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Stage 10:Agriculture

Agriculture is a deliberate modification of Earth's surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic grain
subsistence agriculture found in LDCs, is the production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer family
commercial agriculture found in MDCs, is the production of food primarily for sale off the farm (ex: dairy famrs, ranching)
prime agricultural land most productive land
agribusiness commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually thorugh ownership by large corporation (ex: general mills, the meat industry)
shifting cultivation a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively a few years and left fallow for a relatively long period (ex: upland rice in Southeast Asia)
slash-and-burn agriculture another name for shifting cultivation because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burnng the debris
swidden patch of clear land for planting through slashing and burning
pastoral nomadism a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated aniamls (ex: camels, goats, sheeps)
transhumance is a seasonal migration of livestock between moutains and lowland pasture areas
intensive subsistence agriculture form of subsistence agriculture, in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land (ex: wet rice and wheat)
wet rice practice of planting rice on dry land in a nursery and then moving the seedlings to a flooded field to promote growth
sawah flooded field for growing rice
paddy malay word for rice, commonly used for Sawah
chaff husks of grain separated from the seed threshing
threshed to beat out grain from stalks by trampling it
winnowed allowing the wind to blow away chaff
double cropping harvesting twice a year from the same field
crop rotation the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
cereal grain a grass yielding grain for food (ex: oats, wheat, rye, barley)
milkshed the area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
winter wheat wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer *located through Kansas, Colorado, and Oklahoma
spring wheat wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer, *goes through the Dakotas, Montana, Southern Saskatchewan in Canada
ranching a form of commercial agriculture in which livestocj graze over an extensive area
horticulture growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers (ex: pranges in Florida)
truck farming commercial gardening and fruit farming, named truck because it was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities
von Thunel Model according to the model, a commercial farmer initiallyt considers which crops to cultivate and which animals to raise based on market location
sustainble agriculture farming methods that preserve long term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil=restoring crops with cashc rops and reducing inputs of fertilizers and pesticides 9ex: organic foods from farming)
ride tillage system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation
desertification degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting
green revolution rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers (ex: miracle wheat seed)
Created by: viviann223