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Hazmat Operations

Hazardous Material Operations Student Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
As defined by NFPA 472 an operational level responder is: An initial responder who takes Defensive control to protect: People, Environment, and property. Who is not trained in specialized clothing or equipment and does not take an offensive approach and is focused on containment.
Goal competencies at the operational level shall be to provide first responders with the knowledge and skills to perform the following what safely? APIE (Analyze, Plan, Implement, and Evaluate)
Analyze a hazardous material incident to determine the magnitude of the problem in terms of outcomes by completing the following tasks: 1) Survey the hazardous materials 2) Collect hazard and response information from the MSDS, CHEMTRAC, local/state/federal, and shipper/manufacturer. 3) Predict the likely behavior of a material and its container. 4) Estimate the potential harm at incident
Plan an initial response within the capabilities and competencies of available personnel, PPE, and control equipment by completing the following task: 1) Describe the response objectives for hazardous materials incidents 2) Describe the defensive options for a hazardous materials incident 3) Determine whether the PPE provided is appropriate for implementing each defensive option 4) ID Decon procedures.
Implement the planned response to favorably change the outcomes consistent with the LERP and the organization's SOP by completing the following: Establish and enforce scene control procedures including control zones, emergency decon, and communications. Initiate the IMS for HAZMAT incident. Don, work in, and doff PPE. Perform defensive control functions ID in plan of action.
Evaluate the progress of the actions taken to ensure that the response objectives are being met safely, effectively, and efficiently by completing the following task: Evaluate the status of the defensive actions taken in accomplishing the response objectives. Communicate the status of the planned response.
The Requirements for Bulk Liquid Packaging is: Liquid - capacity greater than 119 gallons
The Requirement for Bulk Solid Packaging is: Solid - capacity greater than 882 pounds
The Requirement for Bulk Compressed Gas is: Compressed Gas - water capacity greater than 1001 pounds
Describe a Non-Pressure Tank Car Can be distinguished by either an expansion dome with visible fittings (older) or visible fittings w/o an expansion dome (newer). May have up to six compartments. May or may not be insulated. Hazard Classes: 3,4,5,6,8, and 9
Describe a Pressure Tank Car Cylindrical, non-compartment-ed steel or aluminum tanks with rounded heads. Single protective housing on top that contains all valves and other fittings. May be insulated or else top two thirds will be painted white. Hazard Class: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3
Describe a Pneumatically Unloaded Covered Hopper Car Constructed to tank car specifications. Rounded sided and ends with two or more sloping-sided bays on the bottom. Unloaded with compressed air using pressures of 15psi or greater. Hazard Class: 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9.
What are the two types of Intermodal Tank Containers 1: Beam Type Frame 2: Box Type Frame
What do Non-Pressure IMO Tank Container transport Both non hazardous and hazardous materials. I.E. toxic, corrosive, alcohols, pesticides, insecticides, and flammable materials. Food grade commodities, liquid fertilizers, resins, sodium cyanide, water treatment chemicals, and whiskey.
What do Pressure IMO Tank Containers transport Transport gases liquefied under pressure. I.E. anhydrous ammonia bromine, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and sodium. Liquids carried can include motor fuel antiknock compound or aluminum alkyls.
What does the Cryogenic Tank Container (IMO Type 7) Specialized Intermodal Tank transport? Cryogenic liquids I.E. argon, ethylene, helium, nitrogen, and oxygen. Hazard Class 2.2
What do Intermodal Tube Containers transport Bulk Gases I.E. helium, nitrogen, and oxygen (noble gases) in non-liquid form. Very high pressure 3,000 to 5,000 psi. Hazard Class 2
DOT Hazard Class 1.1 Orange Background, Bursting Ball with word Explosives. Explosives that have a mass explosive hazard. Common examples include black powder, dynamite, and T-N-T.
DOT Hazard Class 1.2 Orange background, Bursting Ball with the word Explosives. Explosives that have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard. Common examples are aerial flares, det cord, and power device cartridges.
DOT Hazard Class 1.3 Orange background, Bursting Ball with word Explosives. Explosives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard, or both, but not a mass explosion hazard. I.E. Liquid-fueled rocket motors, and propellant explosives
DOT Hazard Class 1.4 Orange Background, Bursting Ball with the word Explosives. Explosive devices that present a minor explosion hazard. No device may contain more than 25 grams of a detonating material.
DOT Hazard Class 1.5 Orange background, Bursting Ball with the word Blasting Agent. Very Insensitive Explosive. Substances that have a mass explosion hazard but are insensitive. I.E. prilled ammonium nitrate fertilizer - fuel oil mixtures.
