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Chapter 6 Holt book

Hinduism and Buddhism flashcards

What is a subcontinent? A subcontinent is a large landmass that is smaller than a continent.
How are subcontinents usually separated from the rest of their continent? By their physical features.
How is India separated from the rest of Asia? By mountains, the Himalayas.
What are the Himalayas? The highest mountains in the world.
Are the Himalayas the reason India has not been invaded many times? Yes. Invaders have found only a few paths throught the Himalayas.
What is to the west of the Himalayas? A vast desert. (The Thar Desert, which is also known as the Great Indian Desert.) Also, the Hindu Kush.
Do major rivers flow out of the Himalayas? Yes.
Were the valleys and fertile plains of these rivers the locations of India's early civilizations? Yes.
Where is the Indus located? In present-day Pakistan, west of india.
When did the Indus flood? When heavy snows in the Himalayas melted.
What did the flooding create? It left behind a layer of fertile silt. This created ideal farmland for early settlers.
What type of climate does most of India have? A hot and humid climate.
What are monsoons? Seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons.
How much rain can parts of India recieve when monsoom winds blow into India from the Indian ocean? 100 or even 200 inches of rain that can cause terrible floods.
Winds blow down from the mountains in the winter, creating what? Warm, dry winters because this forces moisture out of India.
What do historians call the civilization that grew up in the Indus River Valley? The Harappan civilization.
What did the Harappan civilization control? The Indus River Valley, and large areas on both sides of the river.
What happened as the Harappan civilization grew? Irrigation and agriculture improved.
What happened as farmers began to produce surpluses of food? Towns and cities appeared in India.
What was the Harappan civilization named after? The modern city of Harappa, Pakistan.
When the ruins of the civilzation were first discovered, when do archaeologists estimate the civilzation thrived? Between 2300 and 1700 BC.
What is the greatest sources of information we have about Harappan civilizations? The ruins of two large cities, Harappa and Mohenfo Daro. Although the two cities were more than 300 miles apart, they were similar.
What are more recent sources about Harappan civilzation? The ruins discovered at Kalibangan, Dholavira, and the port of Lothatl. Also, the 2,600 rural settlements excavated in northwest India.
How were Harappa and Mohenjo Daro planned? They were well planned. They both stood near a towering fortress. Defenders could look down on the cities' brick streets from these fortresses.
What did Harappa and Mohenjo Daro's streets look like? They crossed at right angles and were lined with workshops, market stalls, storehouses, and houses. They both had many public wells.
How was Harappan civilization very advanced? Most houses had bathrooms with indoor plumbing.
What did artisans make? Excellent pottery, jewelry, ivory objects, and cotton clothing. By using high quality tools, they developed a system of weights and measures.
Although Harappans developed India's first writing system, why do we know very little about Harappan society? Scholars have not yet learned to read this language. Also, there are no large religious monuments or palaces, so the relationship between the people and their government is not clear.
What suggests a high level of social control? The similarity of material culture from the scattered Harappan sites do.
What are some possible reasons why Harappan civilization ended by the early 1700s BC? Maybe invaders destroyed the cities, or floods or earthquakes caused the city to collapse.
After Harappan civilization crumbled, which group took power in the Indus valley? The Aryans. They are believed to have come from central Asia and helped end Harappan civilization.
How were the Aryans skilled warriors? They used chariots and advanced weapons to take new territory.
Where did Aryan warriors take control of? The Hindu Kush, and the entire Indus Valley. They moved east to the Ganges river valley.
Where does much of what we know about Aryan society come from? From the Vedas, a collection of poems, hymns, myths, and rituals written by Aryan priests.
When Aryans settled, what was their political system like? They lived in small communities. No single ruling authority existed.
What were rajas? A raja was a leader who a village and the land around it. The land was farmed by villagers and used as pastures for cows, horses, sheep, and goats.
