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Block 3 Study Material

A two-dimensional graph that describes the type and strength of relationships between two variables. Scatter Diagram
A characteristic of anything that can be manipulated or made to vary. Variable
What are the two variable used in developing manpower standards? Workload Factors and Man-hours
What is an Independent Variable (IV)? We can manipulate what happens.
What is the symbol for an Independent Variable (IV)? X
How can you remember "Y"? "Y" has long man-hours and is "dependent" on X.
How can you remember "X"? "X" out "work"-load. It is independent!
What is a Dependent Variable? Changes due to changes in the Independent Variable (IV)
What is the symbol for Dependent Variable (DV)? Y
What is the horizontal axis on the scatter diagram? X-axis
What is the vertical axis on the scatter diagram? Y-axis
What does the Y-axis represent on a scatter diagram? Man-hour values
What does the X-axis represent on a scatter diagram? Workload Factors
The intersection of an X and Y value (i.e. X, Y) on the line represents what? Data point
What do you do when a value occurs more than once on a graph? Plot the point for the first occurrance and for each occurrance after that place a circle around the value.
If the value of X increases and so does the Y value; what kind of relationship is that? Positive/Direct Relationship
If the value of X decreases and so does the Y value; what kind of relationship is that? Positive/Direct Relationship
If the value of X increases and the value of Y decreases; what kind of relationship is that? Negative/Inverse Relationship
If the value of X decreases and the value of Y increases; what kind of relationship occurs? Negative/Inverse Relationship
If the relationship between X and Y start out positive, but end up as negative; what type relationship has occurred? Curvilinear
If the relationship between X and Y starts out negative and ends up as positive; what type of relationship has occurred? Curvilinear
If the curve is upside down; what is it called? Convex
If the curve is right side up (a smile); what it is called? Concave
Of convex and concave; which is not allowed to be used in Manpower? Concave
If the data does not correspond and cannot be graphed in a line; what kind of relationship is there? No relationship
If all data points are tightly clustered together about the mean; what is the strength of the relationship? Strong
If all data points are clustered lossely about the mean; what is the strength of the relationship? Weak
If the graph shows all data points scattered all over the graph, without infuencing one another; what relationship it that? Unrelated
Define the term "variable." A characteristic of anything that can be manipulated or made to vary.
How is the independent variable represented? X
How is the dependent variable represented? Y
What types of equations are there in correlation and regression? Economic and Realistic
What kind of equation has a positive slope and no net loss of man-hours for an increase in workload? Realistic
What type of equation causes an increase in man-hours when a unit increases in workload? Economic
What is the linear equation? Y=a+bx
What are the coefficients in correlation and regression? a and b
What does the coefficients a stand for? y-intercept
What does coefficient of b stand for? slope
What type of equation is y=a+bx? Bivariate
Slope must be negative or positive? Positive
What is the equation for the Parabolic (Curvilinear) model? Y=a+bx+cx^2
In a Parabolic (Curvilinear) equation the b coefficient must be ____________? Positive
In a Parabolic (Curvilinear) equation the c coefficient must be _______________? Negative
What is the equation for a multivariate model? Y=a+b1n1+b2n2....+b?n?
In what equation must the overall effect of all b coefficients be positive? Multivariate
What is the statistical process used to measure the strength and relationship between variables? Correlation and Regression
What does not prove that a cause and effect relationship exists between variables? Correlation and Regression analysis
What defines the mathematical relationship between the dependent and independent variables? Regression
What measures the strength and direction of that relationship? Correlation
What variable in the bivariate equation represents the number of man-hours predicted? Y
What is determined with the correlation and regression information gained from input locations? Which WLF equation will best predicts the correct amount of man-hours.
