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HAZMAT Tech 1 - ALL
HAZMAT Tech 1 - All aspects of Tech 1 test
|any substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour test, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals to form salts. ph less then 7 in its standard shape.
|Capable of burning,corroding, dissoliving, or eating away by chemical action. ph greater then 7 in its standard shape.
|Materials that can react or ignite if they are exposed to air.
|A phenomenon that occurs during the rapid release(boiling) of a liquified gas that causes it to temporarily remain in a liquid stae through rapid cooling.
|Producing disease through living microorganisms that can mutate and become toxins are more deadly
|Toxins can be small molecules,peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with an absorption by body tissue. (a) risk Affects human health in a variety of ways ranging from allergic reactions to death.
|A chemical compound including the cyanide group, that affects bodily functions by preventing the normal utilization of oxygen by body tissues.
|Temperature at which the transition from a liquid to a gas occurs. At this temperature, the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the the surrounding atmospheric pressure so that the liquid rapidly becomes a vapor.
|A substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected.
|Changes that take place on the molecular level. A chemical change produces a new substance.
|Caused when 2 or more chemicals, or the chemical and its container are incompatible.
|Separate elements that bond together to form compound mixture, they have a tendency to break down into their component parts, sometimes in an explosive manner.
|Concentration-When dealing with corrosives
|The amount of acid or base is compared to the amount of water present.
|The minimum temp at which a gas can be liquified no matter how much pressure is applied =. A gas cannot be liquified above its critical temp.
|The Pressure that must be applied to bring a gas to its liquid state.
|The separation of a substance into 2 or more simpler substances, or of a molecule into atoms or ions, by the action of heat or a chemical process. Dissociation is usually reversible.
|A measure of a substance's tendency to deteriorate in the presence of another substance or in a particular enviroment.
|The concentration or amount of material to which the body is exposed over a specific time period.
|The biological reaction caused by the dose in the body. The degree of harm is directly related to the dose(time and amount) and its impact on bodily functions.
|The amount of gas produced by a given volume of liquid at a given temp.
|The minimum temp at which a material gives off vapor in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air and will nit continue to burn.
|The temp at which enough vapors are given off to support continuous burning
|The difference between the upper and lower flammable limits.
|Lower explosive limit(LEL)
|The minimum concentration of vapor to air below which a flame will not propagate in the presence of an ignition source. Also known as to lean to burn.
|Upper explosive limit (UEL)
|the maximum vapor to air concentration above, which a flame will not propagate in the presence of a flame. Also known as to rich to burn.
|The period of time it takes for a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.
|They are often more toxic than naturally occurring organic chemicals. They decomposed into smaller, more harmful elements when exposed to high temps for a long period of time.
|Added to products to control their chemical reaction with other products. If it is not added or escapes during an incident, the material will begin to polymerize, which creates a very dangerous situation.
|The temp at which a material(solid,liquid or gas) will self ignite and sustain combustion in air without a external spark or flame
|Materials that decompose , polymerize, or otherwise self-react and are generally considered unstable.
|Ionic and covalent compounds
|Materials made through the sharing or transfer of electrons.
|Irritants (riot agents)
|they cause respiratory distress and copious tearing that incapacitate a victim,
|Maximum Safe Storage Temp(MSST)
|The max temp that an organic peroxide may be stored safely.
|The temp at which a solid becomes a liquid allowing it to spread more readily.
|The temp in which a liquid converts to a solid.
|Refers to the tendency or ability of 2 or more liquids to form a uniform blend, or to dissolve in each other.
|Substances that interfere with the central nervous syatem.
|Pertaining to a class of chemical compounds that formerly comprised only those existing in or derived from plants or animals, but that now includes all other compounds of carbon.
|Composed of matter that is not animal or vegetable: not having the organized structure of living things. Inorganic material lacks carbon chains.
|The combining of anything with oxygen or the propensity to yield oxygen which will present a greater hazard.
|Refers to a chemical ability to remain in the environment. The more persistent, the greater the propensity for it to remain harmful over a period of time.
|The numerical measure of a solution's hydrogen ion as related to acidity or alkalinity.
|The process when objects undergo a change that does not change their chemical properties.
|The characteristic form of a material at ambient temps.