Did rajas fight even though they were related? Yes. They didn't always get along, and they sometimes went to war against each other. They sometimes joined forces before fighting a common enemy.
The first Aryan settlers didn't read or right, causing them to do what? They memorized the sacred texts like the Vedas, which was important because they would be lost forever if they didn't.
What was the language in which Aryan sacred texts were composed in? In Sanskrit, the most important language of ancient India.
How did Sanskrit become important? At first, it was a spoken language. Then people figured out how to write it down. They kept records, which are a major source of information about Aryan society today.
How is Sanskrit important today? Sanskrit is the root of many modern South Asian languages, but is no longer spoken today.
What was Aryan society divided into groups by? By people's occupations. There were strict rules about this, and they grew stricter, but they were important in Indian Society.
What was the highest varna? Brahmins, or priests.
What were Kshatriyas and Vaisyas? Kshatriyas were rulers and warriors. Vaisyas were farmers, craftspeople, and traders.
What was the lowest caste? The Sudras, which were laborers and non-Aryans. Untouchables were not part of the caste system, and they were worse thatn Sudras.
Why were the Brahmins seen as the highest caste? They performed rituals for the gods. This gave them great influence.
What happened as the rules of interaction between varnas got stricter? The Aryan social order became more complex.
How did the caste system divide people by? By the person's birth, wealth, or occupation.
Were the castes further divided? Yes. There was once some 3,000 separate cases in India.
Did people's castes change often? No. Very rarely. Over time, individual castes gained or lost favor in society as caste members gained wealth or power.
How did the Aryans keep their classes distinct? They developed sutras which listed all of the rules.
What are some examples of sutras? People were not allowed to marry anyone from a different class, or even eat with them! They spent almowt all of their time with people of the same caste.
What happened when people broke the sutras? They would be banned from their castes and homes, making them untouchables.
What was Aryan Religion called? Brahmanism, because their priests were called Brahmins.
Was religion more important before or after the Aryans came the India? After, but it was still important before.
What was Aryan religion based on? The Vedas, where each of the four contained sacred texts.
What is the Rigveda? The Rigveda is the oldest of the Vedas, which was probably made in the second millennium BC. It has humns of praise to many deities.
What are the Vedic texts? Aryan priests wrote down their thoughts about the Vedas, which were compiled into the Vedic texts.
What did the Vedic texts describe? One of the collections told how animal, food, or drink sacrifices should be made into a fire, which would carry the offerings to the deities.
What did other Vedic texts describe? Another described how secret offerings had to be made by certain people. They were done away from other people, in the forest.
Did the Vedas, the Upanishads, and the other Vedic texts remain the basis of Indian religion for centuries? Yes. However, the ideas of these sacred texts began to blend with ideas from other cultures.
Where did people come from that brought their ideas to India? They came from Persia and other kingdoms in central Asia.
How was Hinduism created? The blending of ideas from other cultures created a religion called Hinduism, the largest region in India today.
What is the universal spirit of Hinduism called? Brahman. He created the universe and everything in it. Everything in the world is just a part of Brahman.
What does the deity Brahma represent? He represents the creator aspect of Brahman. His four faces symbolize the four Vedas.
What does the deity Siva represent? He is the destroyer aspect of Brahman. He is usually shown with four arms and three eyes.
What does the deity Vishnu represent? He is the preserver aspect of Brahman. In his four arms, he carries a conch shell, a mace, and a discus, which symbolize his power and greatness.
What is each deity part of? They were all part of a universal spirit called Brahman. Brahman created the world and preserves it.
What do deities like Brahma, Siva, and Bishnu, represent? They represent different aspects of Brahman. Everything in the world is part of Brahman.
What does everyone have inside of them? A soul, or atman. It holds the person's personality, and the qualities that make them who they are.
What is a person's ultimate goal, according to Brahman? To reunite their soul with Brahman, the univeral spirit.
