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# Manpower

### Block 3 Study Material

Question | Answer |
---|---|

A two-dimensional graph that describes the type and strength of relationships between two variables. | Scatter Diagram |

A characteristic of anything that can be manipulated or made to vary. | Variable |

What are the two variable used in developing manpower standards? | Workload Factors and Man-hours |

What is an Independent Variable (IV)? | We can manipulate what happens. |

What is the symbol for an Independent Variable (IV)? | X |

How can you remember "Y"? | "Y" has long man-hours and is "dependent" on X. |

How can you remember "X"? | "X" out "work"-load. It is independent! |

What is a Dependent Variable? | Changes due to changes in the Independent Variable (IV) |

What is the symbol for Dependent Variable (DV)? | Y |

What is the horizontal axis on the scatter diagram? | X-axis |

What is the vertical axis on the scatter diagram? | Y-axis |

What does the Y-axis represent on a scatter diagram? | Man-hour values |

What does the X-axis represent on a scatter diagram? | Workload Factors |

The intersection of an X and Y value (i.e. X, Y) on the line represents what? | Data point |

What do you do when a value occurs more than once on a graph? | Plot the point for the first occurrance and for each occurrance after that place a circle around the value. |

If the value of X increases and so does the Y value; what kind of relationship is that? | Positive/Direct Relationship |

If the value of X decreases and so does the Y value; what kind of relationship is that? | Positive/Direct Relationship |

If the value of X increases and the value of Y decreases; what kind of relationship is that? | Negative/Inverse Relationship |

If the value of X decreases and the value of Y increases; what kind of relationship occurs? | Negative/Inverse Relationship |

If the relationship between X and Y start out positive, but end up as negative; what type relationship has occurred? | Curvilinear |

If the relationship between X and Y starts out negative and ends up as positive; what type of relationship has occurred? | Curvilinear |

If the curve is upside down; what is it called? | Convex |

If the curve is right side up (a smile); what it is called? | Concave |

Of convex and concave; which is not allowed to be used in Manpower? | Concave |

If the data does not correspond and cannot be graphed in a line; what kind of relationship is there? | No relationship |

If all data points are tightly clustered together about the mean; what is the strength of the relationship? | Strong |

If all data points are clustered lossely about the mean; what is the strength of the relationship? | Weak |

If the graph shows all data points scattered all over the graph, without infuencing one another; what relationship it that? | Unrelated |

Define the term "variable." | A characteristic of anything that can be manipulated or made to vary. |

How is the independent variable represented? | X |

How is the dependent variable represented? | Y |

What types of equations are there in correlation and regression? | Economic and Realistic |

What kind of equation has a positive slope and no net loss of man-hours for an increase in workload? | Realistic |

What type of equation causes an increase in man-hours when a unit increases in workload? | Economic |

What is the linear equation? | Y=a+bx |

What are the coefficients in correlation and regression? | a and b |

What does the coefficients a stand for? | y-intercept |

What does coefficient of b stand for? | slope |

What type of equation is y=a+bx? | Bivariate |

Slope must be negative or positive? | Positive |

What is the equation for the Parabolic (Curvilinear) model? | Y=a+bx+cx^2 |

In a Parabolic (Curvilinear) equation the b coefficient must be ____________? | Positive |

In a Parabolic (Curvilinear) equation the c coefficient must be _______________? | Negative |

What is the equation for a multivariate model? | Y=a+b1n1+b2n2....+b?n? |

In what equation must the overall effect of all b coefficients be positive? | Multivariate |

What is the statistical process used to measure the strength and relationship between variables? | Correlation and Regression |

What does not prove that a cause and effect relationship exists between variables? | Correlation and Regression analysis |

What defines the mathematical relationship between the dependent and independent variables? | Regression |

What measures the strength and direction of that relationship? | Correlation |

What variable in the bivariate equation represents the number of man-hours predicted? | Y |

What is determined with the correlation and regression information gained from input locations? | Which WLF equation will best predicts the correct amount of man-hours. |

Standard Error (standard variation) has what kind of variation? | Unexplained |

R Squared is also know as? | Coefficient of Determination |

Multiple R is also know as? | Coefficient of Correlation |

Standard Error is also known as? | Standard Error of the Estimate |

R Squared is the ____ highest determinant and must have have the ___________ value. | 2nd; largest |

Coefficient of Variation is the ______ determinant and must have the __________ value. | first; lowest |

What is the "test" for coeffient of variation? | must be less thna or equal to .25 |

