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HAZMAT Tech 1 - All aspects of Tech 1 test

Acid any substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour test, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals to form salts. ph less then 7 in its standard shape.
Caustic Capable of burning,corroding, dissoliving, or eating away by chemical action. ph greater then 7 in its standard shape.
Air reactivity Materials that can react or ignite if they are exposed to air.
Auto-refrigeration A phenomenon that occurs during the rapid release(boiling) of a liquified gas that causes it to temporarily remain in a liquid stae through rapid cooling.
Biological agents Producing disease through living microorganisms that can mutate and become toxins are more deadly
Biological toxins Toxins can be small molecules,peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact with an absorption by body tissue. (a) risk Affects human health in a variety of ways ranging from allergic reactions to death.
Blood agents A chemical compound including the cyanide group, that affects bodily functions by preventing the normal utilization of oxygen by body tissues.
Boiling point Temperature at which the transition from a liquid to a gas occurs. At this temperature, the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the the surrounding atmospheric pressure so that the liquid rapidly becomes a vapor.
Catalyst A substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected.
Chemical change Changes that take place on the molecular level. A chemical change produces a new substance.
Chemical interactions Caused when 2 or more chemicals, or the chemical and its container are incompatible.
Chemical mixture Separate elements that bond together to form compound mixture, they have a tendency to break down into their component parts, sometimes in an explosive manner.
Concentration-When dealing with corrosives The amount of acid or base is compared to the amount of water present.
Critical Temperature The minimum temp at which a gas can be liquified no matter how much pressure is applied =. A gas cannot be liquified above its critical temp.
Critical pressure The Pressure that must be applied to bring a gas to its liquid state.
Dissociation The separation of a substance into 2 or more simpler substances, or of a molecule into atoms or ions, by the action of heat or a chemical process. Dissociation is usually reversible.
Corrosivity A measure of a substance's tendency to deteriorate in the presence of another substance or in a particular enviroment.
Dose The concentration or amount of material to which the body is exposed over a specific time period.
Dose response The biological reaction caused by the dose in the body. The degree of harm is directly related to the dose(time and amount) and its impact on bodily functions.
Expansion ratio The amount of gas produced by a given volume of liquid at a given temp.
Flash Point The minimum temp at which a material gives off vapor in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air and will nit continue to burn.
Fire Point The temp at which enough vapors are given off to support continuous burning
Flammable(explosive) range The difference between the upper and lower flammable limits.
Lower explosive limit(LEL) The minimum concentration of vapor to air below which a flame will not propagate in the presence of an ignition source. Also known as to lean to burn.
Upper explosive limit (UEL) the maximum vapor to air concentration above, which a flame will not propagate in the presence of a flame. Also known as to rich to burn.
Half-life The period of time it takes for a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.
Halogenated Hydrocarbons They are often more toxic than naturally occurring organic chemicals. They decomposed into smaller, more harmful elements when exposed to high temps for a long period of time.
Inhibitor Added to products to control their chemical reaction with other products. If it is not added or escapes during an incident, the material will begin to polymerize, which creates a very dangerous situation.
Ignition(auto-ignition) temp The temp at which a material(solid,liquid or gas) will self ignite and sustain combustion in air without a external spark or flame
Instability Materials that decompose , polymerize, or otherwise self-react and are generally considered unstable.
Ionic and covalent compounds Materials made through the sharing or transfer of electrons.
Irritants (riot agents) they cause respiratory distress and copious tearing that incapacitate a victim,
Maximum Safe Storage Temp(MSST) The max temp that an organic peroxide may be stored safely.
Melting point The temp at which a solid becomes a liquid allowing it to spread more readily.
Freezing Point The temp in which a liquid converts to a solid.
Miscibility Refers to the tendency or ability of 2 or more liquids to form a uniform blend, or to dissolve in each other.
Nerve agents Substances that interfere with the central nervous syatem.
Organic Pertaining to a class of chemical compounds that formerly comprised only those existing in or derived from plants or animals, but that now includes all other compounds of carbon.
Inorganic Composed of matter that is not animal or vegetable: not having the organized structure of living things. Inorganic material lacks carbon chains.
Oxidation potential The combining of anything with oxygen or the propensity to yield oxygen which will present a greater hazard.