Why will Hindu's souls eventually join Brahman? The world we live in is really only an illusion. Brahman is the only reality.
What did the Upanishads teach people? People must try to see through the illusion of the world. Since it is hard to see through illusions, it can take several lifetimes.
What is reincarnation? Reincarnation is the process of rebirth. Hindus believe that souls are born and reborn many times, each time in a new body.
What is karma? A person who has died is reborn in a new physical form. The type of form depends on his or her karma, the effects that good or bad actions have on a person's soul.
How does karma affect reincarnation? Evil actions during one's life will build bad karma, which will reincarnate the person into a lower caste or life form. When a person is good, they are born into a higher caste in their next lives.
What else can good karma bring? It can bring salvation, or freedom from life's worries and the cycle of rebirth. This salvation is called moksha.
What is obeying one's dharma? If a person accepts his or her place in the world without complaint, they are obeying their dharma.
How can one build one's karma, and what will it bring? By fulfilling the duties required of their caste. When a person lived a good life, they could be reborn into a higher caste.
Was Hinduism popular at all levels of society? Yes. It taught people to accept their places in life and preserved the caste system by doing this.
Who practiced nonviolence? Mohandas Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., and Cesar Chavez proved that people can bring social change without using violence.
Did everyone in India believe in Hinduism? No. Some people were unsatisfied and and looked for new religious ideas. Some practiced Jainism.
What was Jainism based on? It was based on the teachings of a man named Mahavira. He was born into the Kshatriya barna around 599 BC, and did not like the way Hindus put too much emphasis on rituals.
What did Mahavira do? He gave up his life of luxury, became a monk, and established Jainism.
What four principles do Jains live by? Injure no life, do not steal, own no property, and tell the truth. They practice nonciolence, or the avoidance of violent actions.
What is the Sanskrit word for nonviolence? Ahimsa. Many Hindus also practice ahimsa.
Why do Jains practice nonviolence? They believe that everything comes from their belief that everything is alive and part of the cycle of rebirth.
Do Jains believe in sacrifice? No. They are very serious about not injuring or killing any creature-humans, animals, insects, or even plants. They do NOT believe in animal sacrifice.
What do Jains eat? Since they practice nonviolence, they are vegetarians. They do NOT eat any food that comes from animals.
Who was the Buddha? Siddhartha Gautama. He was born a Kshatirya and saw how people suffered from lost loved ones. He gave up his life of luxury and began to ask questions about the meaning of human life.
Was Siddhartha satisfied with the answers he got about human life? No. He felt that something was missing in his life.
Where did Siddhartha's journey take him? He went to many regions in India. Nobody could give him convincing answers to his questions, even priests and people known for their wisdom.
What are the regions surrounding India? Pakistan, China, Nepal, Myanmar and Bhutan surround India.
Did the Buddha give up? No. For several years, he wandered in search of answers. He wanted to free his mind from daily concerns.
What did Siddhartha do to free himself from daily concerns? He did not wash himself, he fasted, and meditated. Meditation is the focusing of the mind on spiritual ideas.
Where did Siddhartha find enlightenment? After wandering throughout India for six years, he came to a place near the town of Gaya, near the Ganges River.
How did Siddhartha find enlightenment? He sat under a tree and meditated for seven weeks in deep meditation. He came up with answers and realized what human suffering came from.
What does human suffering come from? 1. Wanting what we like but do not have 2. Wanting to keep what we like and already have 3. not wanting what we dislike but have.
Did Siddhartha meditate after that? Yes. He meditated seven more weeks under the tree, which was later named the tree of wisdom.
Did Siddhartha find enlightenment? Yes. He descrived his ideas to his companions and spent the rest of his life traveling across northern India to spread his ideas.
What was Siddhartha called when he found enlightenment? He was called The Buddha, or enlightened one.
Who did the Buddha first spread his teachings to? To India's merchants and artisans. Also, he even taught it to a few kings. These followers were believers in Buddhism, based on teachings from the Buddha.