What is step 1 of "manual" correlations and regression? | Summary Statistics |

What is step 2 of "manual" correlations and regression? | Determine Cooefficients |

What is step 3 of "manual" correlations and regression? | Total Sum of Squares (total variation) |

What is step 4 of "manual" correlations and regression? | Overall Statistics |

What is included in Overall Statistics (step 4)? | Standard Error, R Squared, and Coefficient of variation (V) |

What is step 5 of "manual" correlations and regression? | Computing F |

What is step 6 of "manual" correlations and regression? | Determine F* |

What is step 7 of "manual" correlations and regression? | F Test |

What is the F test? | F must be > F* |

What other 2 statistics are used in Correlation and Regression? | Significant F and Multiple R |

What is the "test" for Significant F? | must be < .05 |

What is the "test" for Muliple R/R/Coefficient of Correlation? | must be greater than or equal to .7071. |

What type of dipersion does Coefficient of Variarion (V) have? | Relative Dispersion |

What type of variation does V have represent? | Unexplained Variation |

What is the "test" for Coefficient of Determination? | must be greater than or equal to .5 |

What does Significant F report? | The risk our equation will NOT accurately predict man-hours. |

What does Multiple R/R/Coefficient of Correlation measure? | The strength and direction of the relationship between X and Y |

What percentage (%) can we accept being wrong? | 5% |

What is the first the you do after you have a good equation? | Extrapulation |

What is extrapulation? | 1. increases the standards' applicability by including more bases 2. extends the line beyond maximum and minimum predicted y values |

That is the maximum acceptable amount of extrapulation? | 50% (25% above large number and 25% below the smallest number) |

How do you determine the high value? | take he highest predicted Y value and multiply by 1.25 |

How do you determine the low value? | take the lowest predicted Y value and multiply by .75. |

Includes both explained and unexplained variation | TSS (total sums of squares) |

Proportion of explained variation to total variation | R Squared/Coefficient of Determination |

Slope | coefficient b |

Y intercept | coefficient a |

Measure of unexplained variation | SSE/Coefficient of variation (V)/Syx (Standard Error) |

Mathematical relationship between the variables | Regression |

Measure of absolute dispersion | Syx (Standard Error) |

Syx divided by Y mean | Coefficient of Variation (v) |

Measure of explained variation | R Squared/SSR |

.5 is minimum acceptable value | R Squared |

.7071 is minimum acceptable value | R/Multiple R/Coefficient of Correlation |

Tells us if the samples proportion of explained variaiton to unexplained variation is significant enought to allow us to predict man-hours | F-Test |

Increases the applicability of a standard | Extrapulation |

Measures the stength and direction of the relation between x & y | R/Coefficient of Correlation |

SSR/TSS | R squared (Coefficient of determination) |

R Squared also is? | Coefficient of Determination |

V is also? | Coefficient of Variation |

R is also? | Coefficient of Correlation |

Predicted man-hours | Y |

Last step in Correlation & Regression analysis | F Test |

Maximum value must not exceed .25 | V - Coefficient of Variation |

Maximum value may noy equal or exceed .05 | Significant F |

Increases predicted man-hours by up to 50% | Extrapulation |

Allows comparison of dispersion in different sets of data | V - Coeeficient of Variation |

Must be a positive value | coefficient b/R Squared - Coefficient of Determiantion |

Can be either negative or positive value | coefficient a/R - Coefficent of Correlation |

What type of standard is a ratio equation created for? | Single location standard |

What is a single location? | function has: 1) unique activity for the base or 2) falls outside the applicability range of the MAJCOM/AF |

Unrelated to workload factors (independent) | Fixed man-hours |

Are related to tasks common to almost every work center (indirect workman-hours) | Standard Indirect Allowed Man-hours (SIAMs) |

Directly related to workload factor | Variables |

What is the equation for single location statdard development? | Y=a+b1n1+b2n2....b?n?+SAIM |

What does coefficient a stand for in ration equations? | fixed measured man-hours |

What does coefficient b stand for in ration equations? | direct man-hours neededto produce one unit of work |

What is SIAM? | indirect work man-hours |

What does variable X stand for in ratio equations? | value of the workload factor |

What is step 1 in developing the single location ratio equation? | select the model |

What is step 2 in developing the single location ratio equation? | Classify direct man-hours as fixed or variable |

What is step 3 in developing the single location ratio equation? | Divide the x varible man-hours by workload factor count to determine coefficient b |

What is step 4 in developing the single location ratio equation? | Combine values into appropriate equation and add SIAMs |