DOT Hazard Class 1.6 Orange Background, Bursting Ball with the word Explosives. Extremely insensitive articles that do not have a mass explosive hazard. I.E. squib devices.
DOT Hazard Class 2.1 Red background, White Flame. Flammable gas. Major Hazard BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion) I.E. inhibited butadienes, methyl chloride, propane
DOT Hazard Class 2.2 Green background, white cylinder. Non-Flammable Gas. Nonflammable, Nonpoisonous Compressed Gas, liquefied gas, pressurized cryogenic gas, and compressed gas in solution. I.E. anhydrous ammonia, cryogenic dioxide, compressed nitrogen.
DOT Hazard Class 2.3 White background, Skull and Crossbones, Poisonous Gas I.E. hydrogen fluoride, arsine, chlorine, and methyl bromide LC50 (lethal concentration, 50% kill)
DOT Hazard Class 3.1 Flammable and Combustible liquid. Red Background, White Flame w/the word "Flammable" Flash point < 0 deg. F.
DOT Hazard Class 3.2 Flammable and Combustible liquid. Red Background, White Flame w/the word "Flammable" Flash point 0 - 73 F.
DOT Hazard Class 3.3 Flammable and Combustible liquid. Red Background, White Flame w/the word "Flammable" Flash point 73 - 141 F.
DOT Hazard Class 3 Flammable and Combustible liquid. Red Background, White Flame w/the word "Combustible" Any liquid that does not meet the definition of any other hazard class and has a flash point above 140 F and below 200 F.
DOT Hazard Class 4.1 Flammable and Combustible Solid. Red and white vertical stripes, black flame and the words, "Flammable Solid". Wetted explosives (i.e. C4), Self-reactive materials (i.e. hand warmers), Readily combustible solids (i.e. magnesium, steel wool)
DOT Hazard Class 4.2 Flammable and Combustible Solid. Red and white vertical stripes, black flame and the words, "Flammable Solid". Spontaneously Combustible Material. Pyrophoric Material: Can ignite in five minutes after coming in contact with air. Self-heating material
DOT Hazard Class 4.3 Only blue placard. Dangerous When Wet. Contact with water is liable to result in material spontaneously combustion or give off flammable or toxic gas at a rate greater than 1L/kg per hour. I.E. calcium carbide, magnesium powder, potassium metal alloys
DOT Hazard Class 5.1 Yellow background, Black Flaming "O" with word "Oxidizer". means a material may, generally by yielding oxygen cause or enhance the combustion of other materials. I.E. ammonium nitrate, bromine trifluorioide, and calcium hypochlorite
DOT Hazard Class 5.2 Yellow background, Black Flaming "O" with words "Organic Peroxide". Means an organic compound containing oxygen (O) in bivalent(O-O) structure that can be considered a derivative of hydrogen peroxide. Material are listed in 7 types.
DOT Hazard Class 5.2 Type A can detonate or deflagrate rapidly as packaged for transport. Transportation of type A organic peroxides is forbidden. I.E. Benzoyle Peroxide, Methyle Ethyle Ketone.
DOT Hazard Class 5.2 Type B Neither detonates nor deflagrates rapidly but that can undergo a thermal explosion.
DOT Hazard Class 5.2 Type C Neither detonates nor deflagrates rapidly and cannot undergo a thermal explosion.
DOT Hazard Class 5.2 Type D detonates only partially or deflagrates slowly, with medium to no effect when heated under confinement.
DOT Hazard Class 5.2 Type E nether detonates nor deflagrates and shows low, or no, effect when heated under confinement.
DOT Hazard Class 5.2 Type F will not detonate, does not deflagrate, and shows only a low, or no, effect if heated when confined, and has low or no explosive power.
DOT Hazard Class 5.2 Type G will not detonate, does not deflagrate, shows no effect if heated when confined, and has no explosive power, is thermally stable, and is desensitized.
DOT Hazard Class 6.1 Poisonous Material. White Background, Skull and crossbones. Material other than gas that is either known to be so toxic to humans as to afford a hazard to health during transport. I.E. Tear Gas. Major Hazard: Toxic
DOT Hazard Class 6.2 Infectious Substance. Biohazard symbol. means a viable microorganism, or its toxin, that causes or may cause disease in humans or animals. Infectious substances and etiologic agent are synonymous. I.E. anthrax, botulism, rabies, and tetanus.
DOT Hazard Class 7 Yellow top, White bottom, Black "Propeller". Radioactive
DOT Hazard Class 8 White Top, Black Bottom, two test tubes, hand and steel bar. A liquid or solid that causes visible destruction or irreversible alterations in human skin tissue at the site of contact or a liquid that has a sever corrosion rate on steel or aluminum.
