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chapter 5 Greece

term or namedetails
Mycenaeans earliest civ in Greece on island of Crete
Agamemnon famous king of Mycenaeans
Dark Age time of little info about Greeks
epic poem long poetic story usually about heroes, war, love, and gods
Illiad epic poem about the Trojan War
Odyssey epic poem about a warrior, Odysses trying to get home after the Trojan War
Homer believed to have written the Illiad and Odyssey
acropolis elevated center of Greek city-states with important buildings/temples on it
agora open area for meetings or sale of goods
hoplites skilled armed warriors
tyrant cruel rulers of Greek city-states, usually overthrown
oligarchy city-states often had the rule of a few for a time
Sparta famous military based city-state on Peloponnesius
Athens art and education based city-state on Attica plain
ephors 5 elder men who advised kings in Sparta
archons 9 elder men who advised gov't in Athens
Parthenon beautiful and most famous temple to Athena in Athens
aristrocrat rich noble with political power
marathon runner from here to Athens-26+mi. to tell of Greek victory over Persians before dying
Darius first Persian king who tried to conquer Greece and failed
Xerxes son of Darius tried to conquer Greeks to avenge Dad and restore reputation of Persian Empire-lost
Thucydides Athenian general from Pelopennesian War became a great historian who's work tells us of great Greek wars and events after he was exiled for losing
phalanx fighting wedge of warriors with shields, divides enemies and effective tactic
Pericles great Athenian gov't leader who expanded democracy and insisted that citizens participate in their gov't
Peloponnesian War over 10 years of fighting between Athens and Sparta and their allies-Sparta won
polytheism Greeks believed in many gods and goddesses in human form with superhuman powers
Zeus head of Greek gods--thunder and sky
Posiden ruler of the seas
Hades ruled the underworld of the dead
Athena goddess of wisdom and war
Ares god of war and Sparta
Artemus goddess of the hunt
Hera goddess of hearth and home and wife of Zeus
Ahprodite goddess of love
Mt. Olympus highest point in Greece, believed gods lived there
polis name for city
Olympics athletic games between city-states meant to please the gods
column unique feature of Greek architecture-doric, ionic, and corinthian
trilogy series of 3 plays performed on same night
comedy and tragedy funny or serious Greek plays
philosophy organized way of thinking about life and truth taught in schools -
Socrates famous philospher taught youth to question authority and debate/discuss to learn
Plato one of Socrates best students wrote "The Republic" expressing concerns about faults with democracyand started a school
Alexander the Great famous Macedonian king who conquered Greece and much of the world to spread Greek culture
Hippocrates famous Greek doctor who defined medical ethics and oaths still used today!
Hellenistic time of Alex the Greats rule and spreading of Greek culture in world
Archimedes famous mathematician and scientist from Syracuse,discovered gravity, geometry of spheres,levers and weapons of war
Aristotle famous pupil of Plato who taught Alexander the Great to love Greek ideas and culture
Epicureanism new philosophy that people should pursue happiness and freedom
Stoicism replaced Epicureanism be close to god to be happy and bear lifes hardships with self control be a good citizen
Mediterranean Sea largest sea below Greece and Crete
Agean Sea sea to east of Greece
irregular describes the coastline of Greece full of ports and harbors
isthmus narrow strip of land conncecting small piece to another piece
peninsula large piece of land surrounded by water on 3 sides
cape baby peninsula
port water opening in a piece of land where ships may dock
trireme type of boat Greeks built
Pintus Mts large range on west coast of Greece
olives and wine main agricultural products of Greece
Thermistocles Brilliant Athenian naval commander and strategist who drove Persians out of Greece
Leonidas Spartan warrior king and hero of Thermopolae who held the Persians for 3 days to give Greece time to regroup to fight the Persians
lamillar Spartan armor like ancient kevlar it was so good
hoplon term for Spartan shield
dory Spartan spear weighted on both sides with iron tips
xiphos term for short Spartan sword for close combat
immortals term for elite Persian warriors
Created by: corides