Persistence Refers to a chemical ability to remain in the environment. The more persistent, the greater the propensity for it to remain harmful over a period of time.
ph The numerical measure of a solution's hydrogen ion as related to acidity or alkalinity.
Physical change The process when objects undergo a change that does not change their chemical properties.
Physical state(solid,Liquid,gas) The characteristic form of a material at ambient temps.
Polymerization Any process in which relatively small molecules,called monomers, combine chemically to produce a very large chainlike or network molecule, called a polymer.
Radioactivity Spontaneous emission of ionizing radiation as a consequence of a nuclear reaction, or directly from the breakdown of an unstable nucleus.
Alpha Positively charged particle emitted by some radioactive materials and is not considered dangerous unless ingested.
Beta Can Damage skin tissue, and they can damage internal organs if they enter the body. Full protective clothing including positive pressure SCBA will protect.
Gamma Causes skin burns and can severely injure internal organs; therefore protective clothing is inadequate in preventing this radiation from harming the body. The most dangerous type!
Reactivity A substance's propensity to release energy or undergo change, for example self-reaction polymerization, or violent reaction.
Water reactivity Describes the sensitivity of a material to water without the addition of heat or confinement.
Riot control agents (sometimes referred to as tear gas) are chemical compounds that temporarily make people unable to function by causing irritation to the eyes,mouth,throat,lungs,and skin.
Saturated hydrocarbons hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons. (Methane,Butane)
Unsaturated hydrocarbons Materials that have at least one multiple bond between 2 carbon atoms somewhere in the molecule, which causes them to be more hazardous
Aromatic hydrocarbons materials that contain the benzene ring which is formed ny 6 carbon atoms and contains double bonds. Its greatest hazard is toxicity. 6 sided ring.
Self-accelerating decomposition temp when this temp is reached by some portion of the mass of the organic peroxide, irreverisble decomposition will begin. (a) this reaction can be violent
Solubility The ability of a substance to form a solution with water can be important when determining control measures. For example gas is insoluble, while anhydrous ammonia is soluble.
Solution Mixture in which all of the ingredients are completely dissolved.
Slurry Pourable mixture of solid and a liquid.
Specific gravity The weight of a solid or liquid compared to an equal volume of water.
Strength The concentration of of a solution. In corrosives, strength refers to the degree of ionization of an acid or base in water.
Sublimation The ability of a substance to change from a solid to the vapor phase without passing through the liquid phase.
Temp of product Influences the hazards present and the measures taken to control an incident that involves that product.
Toxic products of combustion Byproducts of the combustion process that are harmful to humans. Some materials generate more highly toxic gases than others do: therefore, appropriate levels of protective clothing and equipment must be used to counter them.
Vapor density Weight of vapor compared to air.
Vapor pressure The force exerted by the gas or vapor released by a liquid or solid substance in a closed container or space.
Vesicants(blister agents) These agents are extremely toxic, with the symptoms of exposure not appearing for minutes,hours or days.
Viscosity Measure of the thickness of a liquid, determines how easily it flows. During an incident this will affect the flow away from a leaking container, expanding the endangerment area.
Volatility Ease with which a liquid or solid can pass into the vapor state. During an incident this will affect the dispersment in air and expand the endangered area.
Counts per minuter (CPM) and kilocounts per minute (kcpm) Measurements of radioactivity. It is the number of atoms ina given quantity of radioactivity material that are detected to have decayed in 1 minute.
Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) value This is the maximum level to which a healthy worker can be exposed for 30 minutes and escape without suffering irreversible health effects or impairment.
Incubation period The latency between exposure to a pathogen and onset of symptoms.
Infectious dose The amount of a pathogen necessary to manifest it's pathogenicity . It is dependent on pathogenic variables such as health, gender, predisposition, and several others.
Lethal concentration(LC 50) The amount of material in air that is expected to kill 50 percent. Inhalation.
Lethal dose(LD 50) Causes the death of 50 percent by any route other then inhalation.
Parts per million(PPM) it denotes the number units of one substance relative to one million units.
Parts per billion(PPB) The number of units of one substance relative to one billion units of another substance.