What do many Buddhist teachings reflect? They reflect Hinduism, because the Buddha was raised as a Hindu.
What is a idea that the Buddha adopted from Hinduism? That people should act morally and treat others well.
What are the four noble truths? The four guiding principles.
What is one of the four noble truths? Suffering and unhappiness are a part of human life. No one can escape sorrow.
What is another? Suffering ccomes from our desires for pleasure and material goods. People cause their own misery because they want things they cannot have.
What is the third? People can overcome desire and ignorance and reach nirvana, a state of perfect peace. Reaching nirvana frees the soul from suffering and from the need of further reincarnation.
What is the last? People can overcome ignorance and desire by following an eightfold path that leads to wisdom, enlightenment, and salvation.
What is the eightfold path? It is a guide for reaching nirvana. See further notes. He believed that this was the middle way between pleasure and no pleasure, overcoming their desire for material goods. People should be reasonable and not starve or hurt thmselves.
What is right thought? Believe in the nature of existence as suffering and in the four noble truths.
What is right intent? Incline toward goodness and kindness.
What is right speech? Avoid lies and gossip.
What is right action? Don't steal from or harm others.
What is right livelihood? Reject work that hurts others.
What is right effort? Prevent evil and do good.
What is right mindfulness? Control your feelings and thoughts.
What is right concentration? Practice proper meditation.
What is a difference between Hinduism and Buddhism? Buddhists do not believe in animal sacrifice, and the Buddha told people not to follow the Vedas.
How did the Buddha challenge the authority of the Hindu priests? He said that their rituals were not necessary for enlightenment and that it was the responsibility of each person to work for his or her own salvation.
Did the Buddha believe in reincarnation? Yes. A person would be reborn many times until he or she reached nirvana.
Did the Buddha believe in the caste system? No. He didn't think that people should be confined to their place in the caste system. He said that if you followed the 8fold path properly, you would reach nirvana.
Could lower castes reach nirvana? Yes. As long as a person lived a good life, they coule reach nirvana.
Was the Buddha's opposition to the caste system supported? Yes. Many people from lower castes were happy that their low class would still allow them to reach enlightenment. They had the power to change their lives.
Did richer people also support him? Yes. They liked the idea about not starving themselves and not causing themselves unnessecary pain.
Did the Buddha's influence spread throughout India? Yes. When he died around 483 BC, his influence was spreading.
Did Buddhism spread after Buddha's death? Yes. More followers joined and spread to other areas as well.
After the Buddha's death, how was Buddhism spread? 500 of his followers spread it to make sure it was spread correctly. They spread these teachings throughout India quickly, because they were easy to understand.
When Asoka converted to Buddhism, how did the spread of Buddhism change? More people converted, and Asoka built Buddhist temples and schools throughout India. He also worked to spread Buddhism to areas outside India.
What are missionaries? They are people who work to spread their religiour beliefs. Asoka sent them to other parts of Asia.
Where else in Asia was Buddhism spread? Sri Lanka, Myanmar, other parts of southeast Asia, and to areas near the Himalayas. Also, to lands west of India, central asia, Persia, Syria, And Egypt. It spread to China , Korea, and Japan by the silk road.
What happened to Buddhism later on? It split into two branches, Theravada and Mahayana.
What is Theravada Buddhism like? They follow the Buddha's teachings exactly as he said.
What is Mahayana Buddhism like? They believe that other people can interpret the Buddha's teachings to reach nirvana.
Which branch is bigger? Mahayana is by far the bigger branch, but both have millions of followers today.
When Chandragupta Maurya, a military leader, seized control of the northern part of India in the 320s BC, what happened? He founded the Mauryan Empire, which lasted for about 150 years.
By having a complex government, Chandragupta Maurya ruled his empire. What did this government include? A network of spies, 600,000 soldiers, thousands of war elepants, and thousands of chariots.