What are the absolutes in creating a Manpower Table? | 1. 2 grades per skill level 2. skill level percentages 3. majority time spent in highest skill level |

During what phase are the grade/skill level requirements initially analyzed? | Study Planning |

What two methods are used to derermine skill levels? | Correlation and Regression & non C & R |

Which method allows the lead team to average the grades and skill level estimates provided by the imput locaitons | Non C & R |

In Non-C&R method who determines the percentages? | Functional OPR |

What is first step in Non-C&R method? | Determine total man-hours for each location |

What is second step in Non-C&R method? | Input team decide what percentage of owrk exist for each skill level |

What is Step 3 of Non-C&R? | apply the percentage from step 2 to the extrapulation limits obtained in C & R |

What is Step 4 of Non-C&R? | Calculate requirement for each skill level |

What is the difference between C & R and Non-C&R methods? | Non C&R - percentages are from functional OPR and looks at the big picture C & R - Looks at the individual processes and percentages come from functional OPR |

What for is used to transfer final numbers from the manpower table? | AF Form 1113 |

Who may change the mix of skill level and grade? | Functional OPR |

What can the Functional OPR NOT change? | requirements |

What is the C & R method bases off of? | processes shown in the POD |

When should a SNCO be considered in lieu of a lower grade officer? | when practical and feasible |

How would you reflect a civilian on a manpower table if the function also had military requirements? | by military grade |

How does the team determine how many man-hours from the MMH are accomplished by each skill level? | multiply these percentages by the measured man-hours for each POD step |

The grades and skill levels that are listed on a Manpower Table reflect? | REQUIRED grades and skills |

TRUE or FALSE - you should always consider funding limitation when determining grades adn skills? | False |

What concept is used in determining what skill levels are needed? | that workers spend majority of their work time performing at their highest skill level |

When is a variance necessary? | If conditions fall outside those listed in the SOC |

Do variances add or take away man-hours earned in a standard? | either/both |

What are the three types of variances? | Misson/Environmental/Technological |

Define Mission Variance | required work not adressed in POD - positve work midentified in the POD; but not performed - negative |

Define Environmental Variance | accounts for differences in operating conditions other than those developed in the core standard |

Define Technological Variance | differneces in operating technology what what was defined in core standards |

Potential variances must _______ at least ______ man-hours to be considered for development. | exceed; 25 |

Who approves a variance? | AF Functional OPR |

Who develops the variance if it is for a single MAJCOM? | MAJCOM |

Who develops the variance is it applies to more than one MAJCOM? | AFMA |

What form is used to submit a variance? | AF Form 1068 |

Increased man-hours are justified how? | Quantified by using measurement technique(s) |

When would you definately give credit for Wartime Variances? | 1) When directed by MAJCOM for higher 2) require only part of work center to participate 3) functions are accomplished away from the work center 4) must document a recurring requirement |

When "might" you give credit for Wartime Variances? | 1) maintaining day-to-day mobility capability 2) developing mobility or work center task plans 3) work performed only because of an exercise 4) preparing/giving training |

When would you definately NOT give credit for Wartime Variances? | 1) Wing/commander directed 2) recieving READY training/augmentee programs 3) participating in exercises as an evaluator 4) Post-exercise rest days |

What is Step 1 of determining Wartime Variances? | Determine work center FAC |

What is Step 2 of determining Wartime Variances? | Specify number of months/time frame data was obtained |

How many months must you have to build confidence? | 24 months |

What is Step 3 of determining Wartime Variances? | Write names of exercises |

What is Step 4 of determining Wartime Variances? | what was the period of time of each exercise (days) |

What is Step 5 of determining Wartime Variances? | How many people participated in each evercise? |

What is Step 6 of determining Wartime Variances? | Computer man-hours or each exercise Days * number of poeple * constant (10.29) |

What is Step 7 of determining Wartime Variances? | multiply answer in step 6 by MAF constant of .52 |

What is Step 8 of determining Wartime Variances? | Total exercise man-hours are determined |

What is Step 9 of determining Wartime Variances? | Compute avg monthly man-hours by dividing man-hours total by # of months of exercise data |

What are the two types of standard applicaiton? | initial & reapplicaiton |

How many days do we have to apply an initial standard? | 90 days - increase immediately - decrease |

Who approves any requests for additional manpower? | HQ AF/A1M |

What number of authorizations is considered significant enough to warrant a standard reapplication ? | greater than 100 authorizations increased or decreased |