|Any process in which relatively small molecules,called monomers, combine chemically to produce a very large chainlike or network molecule, called a polymer.
|Spontaneous emission of ionizing radiation as a consequence of a nuclear reaction, or directly from the breakdown of an unstable nucleus.
|Positively charged particle emitted by some radioactive materials and is not considered dangerous unless ingested.
|Can Damage skin tissue, and they can damage internal organs if they enter the body. Full protective clothing including positive pressure SCBA will protect.
|Causes skin burns and can severely injure internal organs; therefore protective clothing is inadequate in preventing this radiation from harming the body. The most dangerous type!
|A substance's propensity to release energy or undergo change, for example self-reaction polymerization, or violent reaction.
|Describes the sensitivity of a material to water without the addition of heat or confinement.
|Riot control agents
|(sometimes referred to as tear gas) are chemical compounds that temporarily make people unable to function by causing irritation to the eyes,mouth,throat,lungs,and skin.
|hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons. (Methane,Butane)
|Materials that have at least one multiple bond between 2 carbon atoms somewhere in the molecule, which causes them to be more hazardous
|materials that contain the benzene ring which is formed ny 6 carbon atoms and contains double bonds. Its greatest hazard is toxicity. 6 sided ring.
|Self-accelerating decomposition temp
|when this temp is reached by some portion of the mass of the organic peroxide, irreverisble decomposition will begin. (a) this reaction can be violent
|The ability of a substance to form a solution with water can be important when determining control measures. For example gas is insoluble, while anhydrous ammonia is soluble.
|Mixture in which all of the ingredients are completely dissolved.
|Pourable mixture of solid and a liquid.
|The weight of a solid or liquid compared to an equal volume of water.
|The concentration of of a solution. In corrosives, strength refers to the degree of ionization of an acid or base in water.
|The ability of a substance to change from a solid to the vapor phase without passing through the liquid phase.
|Temp of product
|Influences the hazards present and the measures taken to control an incident that involves that product.
|Toxic products of combustion
|Byproducts of the combustion process that are harmful to humans. Some materials generate more highly toxic gases than others do: therefore, appropriate levels of protective clothing and equipment must be used to counter them.
|Weight of vapor compared to air.
|The force exerted by the gas or vapor released by a liquid or solid substance in a closed container or space.
|These agents are extremely toxic, with the symptoms of exposure not appearing for minutes,hours or days.
|Measure of the thickness of a liquid, determines how easily it flows. During an incident this will affect the flow away from a leaking container, expanding the endangerment area.
|Ease with which a liquid or solid can pass into the vapor state. During an incident this will affect the dispersment in air and expand the endangered area.
|Counts per minuter (CPM) and kilocounts per minute (kcpm)
|Measurements of radioactivity. It is the number of atoms ina given quantity of radioactivity material that are detected to have decayed in 1 minute.
|Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) value
|This is the maximum level to which a healthy worker can be exposed for 30 minutes and escape without suffering irreversible health effects or impairment.
|The latency between exposure to a pathogen and onset of symptoms.
|The amount of a pathogen necessary to manifest it's pathogenicity . It is dependent on pathogenic variables such as health, gender, predisposition, and several others.
|Lethal concentration(LC 50)
|The amount of material in air that is expected to kill 50 percent. Inhalation.
|Lethal dose(LD 50)
|Causes the death of 50 percent by any route other then inhalation.
|Parts per million(PPM)
|it denotes the number units of one substance relative to one million units.
|Parts per billion(PPB)
|The number of units of one substance relative to one billion units of another substance.
|Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
|(OSHA) PELS are regulatory limits on the amount of substance in the air. The time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8 hour workday and a 40 hour work week, which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day without adverse effect
|Radiation absorbed dose (RAD)
|Equals the energy absorption of 100 ergs per gram of irradiated material(an erg is a work unit). Obsolete equal to 1 centigray, 1 rad is equal to 10 milligray and 100 rads are equal to 1 Gv.
|Roentgen equivalent Man(REM); Millirem(mrem)
|An international unit of the of the intensity of xrays and gamma rays. 1 rad
|Threshold limit value ceiling (TLV-C)
|This is the maximum concentration to which a healthy adult can be exposed without risk of injury and the exposure to higher concentrations should not occur.