What did farmers do in order for this protection? They paid a heavy tax to the government.
When Chandragupta decided to become a Jainist monk in 301 BC, what did he have to do? He had to give up his throne to his son, who continued to expand the empire. Soon, the Mauryas ruled all of northern India and much of central India.
Around 270 BC, what happened? Chandragupta's grandson, Asoka, became king.
What was something Asoka is known for? He was the strongest of all Mauryan emporers.He extended Mauryan rule over most of India and made his own empire stronger and richer.
What happened when Asoka converted to Buddhism? He promised that he would not launch any more bloody wars of conquest after seeing his armies fight battles.
What did Asoka do after he converted to Buddhism? He had the time to improve the lives of his people?
How did Asoka improve his people's lives. He had wells dug, roads built, shady trees, and rest homes.
Did Asoka encourage the spread of Buddhism? Yes. He sent missionaries to lands all over Asia and India.
What happened after Asoka died in 233 BC? His empire fell apart. His sons argued over who would rule, and invaders threatened the empire. The last Mauryan knig was killed by one his own generals in 184 BC, and India divided into smaller states again.
After the Mauryan empire collasped, how long did India remain divided for? For about 500 years. Buddhism spread during that time while Hinduism declined.
When the Gupta Dynasty took over India around AD 320, what happened? The Guptas united the kingdom and it became prosperous.
Who was the first Gupta emperor? Chandragupta I. He was not related to Chandragupta Maurya. His armies were from a base in northern India. They invaded and conquered nearby lands, and brought much of northern India to his control.
What religion were the Gupta rulers? Hindu, so Hinduism became India's major religion. The kings built Hindu temples, some of which became models for some of the later Indian architechure. They also revived Hindu writings and worship practices.
Did the Gupta rulers support other religions? Yes. They supported the religious beliefs of Buddhism and Jainism. They built Buddhist temples, made Buddhist art, and established a university at Nalanda that became one of Asia's greatest centers for Buddhist studies.
Who was Chandragupta II? He took control in 375 BC. The high point of Gupta society was reached during his rule. The empire continued to grow, streching all the way across northern India.
What was Gupta society admired for? It was admired for it's economy and the prospering people. Also for the fine works of art and literature, and for the empire's wealth and beauty.
How did the caste system affect Gupta society? The kings believed that social order would strengthen their rule. The Guptas consiedred the caste system important to society.
How did the caste system affect women? Brahmins taught that a woman's role was to marry and have children.
Did women have many rights? No. They couldn't even choose their own husbands, and once married, they had to serve their husbands. The parents arranged marriges.
Were widows higher than married women? No. They had an even lower social status than other women.
When did Gupta rule remain strong until? Untill the late 400s. The Huns, from central Asia invaded India, and their fierce attacks drained the Gupta's power ans wealth. The Guptas lost hope.
Did the Indians of the Maurya and Gupta periods create great works of religious art? Yes. Their paintings and sculptures show Hindu or Buddhist teachings. Temples from both religions are some of the most beautiful buildings in the world today.
What were early Hindu temples like? They were small stone structures with flat roofs and only one or two rooms.
What were Hindu temples from the Gupta period like? It was mmore complex. The temples were topped by huge towers and were covered with carvings of the god worshipped inside.
What were Buddhist temples of the Gupta period like? Some were carved out of mountainsides. The most famous such temple is at Ahanta. The caves inside it are filled with beautiful wall paintings and sculpture.
What was another type of Buddhist temple? Stupas. They had domed roofs and were built to house sacred items from the life of the Buddha. Many are covered with detailed carvings.
Was painting a respected profession? Yes. India was home to many skilled artists. Many rich and powerful members of Gupta society paid artists to create works of beauty and significance.
What are most paintings like? They are clear and colorful. They show us what Indians' life was like, as the Indians are graceful and wearing fine hewerly and stylish clothes.