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) (OSHA) PELS are regulatory limits on the amount of substance in the air. The time-weighted average concentration for a normal 8 hour workday and a 40 hour work week, which nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed, day after day without adverse effect
Radiation absorbed dose (RAD) Equals the energy absorption of 100 ergs per gram of irradiated material(an erg is a work unit). Obsolete equal to 1 centigray, 1 rad is equal to 10 milligray and 100 rads are equal to 1 Gv.
Roentgen equivalent Man(REM); Millirem(mrem) An international unit of the of the intensity of xrays and gamma rays. 1 rad
Threshold limit value ceiling (TLV-C) This is the maximum concentration to which a healthy adult can be exposed without risk of injury and the exposure to higher concentrations should not occur.
Threshold limit value short-term exposure limit(TLV-STEL) This the maximum average concentration, averaged over a 15 minute period, to which healthy adult can safely exposed for up to 15 minutes continuously. Exposure should not occur more then 4 times a day with at least 1 hour between exposures.
Threshold limit value time weighted average(TLV-TWA) The maximum concentration averaged over 8 hours, to which a healthy adult can be repeatedly exposed for 8 hours per day, 40 hours per week.
Responsibility of a Technician Analyze the incident,Plan a response,Implement the planned response, Evaluate the progress,Terminate the incident
Pipeline Products Different products may be transported in the same line using pigs (pipeline inspection gauge) Hazard Classes 2,3,6,8 and 9
Pipeline incident Call company to located Remote shutoff Pipeline marker indicates owner (POE), Pipeline maps can greatly assist when checking for gas mitigation
Procedures for checking gas midigation Computerized system called SUpervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA), monitors system
Analysis process for Unknown Atmosphere Wearing level A, approaching cautiously from upwind and measure:(Radioactivity, Combustibility, Oxygen availability/ deficiency ,pH ,Hydrogen Sulfide ,Carbon Monoxide ,Organic vapors
Radioactive White I Radioactive material labels for <0.5 mrem/hr
Radioactive Yellow II Radioactive material labels for 0.5-50 mrem/hr transportation index is 1
Radioactive Yellow II Radioactive material labels for 50-200 mrem/hr transportation index is 1-10
Empty Rad Package applied to packages that have been empted of their contents as far as practical but still contains regulated amounts of internal contamination and radiation levels of less than 0.5 mrem/hr detectable outside the package
Fissile Applied to packages that contain fissile materials, critical safety index is noted on each package will be noted on label
Hazardous materials databases-Advantages identify and interpret hazard response information available through a variety of sources
Hazardous materials databases-DisAdvantages many databases available, some databases are public domain and some are trademarked
CAMEO Computer aided Management of Emergency Operations; System integrates chem database and method to mange data, air dispersion model, and mapping capability
MARPLOT Mapping Applications for Respons, planning and local operational tasks (part of CAMEO)
ALOHA atmospheric dispersion model for realeases (part of CAMEO)
CHRIS Chemical Hazard Respose Information System; developed by US. Coast Gaurd. HACS-Hazard assessment computer system for aquatic incidents
RTECS Registry of toxic Effects of Chemical Substances; more than 150,000 substances. six types- primary irration, mut effect, repro effects, tumorigenic(fetus), acute toxicity, other multiple dose toxitcity
OHM-TADS Oil and Haz Mat Tech Assistance Data System; designed for rapid retrieval of 850+ oil and haz substances.