|Threshold limit value short-term exposure limit(TLV-STEL)
|This the maximum average concentration, averaged over a 15 minute period, to which healthy adult can safely exposed for up to 15 minutes continuously. Exposure should not occur more then 4 times a day with at least 1 hour between exposures.
|Threshold limit value time weighted average(TLV-TWA)
|The maximum concentration averaged over 8 hours, to which a healthy adult can be repeatedly exposed for 8 hours per day, 40 hours per week.
|Responsibility of a Technician
|Analyze the incident,Plan a response,Implement the planned response, Evaluate the progress,Terminate the incident
|Different products may be transported in the same line using pigs (pipeline inspection gauge) Hazard Classes 2,3,6,8 and 9
|Call company to located Remote shutoff Pipeline marker indicates owner (POE), Pipeline maps can greatly assist when checking for gas mitigation
|Procedures for checking gas midigation
|Computerized system called SUpervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA), monitors system
|Analysis process for Unknown Atmosphere
|Wearing level A, approaching cautiously from upwind and measure:(Radioactivity, Combustibility, Oxygen availability/ deficiency ,pH ,Hydrogen Sulfide ,Carbon Monoxide ,Organic vapors
|Radioactive White I
|Radioactive material labels for <0.5 mrem/hr
|Radioactive Yellow II
|Radioactive material labels for 0.5-50 mrem/hr transportation index is 1
|Radioactive Yellow II
|Radioactive material labels for 50-200 mrem/hr transportation index is 1-10
|Empty Rad Package
|applied to packages that have been empted of their contents as far as practical but still contains regulated amounts of internal contamination and radiation levels of less than 0.5 mrem/hr detectable outside the package
|Applied to packages that contain fissile materials, critical safety index is noted on each package will be noted on label
|Hazardous materials databases-Advantages
|identify and interpret hazard response information available through a variety of sources
|Hazardous materials databases-DisAdvantages
|many databases available, some databases are public domain and some are trademarked
|Computer aided Management of Emergency Operations; System integrates chem database and method to mange data, air dispersion model, and mapping capability
|Mapping Applications for Respons, planning and local operational tasks (part of CAMEO)
|atmospheric dispersion model for realeases (part of CAMEO)
|Chemical Hazard Respose Information System; developed by US. Coast Gaurd. HACS-Hazard assessment computer system for aquatic incidents
|Registry of toxic Effects of Chemical Substances; more than 150,000 substances. six types- primary irration, mut effect, repro effects, tumorigenic(fetus), acute toxicity, other multiple dose toxitcity
|Oil and Haz Mat Tech Assistance Data System; designed for rapid retrieval of 850+ oil and haz substances.
|Maps and diagrams (adv)
|Give someone unfamiliar a fair representation of manmade structures and terrain
|Maps and diagrams (dis-adv)
|May not be up to date and may be inaccurate
|Monitoring equipment (adv)
|critical info on hazards present at hazmat incident site
|Monitoring equipment (dis-adv)
|do not rely on only one piece of equipment
|Reference manuals (adv)
|many ref manuals available from various ind. , corps, and fed agencies
|Reference manuals (dis-adv)
|contain slightly different viewpoints and depths
|Technical information centers
|CHEMTREC, CANUTEC SETIQ and NRC
|Technical information centers (adv)
|Readily available, can activate emergency response mutual aid network
|Technical information centers (dis-adv)
|may provide conflicting info
|Technical information specialists (adv)
|experiance and edu
|Technical information specialists (dis-adv)
|difficult to contact, no ind knows all answers
|Cryogenic Liquid Spills
|Expansion ration (560- 1,445)gals to 1 gal, expands rapidly at room temp
|liver damage, Signs and symptoms: jaundice and liver enlargement; chemicals- carbon tetracholoride and nitrosamines
|kidney damage; Signs and symptoms: edema and protien urea; chemicals: halogenated hydrocarbons and uranium