Were some paintings religious? Yes. Artists sometimes created paintings based on their beliefs. As a result, many fine paintings are found in temples of ancient India.
Were the religious paintings sometimes in temples? Yes. Hindu painters drew hundreds of deities on temple walls and entrances. Buddhist temples were covered on the walls anf ceilings with scenes from the life of the Buddha.
What were Buddhist sculptures like? Indian sculptors made many of their statues for Buddhist cave temples. The temples had intricately carved columns, and sculptors carved statues of kings and the Buddha. Some of the statues are above the entrance.
What were Hindu scultures like? The temples had impressive statues of their deities. Some walls of the temples were completely covered with carvings and images.
What is the main language of the ancient Aryans? Sanskrit. During the Maurya and Gupta periods, a lot of Sanskrit literature was created. They were later translated into many other languages.
What are the greatest of these Sanskrit writings? The two sacred texts, Mahabharata and the Ramayana.
What is the Mahabharata? It is still popular in the world, it is one of the world's longest sacred texts.
What does the Mahabharata tell of? Of a struggle between two families for the control of a kingdom. It has many long passages about Hindy beliefs.
What is the most famous passage in the Mahabharata? The Bhagavad Gita.
What is the Ramayana? It was a text written before the Mahabharata and tells about a prince name Rama.
What is the story of Rama? He was the deity Vishnu in human form. He tried to rid the world of demons and had to rescue his wife who was a princess called Sita.
How does the story of Rama influence human life? For centuries, it shows how Indians should behave. Rama is the ideal ruler and his relationship with Sita is the ideal marrige.
What other works were created in the Gupta period? Plays, poetry, and other types of literature.
Who was one famous writer of this time? Kalidasa. Chandragupta II liked his work so much that he was hired to write plays for the royal court.
What are the Panchatantra? Before 500, Indian writers produced stories called the Panchatantra. These stories were to teach lessons.
What were some lessons taught in the Panchatantra? Quick thinking and cleverness are praised in this. They end with a message about winning friends, losing property, waging war, or another idea of how an Indian should act.
Are lessons from the Panchatantra known around the world? Yes. They are popular around the world.
Were Indian achievements limited to art, architecture, and literature? No. They made advances in metalworking, math and the sciences.
What is metallurgy? The science of working with metals. This allowed them to create high quality tools and weapons.
What are alloys? Processes for mixing two or more metals. Alloys can be stronger or easier to work with than pure metals.
What did metalworkers make their strongest products out of? Iron. It was very hard and pure, making it a valuable trade item.
What is the Iron Pillar near Delhi? It is a pillar that is very resistant to rust which still attracts visitors.
What is the Iron Pillar used for? To learn the Indian's secrets, scholars study this pillar.
Who were among the most advanced mathematicians of their day? The Guptas. They developed parts of our modern math system.
What are Hindu-Arabig numerals? The numbers we use today. They were created by Indian scholars and brought to Europe by the Arabs.
Who created the Numeral "0"? The Indians. Modern math wouldn't be possible without the number "0".
When did Indian doctors start writing down their knowledge down in textbooks? In the AD 100s. The books describe how to make medicines from plants and minerals.
What is inoculation? Inhecting a person with a small dose of a virus to help the person build up defense systems to a disease. THe body learns to protect itself.
Could Indian doctors perform surgery? Yes. They repaired broken bones, treated wounds, removed infected tonsils, reconstructed broken noses, and reattached torn earlobes.
What happens if Indian doctors couldn't find a cure for an illness? They would cast magic spells to help people recover.
What is astronomy? The study of stars and planets dates back to early times.
How many of the nine planets did astronomers know? They knew seven of the nine planets. They also knew that the sun was a star.
What else did they know? That the planets revolved around the sun. Also, that the earth was a sphere and it rotated on its axis. They could predict eclipses of the sun and the moon.
Created by: jmahrens
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