Maps and diagrams (adv) Give someone unfamiliar a fair representation of manmade structures and terrain
Maps and diagrams (dis-adv) May not be up to date and may be inaccurate
Monitoring equipment (adv) critical info on hazards present at hazmat incident site
Monitoring equipment (dis-adv) do not rely on only one piece of equipment
Reference manuals (adv) many ref manuals available from various ind. , corps, and fed agencies
Reference manuals (dis-adv) contain slightly different viewpoints and depths
Technical information centers CHEMTREC, CANUTEC SETIQ and NRC
Technical information centers (adv) Readily available, can activate emergency response mutual aid network
Technical information centers (dis-adv) may provide conflicting info
Technical information specialists (adv) experiance and edu
Technical information specialists (dis-adv) difficult to contact, no ind knows all answers
Cryogenic Liquid Spills Expansion ration (560- 1,445)gals to 1 gal, expands rapidly at room temp
Hepatoxins liver damage, Signs and symptoms: jaundice and liver enlargement; chemicals- carbon tetracholoride and nitrosamines
Nephrotoxins kidney damage; Signs and symptoms: edema and protien urea; chemicals: halogenated hydrocarbons and uranium
Neurotoxins central nervous system; Signs and symptoms:drooping of upper eylids, resp diff, seizures, and unconsciousness ; chemicals: lead, mercery, organophosphate pesticides and organic solvents
Peripheral Nervous system Hazards nerves that transmit messages to brain; Signs and symptoms: numbness, tingling, decrease sensation, change in reflexes, and decrease motor strength; chemicals: arsenic, lead, toluene and styrene
Blood agents decrease hemoglobin; Signs and symptoms: cyanosis (turn blue) and loss of cons; chemicals: carbon monoxide and benzene
Lung irritating Agents irritate or damage pulmonary tissue; Signs and symptoms: cough, tightness in chest, ans shortness of breath; chemicals: silica, asbestos, and HCL
Reproductive Toxins affect reproductive cap (mutations, teratogenesis); Signs and symptoms: birth defects and sterility; Chemicals:lead, DBCP
Cutaneous hazards dermal layer of skin; Signs and symptoms: defatting of the skin, rashes and irritation; Chemicals:ketones and chlorinated compounds
Eye hazards ; Signs and symptoms: conjunctivities and corneal damage; Chemicals:organic solvents and acids
Determining Pressure in bulk packing or facility containers Pressure gauges, Temperature on contents
Determining Lading (liquid) remaining in damaged bulk packing , Shipping papers, Container specification marking, Gauging devices, Frost line
Cracks a narrow split or break in the container’s metal that can penetrate through the metal of the container and may also be caused by fatigue (Catastrophic failure) (breach)
Gouges Reduction in container thickness made by a sharp, chisel-like object (breach)
Scores Reduction in container shell thickness made by a relatively blunt object (only catastrophic failure if found on welding’s)
Dents A deformation of the container metal made from the impact of a relatively blunt object
Determine Integrity of any Radiation container Visual inspection, smear or swipe test, transpertation index (1M away)
Guide to Hazardous Chemical Reactions (NFPA- 491M) 160 chemicals - parameters to determine the degree and extent of hazardous locations
Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards (Bretherick) over 5000 chemicals- Chemicals that are reactive hazards
Hazardous chemicals Desk Reference (Lewis) appr 5000 chemicals- Safety profiles, synonyms, physical properties,standards, and recommendations of government agencies for important and potentially hazardous chemicals
Fire protection systems allows application of fire extinguishing agents quicker and to manage an incident in the early stages
Monitoring and detection systems allows for the initiation of control actions while incident is small, early notification [limits threats to other containers]
Pressure relief and vacuum relief protection pressure relief devices capable of operating freely to keep tank from failing violently/tank rupture (BLEVE)
Fission plugs plugs that melt in middle
Rupture disc with fusible metal backing metal disk relieves pressure if too high
Spring-load relief valves Rupture disc with fusible metal backing
Product spillage and control minimize the exposure to adjoining tanks
Tank Spacing To minimize the hazard to uninvolved tanks, reduces threats to other tanks
Transfer options Ensure proper grounding, compatable substances in recieving container [minimize the hazard to surrounding containers], spark may occur in presence of flammable vapors
Bonding process of connecting two or more conductive objects together by means of a conductor [minimize diff in metalic objects]