|central nervous system; Signs and symptoms:drooping of upper eylids, resp diff, seizures, and unconsciousness ; chemicals: lead, mercery, organophosphate pesticides and organic solvents
|Peripheral Nervous system Hazards
|nerves that transmit messages to brain; Signs and symptoms: numbness, tingling, decrease sensation, change in reflexes, and decrease motor strength; chemicals: arsenic, lead, toluene and styrene
|decrease hemoglobin; Signs and symptoms: cyanosis (turn blue) and loss of cons; chemicals: carbon monoxide and benzene
|Lung irritating Agents
|irritate or damage pulmonary tissue; Signs and symptoms: cough, tightness in chest, ans shortness of breath; chemicals: silica, asbestos, and HCL
|affect reproductive cap (mutations, teratogenesis); Signs and symptoms: birth defects and sterility; Chemicals:lead, DBCP
|dermal layer of skin; Signs and symptoms: defatting of the skin, rashes and irritation; Chemicals:ketones and chlorinated compounds
|; Signs and symptoms: conjunctivities and corneal damage; Chemicals:organic solvents and acids
|Determining Pressure in bulk packing or facility containers
|Pressure gauges, Temperature on contents
|Determining Lading (liquid) remaining in damaged bulk packing
|, Shipping papers, Container specification marking, Gauging devices, Frost line
|a narrow split or break in the container’s metal that can penetrate through the metal of the container and may also be caused by fatigue (Catastrophic failure) (breach)
|Reduction in container thickness made by a sharp, chisel-like object (breach)
|Reduction in container shell thickness made by a relatively blunt object (only catastrophic failure if found on welding’s)
|A deformation of the container metal made from the impact of a relatively blunt object
|Determine Integrity of any Radiation container
|Visual inspection, smear or swipe test, transpertation index (1M away)
|Guide to Hazardous Chemical Reactions
|(NFPA- 491M) 160 chemicals - parameters to determine the degree and extent of hazardous locations
|Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards
|(Bretherick) over 5000 chemicals- Chemicals that are reactive hazards
|Hazardous chemicals Desk Reference
|(Lewis) appr 5000 chemicals- Safety profiles, synonyms, physical properties,standards, and recommendations of government agencies for important and potentially hazardous chemicals
|Fire protection systems
|allows application of fire extinguishing agents quicker and to manage an incident in the early stages
|Monitoring and detection systems
|allows for the initiation of control actions while incident is small, early notification [limits threats to other containers]
|Pressure relief and vacuum relief protection
|pressure relief devices capable of operating freely to keep tank from failing violently/tank rupture (BLEVE)
|plugs that melt in middle
|Rupture disc with fusible metal backing
|metal disk relieves pressure if too high
|Spring-load relief valves
|Rupture disc with fusible metal backing
|Product spillage and control
|minimize the exposure to adjoining tanks
|To minimize the hazard to uninvolved tanks, reduces threats to other tanks
|Ensure proper grounding, compatable substances in recieving container [minimize the hazard to surrounding containers], spark may occur in presence of flammable vapors
|process of connecting two or more conductive objects together by means of a conductor [minimize diff in metalic objects]
|one or more conductive objects to earth and is specific form of bonding
|Resources for dispersion pattern prediction
|Weather service, Computer models, industrial facilities, Colleges and universities, County state and federal agencies (Health departments, Environmental protection agencies, US coast guard), [responders must be able to predict using these]
|Determining the likely extent of the physical, safety, and health hazards
|First: Determine concentration; Second: determine acceptable exposure limits
|Resources for predicting areas of potential Harm
|Computer modeling, Monitoring equipment, Technical assistance, Specialists
|Process for estimation
|1.Determine dimensions of endanger area 2.Estimating number of exposures 3.Measure or predict concentration 4.Estimate physical,health,safety hazards in area [estimate by analyzing the physical,cognitive,&technical information] 5.area of harm 6. Outcomes
