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2AX5X Vol.2

What instrument measures the weight of air? Mercurial barometer.
What is the standard atmospheric pressure at sea level measured in inches of mercury? In psi? 29.92 inches of mercury; 14.7 psi.
What are the two temperature scales that are commonly used? Fahrenheit and Celsius.
If two aircraft are flying with the same horsepower but at different altitudes, why does the aircraft flying at higher altitudes fly faster than the aircraft flying at a lower altitude? Because at the higher altitude, the air is less dense therefore causing less drag on the aircraft.
What is the term for the curve of the surface of an airfoil from the leading edge to the trailing edge? Camber.
What aerodynamic forces affect aircraft in flight? Life, weight, thrust, and drag.
How does drag act in relation to relative wind? Parallel
Define AOA. The angle between the mean chord line of an airfoil and the aircraft flight path.
How are airframe components joined? By rivets, bolts, screws, welds or adhesives.
What are the five stresses to which airframes are subjected? Tension, compression, torsion, shear, and bending.
Which fuselage design does not use formers, frame assemblies, or bulkheads to give shape to the fuselage? The monocoque design.
What internal wing components serve as an attachment point for the skin? The ribs and stringers.
What type of material is usually used for construction of flight control surfaces? Aluminum alloy
What is used to round out the angle formed btween the fixed tail surfaces and the fuselage? Fairing.
What structural unit provides a smooth airflow around and into the engine inlet? Engine nacelles.
What component controls airflow around the weapons to reduce turbulence in the bay on some bomber aircraft? Bay spoilers or air spoilers.
How do doors differ from panels? Doors are hinged.
Most transparent structures on an aircraft, such as canopies, windshields, and windows are made of what two materials? Transparent plastics or safety glass.
How do paint removes and stripping compounds affect the plastic facings of the radome? It may adversely affect its electrical properties or strength.
How are fuselage station numbers measured? In inches from the reference datum or zero point on or near the aircraft nose.
What are the three axes that an aircraft operates around? Vertical, lateral, and longitudinal.
What are the lateral control surface of the aircraft Ailerons, spoilers/speed brakes, and wing flaps.
What controls all directional movements of the aircraft? Primary flight controls.
What primary flight control guides the aircraft about the vertical axis? Rudder.
Which type of stabilator has both sides connected together so that when one side moves the other side must move in the same direction and amount? Solid type.
What is an elevon? It is a combination of an aileron and an elevator.
What are five types of wing flaps? Plain, split, fowler, slatted, and leading edge slats or flaps.
What is the difference between leading-edge flaps and wing slats? If the leading edge operates in conjunction with the trailing edge flaps, then you have leading-edge flaps. If they operate independently of the flaps, they are called slats.
What is the purpose of the speed brakes? Increase drag to slow the aircraft and/or reduce landing distance.
List the three types of trim systems. Roll, Pitch, and Yaw.
Which type of flight control system reduces the need for long cables, turnbuckles, quick disconnects, push-pull rods, and the associated flight control hardware? Fly-by-wire.
What are the two major parts of the AFCS? Stab aug system and the A/P system.
What system is used to make bomber aircraft stable for launching weapons? Stab aug
What auto pilot system mode automatically maintains aircraft speed? Mach hold.
Define electricity. A class of physical phenomena arising from the existence and interactions of electric charges.
Of what particles are atoms composed? Neutrons, protons, and electrons.
List four examples of insulators. Glass, wood, rubber, and plastic
List four examples of conductors. Gold, copper, platinum, and silver.
Where do you normally use semiconductors? In solid state devices.
What is EMF? Electromagnetic force: the electrical pressure that causes electrons to flow through the conductor.
Define electrical current. The movement of electrons through a conductor.
What factors affect the amount of resistance in a conductor? The type of material used, temperature, size.
What unit of measurement is used to express electrical power? Watts.
What is a simple definition of magnetism? The ability of a substance to attract.
How are artificial magnets classified? Permanent or temporary.
What is permeability? The ease of ability to conduct magnetic lines of force.
What is residual magnetism? The amount of magnetism that remains in a temporary magnet.
How is magnetism induced in magnetic material? Place in a magnetic field or bring it into contact with another magnet.
Can magnetic lines of force be insulated? No.
What are the three most commonly used shapes of magnets? Bar, ring, or horseshoe.
How can a magnet be weakened? Heating or excessive jarring.
Define flux. A term for magnetic lines of force.
How is electromagnetism developed? By current of electricity.
When current flows through a conductor, does a magnetic field exist? Yes.
What must you know to apply the "left hand rule"? The direction of the current flow.
What rule do you use to determine the flux direction of a wire in a loop? The left hand rule.
How can an electromagnet's field strength be increased? By using a few terms of wire carrying a larger current or using many terms of wire carrying a small current.
What is the purpose of conductor? Provide a path for electrons to flow with minimum resistance.
Why are protective devices installed in aircraft electrical systems? Protect against system overloads and shorts in a circuit.
How much time must pass before resetting a trip-free type circuit breaker? After a cooling-off period of approximately 1 minute.
What is the purpose of a current limiter? Provide protection against fault currents.
What is the purpose of a resistor? Control the amount of correct flow in a circuit.