Grounding one or more conductive objects to earth and is specific form of bonding
Resources for dispersion pattern prediction Weather service, Computer models, industrial facilities, Colleges and universities, County state and federal agencies (Health departments, Environmental protection agencies, US coast guard), [responders must be able to predict using these]
Determining the likely extent of the physical, safety, and health hazards First: Determine concentration; Second: determine acceptable exposure limits
Resources for predicting areas of potential Harm Computer modeling, Monitoring equipment, Technical assistance, Specialists
Process for estimation 1.Determine dimensions of endanger area 2.Estimating number of exposures 3.Measure or predict concentration 4.Estimate physical,health,safety hazards in area [estimate by analyzing the physical,cognitive,&technical information] 5.area of harm 6. Outcomes
Three components of an incident The product , The container , The environment
Three elements of an incident A spill , A leak , A Fire
Cryogenic liquid Tank Cars Negative 150 F Hazard Classes 2.2 Capacity (gal) 4000-45000 PSI 25.4
Non-pressure Tank Cars Visible fittings on top Hazard Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 Capacity (gal) 4000-45000 PSI 60 to 100
Pneumatically unloaded hopper car sloping sided bays on bottom Hazard Classes 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 Capacity (gal) 4000-45000 PSI 20 to 80
Pressure tank cars Fittings on top in protective housing with ladder Hazard Classes 2, 3 Capacity (gal) 4000-45000 PSI 100-600
IMO-101 (Type 1)-NON PRESSURE Closures on top of container, container in frame Hazard Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 Capacity (gal) PSI 25.4-100
IMO-102 (Type 2)-NON PRESSURE Closures on top of container, container in frame Hazard Classes 3, 6, 8 Capacity (gal) PSI 14.5-25.4
Pressure Intermodal (Type 5) Fittings/Closures on top/end in protective housing Hazard Classes 2, 3 Capacity (gal) 5500 PSI 100-500
Cryogenic intermodal (Type 7) Valves in compartment/cabinet on top, ends or sides Hazard Classes 2.2 Capacity (gal) PSI 25.4 or less
Tube module cylinders permanently mounted in frame Hazard Classes 2 Capacity (gal) PSI 3000-5000
Dry bulk v-shaped hulls on bottom Hazard Classes 5.1, 8, 9 Capacity (gal) 1500 cubic feet PSI 80 or less
Non-pressure liquid cargo (TC 406) elliptical, single shell Hazard Classes 3 Capacity (gal) 7500-10000 PSI 2.65-5
Low-pressure liquid cargo (TC 407) narrow horseshoe shape, SOMETIMES with ribs Hazard Classes 3.1, 3.2, 6.1, 8 Capacity (gal) 5000-8000 PSI 18-40
corrosive liquid cargo (TC 312) circular with reinforcement ribs Hazard Classes 8 Capacity (gal) 3300-5500 PSI 35-50
high pressure cargo (TC 331) circular with rounded ends or heads Hazard Classes 2 Capacity (gal) 2500-11500 PSI 100-500
compressed gas/tube trailer tubes mounted on a trailer, manifold at rear Hazard Classes 2 PSI 3000-5000
cryogenic liquid cargo (TC 338) cabinet with fittings in cabinet Hazard Classes 2.2 Capacity (gal) 5000-14000 PSI 25.4 or less
Cone roof tank has a cone roof with weak seams Hazard Classes 3, 4, 5, 8 PSI 0-0.5
Covered floating roof tank Much wider than it is tall Hazard Classes 3, 8 Capacity (gal) 1,000,000 PSI 0-0.5
Dome roof tank fixed dome-shaped roof Hazard Classes 3, 5, 9 PSI 2.5-15
Pressure tanks rounded ends Hazard Classes 2, 3 PSI 0.5-15psi
ton containers (pressure drums) convex or concave ends Hazard Classes 2 Capacity (gal) 2000lbs product PSI 500-1000
PIPELINES diff. products may be transported in same line using "pigs" to separate products Hazard Classes 2, 3, 6, 8, 9 PSI 100-7000
Bags paper, cloth, burlap, plastic, etc. Hazard Classes 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 Capacity (gal) typically 100lbs none
Carboys made of glass or plastic and sometimes surrounded in plastic for shipment Hazard Classes 6, 8 Capacity (gal) 1 gal-20gal none
Cylinders Hazard Classes 2 PSI a few to several thousand
Drums Closed head (have 2" and 3/4" diameter bungs, usually for liquid), open head (removable top with no openings) Hazard Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 Capacity (gal) usually 55gal, but can be more
Dewar Flask (cryogenic) containers within a container Hazard Classes Capacity (gal) 1L to greater than 1000L
Type A Openings on top/side. Intended for materials with higher level of radiation than allowed in excepted or industrial. Have to pass testing requirements.
Type B Protects mat'ls with higher radioactivity levels than those allowed in type A packages (including spent nuclear fuel). Certified by NRC and recertified every 5 years. Testing requirements must be passed.
Type C Not used in US yet. Used for air transport. Used for high activity materials including Plutonium.