Standard Error (standard variation) has what kind of variation? Unexplained
R Squared is also know as? Coefficient of Determination
Multiple R is also know as? Coefficient of Correlation
Standard Error is also known as? Standard Error of the Estimate
R Squared is the ____ highest determinant and must have have the ___________ value. 2nd; largest
Coefficient of Variation is the ______ determinant and must have the __________ value. first; lowest
What is the "test" for coeffient of variation? must be less thna or equal to .25
What is step 1 of "manual" correlations and regression? Summary Statistics
What is step 2 of "manual" correlations and regression? Determine Cooefficients
What is step 3 of "manual" correlations and regression? Total Sum of Squares (total variation)
What is step 4 of "manual" correlations and regression? Overall Statistics
What is included in Overall Statistics (step 4)? Standard Error, R Squared, and Coefficient of variation (V)
What is step 5 of "manual" correlations and regression? Computing F
What is step 6 of "manual" correlations and regression? Determine F*
What is step 7 of "manual" correlations and regression? F Test
What is the F test? F must be > F*
What other 2 statistics are used in Correlation and Regression? Significant F and Multiple R
What is the "test" for Significant F? must be < .05
What is the "test" for Muliple R/R/Coefficient of Correlation? must be greater than or equal to .7071.
What type of dipersion does Coefficient of Variarion (V) have? Relative Dispersion
What type of variation does V have represent? Unexplained Variation
What is the "test" for Coefficient of Determination? must be greater than or equal to .5
What does Significant F report? The risk our equation will NOT accurately predict man-hours.
What does Multiple R/R/Coefficient of Correlation measure? The strength and direction of the relationship between X and Y
What percentage (%) can we accept being wrong? 5%
What is the first the you do after you have a good equation? Extrapulation
What is extrapulation? 1. increases the standards' applicability by including more bases 2. extends the line beyond maximum and minimum predicted y values
That is the maximum acceptable amount of extrapulation? 50% (25% above large number and 25% below the smallest number)
How do you determine the high value? take he highest predicted Y value and multiply by 1.25
How do you determine the low value? take the lowest predicted Y value and multiply by .75.
Includes both explained and unexplained variation TSS (total sums of squares)
Proportion of explained variation to total variation R Squared/Coefficient of Determination
Slope coefficient b
Y intercept coefficient a
Measure of unexplained variation SSE/Coefficient of variation (V)/Syx (Standard Error)
Mathematical relationship between the variables Regression
Measure of absolute dispersion Syx (Standard Error)
Syx divided by Y mean Coefficient of Variation (v)
Measure of explained variation R Squared/SSR
.5 is minimum acceptable value R Squared
.7071 is minimum acceptable value R/Multiple R/Coefficient of Correlation
Tells us if the samples proportion of explained variaiton to unexplained variation is significant enought to allow us to predict man-hours F-Test
Increases the applicability of a standard Extrapulation
Measures the stength and direction of the relation between x & y R/Coefficient of Correlation
SSR/TSS R squared (Coefficient of determination)
R Squared also is? Coefficient of Determination
V is also? Coefficient of Variation
R is also? Coefficient of Correlation
Predicted man-hours Y
Last step in Correlation & Regression analysis F Test
Maximum value must not exceed .25 V - Coefficient of Variation
Maximum value may noy equal or exceed .05 Significant F
Increases predicted man-hours by up to 50% Extrapulation
Allows comparison of dispersion in different sets of data V - Coeeficient of Variation
Must be a positive value coefficient b/R Squared - Coefficient of Determiantion
Can be either negative or positive value coefficient a/R - Coefficent of Correlation
What type of standard is a ratio equation created for? Single location standard
What is a single location? function has: 1) unique activity for the base or 2) falls outside the applicability range of the MAJCOM/AF
Unrelated to workload factors (independent) Fixed man-hours
Are related to tasks common to almost every work center (indirect workman-hours) Standard Indirect Allowed Man-hours (SIAMs)
Directly related to workload factor Variables
What is the equation for single location statdard development? Y=a+b1n1+b2n2....b?n?+SAIM
What does coefficient a stand for in ration equations? fixed measured man-hours
What does coefficient b stand for in ration equations? direct man-hours neededto produce one unit of work
What is SIAM? indirect work man-hours
What does variable X stand for in ratio equations? value of the workload factor
What is step 1 in developing the single location ratio equation? select the model
What is step 2 in developing the single location ratio equation? Classify direct man-hours as fixed or variable
What is step 3 in developing the single location ratio equation? Divide the x varible man-hours by workload factor count to determine coefficient b