|Three components of an incident
|The product , The container , The environment
|Three elements of an incident
|A spill , A leak , A Fire
|Cryogenic liquid Tank Cars
|Negative 150 F Hazard Classes 2.2 Capacity (gal) 4000-45000 PSI 25.4
|Non-pressure Tank Cars
|Visible fittings on top Hazard Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 Capacity (gal) 4000-45000 PSI 60 to 100
|Pneumatically unloaded hopper car
|sloping sided bays on bottom Hazard Classes 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 Capacity (gal) 4000-45000 PSI 20 to 80
|Pressure tank cars
|Fittings on top in protective housing with ladder Hazard Classes 2, 3 Capacity (gal) 4000-45000 PSI 100-600
|IMO-101 (Type 1)-NON PRESSURE
|Closures on top of container, container in frame Hazard Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 Capacity (gal) PSI 25.4-100
|IMO-102 (Type 2)-NON PRESSURE
|Closures on top of container, container in frame Hazard Classes 3, 6, 8 Capacity (gal) PSI 14.5-25.4
|Pressure Intermodal (Type 5)
|Fittings/Closures on top/end in protective housing Hazard Classes 2, 3 Capacity (gal) 5500 PSI 100-500
|Cryogenic intermodal (Type 7)
|Valves in compartment/cabinet on top, ends or sides Hazard Classes 2.2 Capacity (gal) PSI 25.4 or less
|cylinders permanently mounted in frame Hazard Classes 2 Capacity (gal) PSI 3000-5000
|v-shaped hulls on bottom Hazard Classes 5.1, 8, 9 Capacity (gal) 1500 cubic feet PSI 80 or less
|Non-pressure liquid cargo (TC 406)
|elliptical, single shell Hazard Classes 3 Capacity (gal) 7500-10000 PSI 2.65-5
|Low-pressure liquid cargo (TC 407)
|narrow horseshoe shape, SOMETIMES with ribs Hazard Classes 3.1, 3.2, 6.1, 8 Capacity (gal) 5000-8000 PSI 18-40
|corrosive liquid cargo (TC 312)
|circular with reinforcement ribs Hazard Classes 8 Capacity (gal) 3300-5500 PSI 35-50
|high pressure cargo (TC 331)
|circular with rounded ends or heads Hazard Classes 2 Capacity (gal) 2500-11500 PSI 100-500
|compressed gas/tube trailer
|tubes mounted on a trailer, manifold at rear Hazard Classes 2 PSI 3000-5000
|cryogenic liquid cargo (TC 338)
|cabinet with fittings in cabinet Hazard Classes 2.2 Capacity (gal) 5000-14000 PSI 25.4 or less
|Cone roof tank
|has a cone roof with weak seams Hazard Classes 3, 4, 5, 8 PSI 0-0.5
|Covered floating roof tank
|Much wider than it is tall Hazard Classes 3, 8 Capacity (gal) 1,000,000 PSI 0-0.5
|Dome roof tank
|fixed dome-shaped roof Hazard Classes 3, 5, 9 PSI 2.5-15
|rounded ends Hazard Classes 2, 3 PSI 0.5-15psi
|ton containers (pressure drums)
|convex or concave ends Hazard Classes 2 Capacity (gal) 2000lbs product PSI 500-1000
|diff. products may be transported in same line using "pigs" to separate products Hazard Classes 2, 3, 6, 8, 9 PSI 100-7000
|paper, cloth, burlap, plastic, etc. Hazard Classes 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 Capacity (gal) typically 100lbs none
|made of glass or plastic and sometimes surrounded in plastic for shipment Hazard Classes 6, 8 Capacity (gal) 1 gal-20gal none
|Hazard Classes 2 PSI a few to several thousand
|Closed head (have 2" and 3/4" diameter bungs, usually for liquid), open head (removable top with no openings) Hazard Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 Capacity (gal) usually 55gal, but can be more
|Dewar Flask (cryogenic)
|containers within a container Hazard Classes Capacity (gal) 1L to greater than 1000L
|Openings on top/side. Intended for materials with higher level of radiation than allowed in excepted or industrial. Have to pass testing requirements.
|Protects mat'ls with higher radioactivity levels than those allowed in type A packages (including spent nuclear fuel). Certified by NRC and recertified every 5 years. Testing requirements must be passed.
|Not used in US yet. Used for air transport. Used for high activity materials including Plutonium.
|intended for mat'l having low activity per unit mass with limited hazard to public and the environment. IP-1, IP-2, IP-3 testing requirements.
|Extremely low levels of radioactivity. Example: fire detectors. Criteria found in 49CFR173.410. Testing requirements must be met.