Industrial intended for mat'l having low activity per unit mass with limited hazard to public and the environment. IP-1, IP-2, IP-3 testing requirements.
Excepted Extremely low levels of radioactivity. Example: fire detectors. Criteria found in 49CFR173.410. Testing requirements must be met.
Types of monitors for Pathogenisity Biological Immunoassay, indicators, DNA Fluoroscopy, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Hand held assay
Types of monitors for Radioactivity ANVDR2, Geiger Counter, ANDPDR77, Dosimeter
Types of monitors for Toxic Levels Photoionization detectors, Flame ionization detector, Infrared Spectrophotometers and Detector tubes
Bio Assay (hand held assay) Capabilities Tests for anthrax, ricin, botulinum toxin, plague, tularemia, brucella, and orthopox, Quick and accurate tests that can be used on-site and in the laboratory
Bio Assay (hand held assay) Limitations False negatives or false positives, Porous surface could hinder effectiveness
Bio Assay (hand held assay) Use Rapid field detection of bio warfare agents by detecting specific antibodies
Colorimetric detector tubes Capabilities Detects specific gases and vapors
Colorimetric detector tubes Limitations Not quantitative results, different manufacturer’s tubes not interchangeable, false positives, interpreting color change may be difficult, tubes have specific shelf life, Response times may vary for different materials
Colorimetric detector tubes Use Different colored tubes react with material being tested
pH meters Capabilities Measures acids and bases
pH meters Limitations probes must be rinsed in distilled water before and after calibration, close proximity to material, can be affected by oils or other contaminants
pH meters Use probe inserted into materials and pH is indicated on display screen
pH paper/ strips Capabilities Chemical reaction changes the color of the detection paper, Acids are normally shades of red/ purple and bases are shades of blue
pH paper/ strips Limitations false positives, must have accurate color perception
Reagents Capabilities Substance or solution combined with a material causing a chemical reaction
Reagents Limitations For specific chemical and biological materials
Reagents Use Any substance used in a chemical reaction, chemical added to bring about a chemical change
Test Strips Capabilities test for chemical agents,
Test Strips Limitations readings need to be verified with another detector
Test Strips Use specifically designed reagent strips that produce visible color change
Combustible gas indicator Capabilities wheat stone bridge in id process, designed to measure LEL, and concentration of a combustible gas or vapor in atm
Combustible gas indicator Limitations intended for normal atmospheres, requires warm-up period, does not identify other hazards such as toxicity, filament can be damaged by acidic gases and silicone
Combustible gas indicator Use operates by catalytic combustion where sample is drawn across platinum catalyst (wheatstone bridge)
DNA fluoroscopy Capabilities Identifies specific DNA sequences enabling it to detect and identify different biological agents, quantitative monitoring
DNA fluoroscopy Limitations several methods to determine the presence and identify on scene best if done in lab
DNA fluoroscopy Use to determine pathogenicity on scene
Electrochemical cells (oxygen meters) Capabilities oxygen deficient and enriched atmosphere, measures percentage of oxygen in atms
Electrochemical cells (oxygen meters) Limitations some materials indicate a high or normal level with actual atmosphere is deficient, extreme cold effects meter, does not indicate gas toxicity and gas that is replacing oxygen
Electrochemical cells (oxygen meters) Use Air diffuses into the sensor, oxygen reacts with electrolytes in a cell creating a current
Electrochemical cells (Carbon monoxide meters) Capabilities Measures concentration of Carbon Monoxide
Electrochemical cells (Carbon monoxide meters) Limitations limited to measure only carbon monoxide, may not indicate an area is oxygen deficient
Electrochemical cells (Carbon monoxide meters) Use Warns responders of possible ongoing combustion
Flame ionization detector Capabilities Tests for organic compounds Hydrocarbons such as butane or hexane
Flame ionization detector Limitations FID destroys most or all sample it is detecting
Flame ionization detector Use best for detecting hydrocarbons and other easily flammable components
Gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer (GC/MS) Capabilities Used to Analyze the molecular and ionic composition of chemical compounds, the gold standard for substance identification, performs library search for false positives
Gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer (GC/MS) Limitations High cost, false positives and negatives
Gas chromatograph/ mass spectrometer (GC/MS) Use Unique analytical instrument housing the same hardware as laboratory instruments, gas chromotography, mass spectrometry and vacuum tech allows for operations at point of release