Why is alternating current used as the primary electrical power source in aircraft? Less power is lost during transmission and the elimination of insulation and brushes.
What is the unit of measurement for frequency? Hertz.
Define phase relationship. A condition in which two moving objects are changing in, or out of, step..
What are the two classifications of AC generation systems? Variable-frequency and constant-frequency.
What frequency is used for AC power generation on aircraft? 400 Hz.
How is voltage induced in a brush-type generator? DC from an integral exciter generator is passed through windings of the rotor.
What are the three generators that make up a brushless AC generator? A permanent magnet generator, an AC exciter generator, and the main AC generator.
What weak point was eliminated by the design of a brushless-type generator? Arcing (which more easily occurs in rarefied air).
What are the two main components of an AC generator? Rotor assembly and stator.
What three components make up the stator? PMG armature, exciter field, and main armature windings.
What are the two functions of the CSD governor system? To control the drive output speed and equalize the load between generators operating in parallel.
If CSD output rotation drives the generator below 365 Hz, what component removes the generator from the bus? Underspeed switch.
If the CSD temperature rises to an overheat condition, what should be done to prevent further damage? Disconnect the CSD.
What is installed on most IDGs to provide for easier installation and removal? A quick attach-detach clamp.
What are the typical functions of a GCU? Voltage regulation, frequency, and load control, real and reactive load division, over/under protection.
How is voltage regulation and current limiting accomplished in the GCU? By varying the generator excitation field.
How does the frequency and load controller for each generator system regulate the frequency of the generator CSD? By controlling the magnetic trim head governor on the CSD.
What are the internal components of a battery? Plates, separators, and electrolytes.
What are the primary causes of premature failure of a lead-acid battery? Abuse, overcharge, low solution, undercharge, and mountings.
What is the fundamental unit of the nickel-cadmium battery? The cell.
How are nickel-cadmium constructed? By inserting positive and negative plates in plastic cases with nylon and cellophane separators.
When does nickel-cadmium battery's electrolyte reach its maximum level? When the battery is fully charged.
How are motors classified? By voltage, current used (AC or DC), and methods of motor excitation.
How can the direction of rotation for a series motor be changed? By reusing the current flow in a field winding or reusing current flow in armature.
What advantage does the series motor have over other types of motors? It operates on AC or DC excitation.
How is the field winding of a shunt motor connected with the armature? In parallel.
What type of T-R is used to a nickel-cadmium battery in many aircraft? Charging T-R.
What is another name for a T-R? Converter.
Define matter. Any substance that occupies space.
Since liquids and gases have many properties in common, how are they frequently classified? As fluids.
All matter is made up of what? Molecules.
Which matter has the property of resisting changes in shape when a force is applied? Solids.
When sufficient force to a solid causes distortion, the solid is said to have exceeded what? Its elastic limit.
Which factors affect the amount of expansion and contraction in a solid? The amount of temperature change and the expansion characteristic of the solid.
What are the most outstanding characteristics of a solid? The Its ability to conform to the shape of its containing vessel and that it has a face surface.
For a liquid to transmit a pushing force, what condition must exist first? It must be completely enclosed in a container.
What would cause a cylinder of air to increase in pressure when placed in the sun? The air (gas) expands as its temperature increases, and since it is confined by the cylinder, its pressure will increase.
What is one of the main differences in the characteristics of gases when compared to liquids? Gases are compressible while liquids are not.
State the basic principle of Pascal's Law. When a fluid is confined and force is applied, this force(pressure) is transmitted equally to all points in the system.
Under what conditions does Pascal's Law not apply to fluids? When fluids are in motion.
State the basic principle of Boyle's Law. If the pressure on a confined gas varies, its volume will vary inversely in the same proportion as long as the temperature does not change.
Using Charles's Law, explain the effect of heating a gas in a cylinder that has a movable piston. Heating a confined gas will cause an expansion (volume increase) in direct proportion to its temperature change, thus causing the piston to move.
What is another name for the Boyle's-Charles law? General gas law.
What is the mechanical advantage ratio if a 60-pound force is used to raise a 240-pound weight? 4:1
What is the mechanical advantage ratio if a 3-pound force is used to raise 99 pounds? 33:1
A 150-pound weight is placed on a 10-square inch piston and is then lifted by a force applied to a 2-square-inch piston. What force is required on the small piston, and what is the mechanical advantage? 30 pounds of force, 5:1
A 20-pound force on a 3-square-inch piston can lift how much weight on a 12-square-inch piston? What is the mechanical advantage? 80 pounds of force, 4:1
What is the pressure on a surface 12 square inches in area and supporting a weight of 216 pounds. 18 psi.
How far will an 8-square-inch piston move if a 2-square-inch piston moves 8 inches? 2 inches.
What characteristic of a fluid determines its resistance to flow? Viscosity.
What effect does an orifice have on fluid-flow when compared to a venturi? An orifice will cause more turbulence and thus more energy loss than a venturi because it is not steamlined.
How can resistance to flow be reduced? By streamlining the flow.
What pressure difference can be observed during fluid-flow through a venturi? There is a pressure drop at the narrow opening (throat) of a venturi as the rate of flow of the fluid increases at this point. The pressure will increase again after passing through the throat.
How much fluid should a reservoir hold?
Created by: Roy_White820
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