4)-
Calcitonin regulates level of calcium in blood
Hypocalcemia calcium levels too low
Hypercalcemia calcium levels too high
Thymus single gland located mediastinum large in fetus and infants shrinks with age increase secretes hormones into blood stream role in development of immune system secrete Thymosin thymopoitin
Thymosin stimulate production of T-cells for immunity
Thymopoietin produces T-cells
Mineralocorticoids regulates hoe mineral salts(electrolytes) are processed in body primary hoemone secreted is aldosterone aldosterone which regulates fluid and electrolyte balance
Glucocordicoids metabolism of carbohydrates,fat,proteins,maintain normal blood pressure,anti inflammatory,increase glucose for skeletal muscles main 1 is cortisol
Gonadocorticoids sex hormones released from adrenal cortex
Epinephrine(adrenaline) increases heart rate, dilates bronchioles, decreases peristalsis or wavelike movement in intestines and raises blood sugar sympathomimetic agent- role in reaction to stress
Norepinephrine-(nonadrenaline)- raises blood pressure also has role in reaction to stress
Glucagon increases blood glucose levels converts
Insulin secreted in response to increased levels of glucose
Ovaries female sex glands or gonads almond shaped held in place by ligaments produce ova and release during ovulation normal female growth and development and pregnancy maintenance produce estrogen and progesterone
Fimbriated fringed
Estrogen maturation of egg and stimulates vascularixation of uterine lining each month to prepare for implantation of fertilized egg changes in body with onset of puberty
Progesterone changes within uterus
Testes male gonads or testicles- produce sperm, maturation of sperm, secrete androgens, produce testosterone which is responsible for changes in male with onset of puberty
Adrenocortical pertaining to cortex of adrenal glands
Aldosterone hormone secreted by adrenal cortex that regulates sodium and potassium balance in blood
Androgen steroid hormone in males
Antidiuretic suppression of urine production
Cortex outer region of organ or structure
Cortisol steroid hormone
Cretinism congenital condition caused by lack of thyroid secretion- dwarfism, slowed mental development,puffy face, dry skin,large tongue
Dwarfism abnormal underdevelopment of body under secretion of growth hormone
Endocrine gland ductless glad that produces hormones that are secreted directly into blood stream
Euthroid pertaining to normally functioning thyroid gland
Exocrine gland gland that opens onto surface of skin
Exophthalmia outward protrusion of eyeballs
Giantism excessive size and height too much growth hormone
Glucogenesis formation of glycagon from fatty acids and proteins
Glucose simplest form of sugar
Glycogenesis glucose to glycogen
Glycosuria sugar in urine
Goiter enlargement of thyroid due to excessive growth(hyperplasia)
Graves disease hyperthyroidism
Hisutism excessive hair in male distribution pattern
Hypergonadism excessive activity of ovaries and testes hyperinsulism-too much insulin
Hyperkalemia elevated blood potassium level
Hypernatremia elevated blood sodium level
Hypokalemia less than normal blood potassium level
Hypophysectomy surgical removal of pituitary gland
Insulin shock state of shock due to extremely low blood sugar
Medulla internal part of structure or organ
Metabolism sum of all physical and chemical processes of body
Myxedema most severe form of hypothyroidism
Polyphagia excessive eating
Polydipsia excessive thirst
Progesterone female hormone secreted by ovaries changes in endometrium
Somatotropic hormone growth hormone
Syndrome group of symptoms occuring together
T-cells specialized lymphocytes involved in immune response
Tetany severe cramping and twitching of muscles and sharp flexion of wrist and ankle joints
Virilism masculine traits in female
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis common form of hyperthyroidism
Thyrotoxicosis acute sometimes fatal incident of over activity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormone
Tetany continual contraction of muscles
Addison’s disease Addison’s disease
Conn’s disease(primary aldosteronism) excessive amounts of aldosterone
Hypervolemia increased volume of blood
Cushing’s syndrome condition of adrenal gland in which cluster of symptoms occur as result of excessive amounts of cortisol
Pheochromocytoma vascular tumor of adrenal medulla that produces extra epinephrine and
norepinephrine leasing to hypertension and heart palpitations
Created by: drw5