Infrared spectroscopy Capabilities (hazmat id) Tests for solids, liquids and pastes, organic compounds, inorganic oxides, ect
Infrared spectroscopy Limitations Cannot identify bio agents only gives proteins, metals and non-metals and simple ionic salts
Infrared spectroscopy Use Chemicals absorb infrared light and the pattern of absorption is unique to each chemical
Ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) Capabilities (ICAM) Capable of detecting and identifying very low concentrations of chemicals based upon the differential migration of gas phase ions through a homogeneous electric field
Ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) Limitations There are a number of interferents that can have drift times similar to different chemical agents that can result in false-positives
Ion mobility spectroscopy (IMS) Use is a point detection system which uses either a radioactive source or corona discharge to drive the sample test process
Metal oxide sensor Capabilities devices that translate the changes in the concentration of gaseous chemical species into electronic signals Quantifying compounds in concentration below less than one ppm
Metal oxide sensor Limitations Can only detect a small number of chemicals, and requires warm up times
Metal oxide sensor Use designed to detect specific chemicals
Photoionization detectors Capabilities organic and some inorganic gases and vapors ,detects total concentration of numerous organic and inorganic gases and vapors. Increasingly used for both emergency response and remedial operations. Can be used to measure toxic exposure
Photoionization detectors Limitations Reading is dependent upon calibration (isobutylene), does not detect methane
Photoionization detectors Use Sample is exposed to ultraviolet light that ionizes the sample Ions are collected amplified, and produce a current which is read on a display as a total organic vapors
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Capabilities a highly sensitive technique by which minute quantities DNA or RNA sequences are enzymatically amplified to reach a threshold signal for detection
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Limitations Cannot differentiate between live and dead organisms, high cost
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Uses Applications for PCCR include molecular cloning, DNA sequencing, archeology, forensics, amplification of unknown sequences ect
Radiation detection and measurement instruments Capabilities Used to monitor Alpha, Beta, Gamma, neutron particles, X-ray (number of different probes)
Radiation detection and measurement instruments Limitations Most common instruments measure gamma rays and will detect ,not measure other. No response does not equal clean, electromagnetic field gives false positives, measurements can be affected by wind and shielding
Radiation detection and measurement instruments Uses Ionization detectors which collect and count ions electronically, measures individual exposure, readings can provide in a number of formats, lowest level of detection is 0.01mR/hr
Raman spectroscopy (Ahura) Capabilities rapid identification of potentially hazardous materials such as explosives, unknown chemicals, narcotics, or tics, point and shoot operation
Raman spectroscopy (Ahura) Limitations do not use external laser on flammable, explosive materials or dark surfaces
Raman spectroscopy (Ahura) Uses Product can be analyzed in glass vials or plastic bags, greatly reducing the possibility of evidence corruption, cross contamination or risk to response personnel
Surface acoustical wave (SAW) Capabilities able to detect the presence of blister and nerve agents at same time
Surface acoustical wave (SAW) Limitations Most units must be touched by finger, gloved hand, or soft tip stylus, pen won’t work, not completely sealable
Surface acoustical wave (SAW) Uses Sensor application include all areas of sensing (chem, optical, thermal, pressure, acceleration, torque and bio)
Wet Chemistry Capabilities Chemistry generally done in the liquid phase, bench chemistry
Wet Chemistry Limitations limited field use, requires special training, beakers and flasks
Wet Chemistry Uses chemical measurements, such as change in color, but often more quantitative chemical measurements
First method of measurement of unknown atmoshere Radioactivity (Racheal)
Last method of measurement of unknown atmoshere Organic Vapors (Off)
Comes after checking for PH paper in unknown atmoshere Hydrogen Sulfide (Her)
Comes after checking for Hydrogen Sulfide in an unknown atmoshere Carbon Monoxide (Coat)
Comes before checking for Hydrogen Sulfide in an unknown atmoshere PH (Pulls)
Comes after checking for Oxygen availablity/deficiency in an unknown atmoshere PH (Pulls)
After checking for Radioactivity in an unknown atmoshere Combustibility (Comes)
Before checking for PH you should check for ______ in a unknown atmoshere Oxygen availability/deficiency (Over)
Created by: woodyb42
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