DOT Hazard Class 9 Miscellaneous. Black and white vertical stripes on top, white bottom. Material that presents a hazard during transport, but that is not included in another hazard class.
What is label ORM-D Other Regulated Materials: Material that presents a limited hazard during transportation due to its form, quantity, and packaging. I.E. Consumer commodities, small arms ammo, fingernail polish remover.
Identify two ways to obtain a MSDS in an emergency Building manager, Fire department, CHEMTREC, Shipping Papers
Identify information on a pipeline marker Use POE: Product, Owner, Emergency Contact Number
Given a pesticide label, identify each of the following pieces of information; then match the piece of information to its significance in surveying the hazardous materials incident: Name of Pesticide; Signal Word; EPA Registration number; Precautionary statement; Hazard Statement; Active Ingredient
Pesticide Label: Signal Word Caution-might make you sick; Warning-will make you sick; Poison/Danger-(Always together)lethal.
Pesticide Label: EPA Registration number Two or three section number a. Manufacturer b. Sequence number c. distributor information
Pesticide Label: Precautionary Statement I.E. Keep out of reach of children, Restricted use of pesticide
Pesticide Label: Hazard Statement Physical and chemical hazards On Side Panel Lists any environment special flammability, explosions, or chemical hazards
Pesticide Label: Active Ingredients Must be listed by chemical name. Each ingredient identified by name and %, Inert ingredients may also be listed, but only by %.
Additional information on Radioactive material, identifying vertical bars, content, activity, and transportation index. Fissile Classes (red vertical bars) Radioactive White-I Label: low level of radiation Radioactive White-II Label: medium level of radiation Radioactive White-III Label: high level of radiation millirem (mrem) per hour at 40 inches. Max TI 50mrem/hr.
Surrounding conditions that should be noted by the first responders when surveying hazardous material incidents. Topography, Land use, Accessibility, Weather Conditions, Bodies of Water, Public Exposure Potential, Over-head and underground wires and pipelines, Storm and sewer drains, Possible ignition sources, Adjacent land use, Nature and extent of injures,Building
Type of assistance available from local, state and federal authorities with respect to criminal or terrorist activities involving hazardous materials. Law enforcement response, Law enforcement will initiate needed state and federal notification. Federal agencies provide: Trained personnel, Antidotes, Monitoring equipment, and medical care.
Procedures for contacting local, state, and federal authorities; should be specified in what documents? Local Emergency Response Plan (LERP) and SOP.
Radioactive Particles and Properties? Alpha: Cannot penetrate sheet of paper or skin; Beta: Can be stopped by firefighter clothing and SCBA. Gamma: Requires extensive shielding can cause skin burns and damage internal organs. Neutron: Can be shielded with high hydrogen materials.
Chemical and physical properties and their significance and impact on the behavior of the container and/or its contents. Boiling Point, Chemical Reactivity, PH, Flammable/Explosive Range, Lower Explosive Limit (LEL), Upper Explosive Limit (UEL), Flash Point, Ignition (autoignition) temperature, Physical State, Specific Gravity, Toxic Products, Vapor Density, Vapor Pressure
Contamination occurs when for victims and responders Contamination occurs from direct contact with material usually as a result of a release - victims. Contamination occurs during the control phase - responders.
Three Types of Stress that could cause a container system to release its contents. Thermal: as a result from radiated, convectional, conducted or direct heat exposure. Mechanical: as a result from some dominant physical force. Chemical: as a result of a reaction or interaction b/w a chemical coming in contact with the container.
Five ways in which a container can breach: Disintegration, Runaway Cracking, Closures Opening Up, Puncture, Split or tear
Four ways in which a container can release their contents: Detonation, Violent Rupture, Rapid Relief, Spills and Leaks.
Identify at least four dispersion patterns that can be created upon release of a hazardous material. Hemispheric, Cloud, Plume, Cone, Stream, Pool, Irregular
Factors that influence dispersion patterns: Amount of material, Form of Material, Weather Conditions, Topography, Type of Container Breach, Type of Release
Factors influencing the length of time an exposure may last in an endangered area: Quantity of material released, Method of dispersion, Speed of Release
Factors influencing harm: Concentration of the material, Duration of Contact
Types of hazards causing harm: TEAMCPRP: Thermal, Etiologic, Asphyxiation, Mechanical, Corrosive, Poisonous Harm, Radiation, Psychological Harm
Define Carcinogen: Any material that causes cancerous growths in living tissue.
Define Corrosive: material that causes visible destruction to human skin tissue or a severe corrosion rate on steel.
Highly Toxic: A chemical falling within any of the following categories.
Toxic: A chemical falling within any of the following categories.