|Types of monitors for Pathogenisity
|Biological Immunoassay, indicators, DNA Fluoroscopy, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Hand held assay
|Types of monitors for Radioactivity
|ANVDR2, Geiger Counter, ANDPDR77, Dosimeter
|Types of monitors for Toxic Levels
|Photoionization detectors, Flame ionization detector, Infrared Spectrophotometers and Detector tubes
|Bio Assay (hand held assay) Capabilities
|Tests for anthrax, ricin, botulinum toxin, plague, tularemia, brucella, and orthopox, Quick and accurate tests that can be used on-site and in the laboratory
|Bio Assay (hand held assay) Limitations
|False negatives or false positives, Porous surface could hinder effectiveness
|Bio Assay (hand held assay) Use
|Rapid field detection of bio warfare agents by detecting specific antibodies
|Colorimetric detector tubes Capabilities
|Detects specific gases and vapors
|Colorimetric detector tubes Limitations
|Not quantitative results, different manufacturer’s tubes not interchangeable, false positives, interpreting color change may be difficult, tubes have specific shelf life, Response times may vary for different materials
|Colorimetric detector tubes Use
|Different colored tubes react with material being tested
|pH meters Capabilities
|Measures acids and bases
|pH meters Limitations
|probes must be rinsed in distilled water before and after calibration, close proximity to material, can be affected by oils or other contaminants
|pH meters Use
|probe inserted into materials and pH is indicated on display screen
|pH paper/ strips Capabilities
|Chemical reaction changes the color of the detection paper, Acids are normally shades of red/ purple and bases are shades of blue
|pH paper/ strips Limitations
|false positives, must have accurate color perception
|Substance or solution combined with a material causing a chemical reaction
|For specific chemical and biological materials
|Any substance used in a chemical reaction, chemical added to bring about a chemical change
|Test Strips Capabilities
|test for chemical agents,
|Test Strips Limitations
|readings need to be verified with another detector
|Test Strips Use
|specifically designed reagent strips that produce visible color change
|Combustible gas indicator Capabilities
|wheat stone bridge in id process, designed to measure LEL, and concentration of a combustible gas or vapor in atm
|Combustible gas indicator Limitations
|intended for normal atmospheres, requires warm-up period, does not identify other hazards such as toxicity, filament can be damaged by acidic gases and silicone
|Combustible gas indicator Use
|operates by catalytic combustion where sample is drawn across platinum catalyst (wheatstone bridge)
|DNA fluoroscopy Capabilities
|Identifies specific DNA sequences enabling it to detect and identify different biological agents, quantitative monitoring
|DNA fluoroscopy Limitations
|several methods to determine the presence and identify on scene best if done in lab
|DNA fluoroscopy Use
|to determine pathogenicity on scene
|Electrochemical cells (oxygen meters) Capabilities
|oxygen deficient and enriched atmosphere, measures percentage of oxygen in atms
|Electrochemical cells (oxygen meters) Limitations
|some materials indicate a high or normal level with actual atmosphere is deficient, extreme cold effects meter, does not indicate gas toxicity and gas that is replacing oxygen
|Electrochemical cells (oxygen meters) Use
|Air diffuses into the sensor, oxygen reacts with electrolytes in a cell creating a current
|Electrochemical cells (Carbon monoxide meters) Capabilities
|Measures concentration of Carbon Monoxide
|Electrochemical cells (Carbon monoxide meters) Limitations
|limited to measure only carbon monoxide, may not indicate an area is oxygen deficient
|Electrochemical cells (Carbon monoxide meters) Use
|Warns responders of possible ongoing combustion
|Flame ionization detector Capabilities
|Tests for organic compounds Hydrocarbons such as butane or hexane
|Flame ionization detector Limitations
|FID destroys most or all sample it is detecting
|Flame ionization detector Use
|best for detecting hydrocarbons and other easily flammable components
|Gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer (GC/MS) Capabilities
|Used to Analyze the molecular and ionic composition of chemical compounds, the gold standard for substance identification, performs library search for false positives
|Gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer (GC/MS) Limitations
|High cost, false positives and negatives
|Gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer (GC/MS) Use
|Unique analytical instrument housing the same hardware as laboratory instruments, gas chromotography, mass spectrometry and vacuum tech allows for operations at point of release
|Infrared spectroscopy Capabilities
|(hazmat id) Tests for solids, liquids and pastes, organic compounds, inorganic oxides, ect