What is step 4 in developing the single location ratio equation? Combine values into appropriate equation and add SIAMs
What are the absolutes in creating a Manpower Table? 1. 2 grades per skill level 2. skill level percentages 3. majority time spent in highest skill level
During what phase are the grade/skill level requirements initially analyzed? Study Planning
What two methods are used to derermine skill levels? Correlation and Regression & non C & R
Which method allows the lead team to average the grades and skill level estimates provided by the imput locaitons Non C & R
In Non-C&R method who determines the percentages? Functional OPR
What is first step in Non-C&R method? Determine total man-hours for each location
What is second step in Non-C&R method? Input team decide what percentage of owrk exist for each skill level
What is Step 3 of Non-C&R? apply the percentage from step 2 to the extrapulation limits obtained in C & R
What is Step 4 of Non-C&R? Calculate requirement for each skill level
What is the difference between C & R and Non-C&R methods? Non C&R - percentages are from functional OPR and looks at the big picture C & R - Looks at the individual processes and percentages come from functional OPR
What for is used to transfer final numbers from the manpower table? AF Form 1113
Who may change the mix of skill level and grade? Functional OPR
What can the Functional OPR NOT change? requirements
What is the C & R method bases off of? processes shown in the POD
When should a SNCO be considered in lieu of a lower grade officer? when practical and feasible
How would you reflect a civilian on a manpower table if the function also had military requirements? by military grade
How does the team determine how many man-hours from the MMH are accomplished by each skill level? multiply these percentages by the measured man-hours for each POD step
The grades and skill levels that are listed on a Manpower Table reflect? REQUIRED grades and skills
TRUE or FALSE - you should always consider funding limitation when determining grades adn skills? False
What concept is used in determining what skill levels are needed? that workers spend majority of their work time performing at their highest skill level
When is a variance necessary? If conditions fall outside those listed in the SOC
Do variances add or take away man-hours earned in a standard? either/both
What are the three types of variances? Misson/Environmental/Technological
Define Mission Variance required work not adressed in POD - positve work midentified in the POD; but not performed - negative
Define Environmental Variance accounts for differences in operating conditions other than those developed in the core standard
Define Technological Variance differneces in operating technology what what was defined in core standards
Potential variances must _______ at least ______ man-hours to be considered for development. exceed; 25
Who approves a variance? AF Functional OPR
Who develops the variance if it is for a single MAJCOM? MAJCOM
Who develops the variance is it applies to more than one MAJCOM? AFMA
What form is used to submit a variance? AF Form 1068
Increased man-hours are justified how? Quantified by using measurement technique(s)
When would you definately give credit for Wartime Variances? 1) When directed by MAJCOM for higher 2) require only part of work center to participate 3) functions are accomplished away from the work center 4) must document a recurring requirement
When "might" you give credit for Wartime Variances? 1) maintaining day-to-day mobility capability 2) developing mobility or work center task plans 3) work performed only because of an exercise 4) preparing/giving training
When would you definately NOT give credit for Wartime Variances? 1) Wing/commander directed 2) recieving READY training/augmentee programs 3) participating in exercises as an evaluator 4) Post-exercise rest days
What is Step 1 of determining Wartime Variances? Determine work center FAC
What is Step 2 of determining Wartime Variances? Specify number of months/time frame data was obtained
How many months must you have to build confidence? 24 months
What is Step 3 of determining Wartime Variances? Write names of exercises
What is Step 4 of determining Wartime Variances? what was the period of time of each exercise (days)
What is Step 5 of determining Wartime Variances? How many people participated in each evercise?
What is Step 6 of determining Wartime Variances? Computer man-hours or each exercise Days * number of poeple * constant (10.29)
What is Step 7 of determining Wartime Variances? multiply answer in step 6 by MAF constant of .52
What is Step 8 of determining Wartime Variances? Total exercise man-hours are determined
What is Step 9 of determining Wartime Variances? Compute avg monthly man-hours by dividing man-hours total by # of months of exercise data
What are the two types of standard applicaiton? initial & reapplicaiton
How many days do we have to apply an initial standard? 90 days - increase immediately - decrease
Who approves any requests for additional manpower? HQ AF/A1M
What number of authorizations is considered significant enough to warrant a standard reapplication ? greater than 100 authorizations increased or decreased
Created by: missestex82
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