Irritant: material that is not necessarily corrosive, but may cause a reaction or inflammation at the point of contact.
Sensitizer: material that causes some people to have an allergic reaction after repeated exposure to the material. The number and length of exposures will vary the speed and degree of reaction amongst people.
Hepatotoxins: Chemicals that produce liver damage.
Nephrotoxins: Chemicals that produce kidney damage.
Neurotoxins: Chemicals that produce their primary toxic effects on the nervous system.
Blood Agents: Agents that decrease the function of hemoglobin in the blood; deprive the hematopolatic body tissues of oxygen system.
Pulmonary Agents: Agents that irritate the lung or damage the pulmonary tissue.
Reproductive toxin: Chemicals that affect the reproductive capabilities, including chromosomal damage and effects on fetuses.
Cutaneous hazards: Chemicals that affect the dermal layer of the body.
Eye hazards: Chemicals that affect the eye or visual capacity.
Asphyxiant: material which is not necessarily toxic, but can cause unconsciousness and death by displacing or depriving oxygen.
Chronic health hazards include: Carcinogen, Mutagen-causes mutation in DNA, Teratogen-any substance that causes growth abnormalities in embryos or genetic modifications in cells. Convulsant-material that causes convulsions, Allergen-through inhalation, ingestion, or absorption.
DOT Hazard Class For warfare agents 6.1, 2.3, and 2.2
Resources to determine size of an endangered area of hazardous material incident. ERG, CHEMTREC, Plume Dispersion Models (via JWARN and JEM)
What encompasses Exposures: People, Property, and Environment
Factors influencing number and types of exposures: Time of Day, Type of Occupancies, Location of Release, Weather (current and forecasted)
Concentrations of a Hazmat within the endangered area. Not typically an operational level responsibility. Assets available: Fire Departments, Health Department, Environmental Agencies, Bioenvironmental Health, Local and State Resources.
Given an analysis of a hazmat problem and exposures already lost, identify the steps for determing the number of exposures that could be saved by the 1st responder with the resources provided by the authority having jurisdiction & defensive posture. 1. Determine the total number of exposures 2. Determine number already lost 3. Estimate the effectiveness of the chosen action plan.
Steps for determining defensive response objectives. 1. Based on the current stage of the incident 2. Strategic goals for now or for the future events. 3. Decisions should focus on changing the stressors, the containment system, and the hazardous materials.
Assessing the risk to a responder for each of the hazard class in rescuing injured personnel at an incident. TEAMCPRP: Thermal, Etiologic, Asphyxiation, Mechanical, Corrosive, Poisonous Harm, Radiation, Psychological Harm
The most common control methods used to contain lesser spills: Dike, Dam (Overflow, and Underflow), Divert, and Retention
Dilution Last resort control technique for HazMat.
Types of Foam Applications: Vapor Dispersion, Vapor Suppression, and Dispersion
Vapor Dispersion Used as a control technique for hazardous vapors/gases with a higher effectiveness on water-soluble materials. Use fans of water to push vapors away
Vapor Suppression Used as a control technique for hazardous material, to reduce the immediate hazards associated with the presence of an uncontrolled vapor. Spray fire fighting foam over HAZMAT spill.
Describe the typical non-bulk packaging May be a single packaging (e.g. drum, carboy, cylinder) or combination packaging of one or more inner packaging's inside an outer packaging (e.g. glass bottles inside a fiberboard box). May be palletized or placed in over packs for transport.
Define what constitutes bulk packaging 1. Liquid - capacity greater than 119 gallons 2. Solid - capacity greater than 882 pounds 3. Compressed Gas - water capacity greater than 1001 pounds.
List each type of rail tank car 1. Non-Pressure Tank Car 2. Pressure Tank Car 3. Cryogenic Tank Car 4. Pneumatically Unloaded Covered Hopper
List each type of intermodal tank containers 1. Non-pressure Tank Container (IMO Type 1&2) 2. Pressure Tank Containers (IMO Type 5) 3. Cryogenic Tank Container (IMO Type 7) 4. Intermodal Tube Containers
List each type of cargo tank 1. Non-pressure Liquid Cargo Tank 2. Low Pressure Cargo Tank 3. Corrosive Liquid Cargo Tank 4. High Pressure Cargo Tank 5. Cryogenic Liquids Cargo Tank 6. Dry Bulk Cargo Tank 7. Tube Cargo Tank
List each type of fixed facility 1. Non-pressure Facility Tank: (Ordinary Cone Roof); (Geodesic dome); (Open Floating Roof);(Lifter Roof);5. Non-pressure Facility Tank (Vapor Dome)
Created by: oldsmaug