|Infrared spectroscopy Limitations
|Cannot identify bio agents only gives proteins, metals and non-metals and simple ionic salts
|Infrared spectroscopy Use
|Chemicals absorb infrared light and the pattern of absorption is unique to each chemical
|Ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) Capabilities
|(ICAM) Capable of detecting and identifying very low concentrations of chemicals based upon the differential migration of gas phase ions through a homogeneous electric field
|Ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) Limitations
|There are a number of interferents that can have drift times similar to different chemical agents that can result in false-positives
|Ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) Use
|is a point detection system which uses either a radioactive source or corona discharge to drive the sample test process
|Metal oxide sensor Capabilities
|devices that translate the changes in the concentration of gaseous chemical species into electronic signals Quantifying compounds in concentration below less than one ppm
|Metal oxide sensor Limitations
|Can only detect a small number of chemicals, and requires warm up times
|Metal oxide sensor Use
|designed to detect specific chemicals
|Photoionization detectors Capabilities
|organic and some inorganic gases and vapors ,detects total concentration of numerous organic and inorganic gases and vapors. Increasingly used for both emergency response and remedial operations. Can be used to measure toxic exposure
|Photoionization detectors Limitations
|Reading is dependent upon calibration (isobutylene), does not detect methane
|Photoionization detectors Use
|Sample is exposed to ultraviolet light that ionizes the sample Ions are collected amplified, and produce a current which is read on a display as a total organic vapors
|Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Capabilities
|a highly sensitive technique by which minute quantities DNA or RNA sequences are enzymatically amplified to reach a threshold signal for detection
|Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Limitations
|Cannot differentiate between live and dead organisms, high cost
|Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Uses
|Applications for PCCR include molecular cloning, DNA sequencing, archeology, forensics, amplification of unknown sequences ect
|Radiation detection and measurement instruments Capabilities
|Used to monitor Alpha, Beta, Gamma, neutron particles, X-ray (number of different probes)
|Radiation detection and measurement instruments Limitations
|Most common instruments measure gamma rays and will detect ,not measure other. No response does not equal clean, electromagnetic field gives false positives, measurements can be affected by wind and shielding
|Radiation detection and measurement instruments Uses
|Ionization detectors which collect and count ions electronically, measures individual exposure, readings can provide in a number of formats, lowest level of detection is 0.01mR/hr
|Raman spectroscopy (Ahura) Capabilities
|rapid identification of potentially hazardous materials such as explosives, unknown chemicals, narcotics, or tics, point and shoot operation
|Raman spectroscopy (Ahura) Limitations
|do not use external laser on flammable, explosive materials or dark surfaces
|Raman spectroscopy (Ahura) Uses
|Product can be analyzed in glass vials or plastic bags, greatly reducing the possibility of evidence corruption, cross contamination or risk to response personnel
|Surface acoustical wave (SAW) Capabilities
|able to detect the presence of blister and nerve agents at same time
|Surface acoustical wave (SAW) Limitations
|Most units must be touched by finger, gloved hand, or soft tip stylus, pen won’t work, not completely sealable
|Surface acoustical wave (SAW) Uses
|Sensor application include all areas of sensing (chem, optical, thermal, pressure, acceleration, torque and bio)
|Wet Chemistry Capabilities
|Chemistry generally done in the liquid phase, bench chemistry
|Wet Chemistry Limitations
|limited field use, requires special training, beakers and flasks
|Wet Chemistry Uses
|chemical measurements, such as change in color, but often more quantitative chemical measurements
|First method of measurement of unknown atmoshere
|Last method of measurement of unknown atmoshere
|Organic Vapors (Off)
|Comes after checking for PH paper in unknown atmoshere
|Hydrogen Sulfide (Her)
|Comes after checking for Hydrogen Sulfide in an unknown atmoshere
|Carbon Monoxide (Coat)
|Comes before checking for Hydrogen Sulfide in an unknown atmoshere
|Comes after checking for Oxygen availablity/deficiency in an unknown atmoshere
|After checking for Radioactivity in an unknown atmoshere
|Before checking for PH you should check for ______ in a unknown atmoshere
|Oxygen availability/deficiency (Over)